Publishing House SB RAS:

Publishing House SB RAS:

Address of the Publishing House SB RAS:
Morskoy pr. 2, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia



Advanced Search

Philosophy of Sciences

2017 year, number 2

1.
THE CATEGORY OF BEING IN THE PHILOSOPHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS

Vladimir Anatolievich Yakovlev
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, GSP-1, 119991, Russia
Keywords: бытие, материя, жизнь, сознание, креативы, информация, программа, наука, культура, being, matter, life, mind, information, program, science, culture

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the category of being in the philosophical and natural-scientific aspects. We bring to light the heuristic function of the category in physical-biological and cognitive sciences. Taking into account modern scientists’ opinions, we offer and prove the hypothesis concerning information programs of the evolution of the matter, live systems and mental-cognitive structures. Also, the article presents the generalization of characteristics of being as a unified information reality of the universe and culture.
																								



2.
IS GOODSTEIN THEOREM A GODELIAN SENTENCE?

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev1,2, Aleksandr Vlaimirovich Bessonov2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia, e-mail: leitval@gmail.com
Keywords: теорема Гудстейна, геделево предложение, тезис Исааксона, формальная арифметика, Goodstein's theorem, GГ¶delian sentence, Isaacson's thesis, formal arithmetic

Abstract >>
The paper considers the question of the degree to which Goodstein's theorem may be considered to be an analogue of a true, but not provable Gödelian sentence. It is shown that such an interpretation leads to Isaacson's thesis, according to which the demonstration of the truth of real mathematical analogues of the Gödelian sentence in the formal language of arithmetic uses conceptual resources that go beyond the resources required to understand the basic arithmetic of finite natural numbers. The plausibility of the thesis is disputed from the point of view of the incomprehensibility of the arithmetic content of the Gödelian sentence.
																								



3.
ON HUME’S INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENTAND APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS

Vladimir Moiseevich Reznikov1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st. Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: наука, применение математики, теория вероятностей, проблема индукции, философская критика, Юм, Байес, Лаплас, Прайс, science, application of mathematics, probability theory, induction problem, philosophical criticism, Hume, Bayes, Laplace, Price

Abstract >>
The paper studies Hume’s influence on the application and development of the probability theory in the context of the induction problem. It shows Hume’s direct influence on Price who published Bayes’s texts, as well as his indirect influence on Bayes and Laplace. The author describes the factors which contributed to the understanding of Hume’s criticism of the probability theory by mathematicians and to the solution of the induction problem for equally probable events. Hume’s influence on the probability theory is considered as a model which determines the role and place of philosophical ideas in scientific research.
																								



4.
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE UNIFICATION OF PHYSICAL THEORIES

Evgeniy Alekseevich Bezlepkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: унификация, объединение, интертеоретические отношения, синтез, редукция, физическая картина мира, unification, intertheoretical relations, synthesis, reduction, physical picture of the world

Abstract >>
The article reveals and systematizes philosophical foundations of the unification of physical theories, the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics are taken as the examples. In the ontological aspect, the unification is based on the idea that there exists a fundamental level which determines the diversity of the world phenomena and to which all the other levels may be reduced, as well as on the idea of the interrelation between physical phenomena. In addition, the unification is based on the possibility to build a consistent physical picture of the reality. In the epistemological aspect, the unification is based on the existence of intertheoretical relations between physical theories (those are generalization, reduction, synthesis, and limit passage), as well as on the unity of the cognizer’s self-consciousness.
																								



5.
HUMAN, ALL TOO HUMAN: OBSTACLES ON THE WAY TO "THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING"

Anna Yuryevna Storozhuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: единая теория, несогласованность оснований, антропоморфизм, абсолютизация, unified theory, discordance of foundations, anthropomorphism, absolutization

Abstract >>
The article considers the source of discordance between basic concepts and principles which puts obstacles to creating “the Theory of Everything”. This discordance roots in classical scientific ideas many of which are excessively empirical on the one hand and excessively absolutized on the other hand. The path to the general theory lies in the coordination of basic scientific concepts through their operational redefining on the basis of unified universal principles.
																								



