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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2017 year, number 2

1.
ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ALEPPO PINE PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL. NATURAL REGENERATION IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN ON EXAMPLE OF ISRAEL

S. M. Sprintsin1, A. M. Fradkin1, M. S. Sprintsin2
1EiG Group, Yigael Yadin, 53, Modiin, 78514 Israel
2Jewish National Fund, JNF-KKL, Eshtaol, M. P. Shimshon, 99775 Israel
Keywords: лесное хозяйство, сосна алеппская, непрерывное лесовосстановление, устойчивость лесонасаждений, ландшафт, forestry, aleppo pine, continuous forest regeneration, forest sustainability, landscape

Abstract >>
This paper deals with the management of Mediterranean Planted Conifer Forests (MPCF), dominated by the aleppo pine Pinus halepensis and the potential for using natural regeneration as a basis for transformation of simply structured even-aged and mono crops plantations into mixed forest. We studied the variation along a rainfall gradient, in the natural regeneration of tree species. The study was conducted in four forests located within the Mediterranean zone of Israel, which extends from the semiarid northern Negev desert (rainfall ca. 300 mm per year) in the south to the humid central region close the coast line (ca 550 mm per year). Standing trees measurements including mean tree height, diameter at breast height, crown width, canopy cover, stand density of the mature strata and the number of saplings and their species composition along with the landscape characteristics (slope, aspect, percentage of rock cover and forest floor light regime) have been performed at randomly established 200 m2 area circular plots. Although a water supply is the main limiting resource for forest growth and productivity, so far no significant relationship between the quantity of regeneration and precipitation could be found. Strong linear correlation between the number of the mature trees and pine’s regeneration have been revealed and the detailed management plan of how to support a natural regeneration using a principal of Continues Cover Forestry was suggested for