6.
THE COMPLEMENTARITY PRINCIPLE AS A FACTOR OF UNIFICATION OF PHYSICAL THEORIES: COMPLEMENTARITY AND CONFORMITY

Alexander Leonidovich Simanov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, Nikolaeva str, 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: унификация, концепция, принцип, дополнительность, соответствие, относительность, harmonization, the concept, the complementarity principle, compliance, relativity

Abstract >>
The aim is to justify the thesis according to which the complementarity principle could act as unifying physical theories only in connection with other physical principles of cognition.
																								



7.
SIMULTANEITY AS AN EPISTEMIC CONSTRUCT

Alina Sergeevna Zaykova
Institute Philosophy and Law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: время, восприятие времени, одновременность, последовательность, time, perception of time, simultaneity, sequence

Abstract >>
The paper considers understandings of simultaneity which the author treats as the main ones. It shows the difference between classical ideas of simultaneity and concepts of simultaneity in the relativity theory. The phenomenological dispute about the relationship of simultaneity and sequence is emphasized. On the basis of the conceptions of sensory perception of outward things, the conclusion is made that the perception of the sequence of events is primary whereas simultaneity is just an epistemic construct which is convenient both for the development of scientific knowledge and for subjective reflection of reality.
																								



8.
JOHN PERRY ON RECOGNITION AND IDENTIFICATION

Anna Yur'evna Moiseeva
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: распознавание, идентификация, пропозициональные установки, рефлексивное содержание, содержательное тождество, recognition, identification, propositional attitudes, reflexive content informative identity

Abstract >>
Reflecting upon processes of recognition and identification in mind, J. Perry came to the conclusion that everything we know or believe refers to a certain subjective perspective from which this knowledge or belief may be applied in practice. If we impute content to propositional attitudes sentences taking into account this perspective, we can easily solve such old philosophical problems as the problem of violation of the substitutability principle and that of informative identities. Perry offers his own concept of content which is enough flexible to cope with the task.
																								



9.
A NOTE ON ANCIENT HYDROLOGY: RIVERS AND SEAS

Evgeniy Vasilyevich Afonasin1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: античная наука, эмпирический метод, первоэлементы, круговорот воды, моря, течения, ancient science, empirical method, primary elements, water circulation, seas, currents

Abstract >>
The article considers ancient ideas about water circulation in nature. The sources which we use include works of early Greek thinkers, particularly Diogenes of Apollonia, Aristotle, Theophrastus, Posidonius and Seneca. The special attention is given to the analogy between natural phenomena and processes occurring in living organisms which was developed by ancient philosophers of nature, as well as to peculiarities of the theory of elements mutual transformation which they shared. We show ways of reasoning practiced by the considered authors, particularly the method of analogy.
																								



10.
THE TYPES OF TECHNO-SCIENCE» IN THE SECOND PART OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Arkadiy Isaakovich Lipkin, Vladimir Semenovich Fedorov
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 9 Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, 141701, Russia
Keywords: технонаука, управление, атомный проект, государство, techno-science, management, nuclear project, state

Abstract >>
The paper considers how there appears a new and specially managed tight lacing of technics (technology), science and industry, which is called “techno-science”. In this phenomenon, we firstly mark out and analyze the structure of the scientific and technical core of techno-science (TSC) including its own management scheme. To analyze the TSC core, we consider the American nuclear project. Secondly, we show an additional management scheme related to practical realization which greatly differs in the nuclear project case where the state plays the key role and in the case of projects realized by companies like Intel in Silicon Valley in the 1970s where a businessman and his or her relations with an ambient “ecosystem” are the most important elements. These two types we call “techno-science 1” and “techno-science 2” respectively. We study some realizations of techno-science 1 in the USSR and modern Russia and its relations with “big science”.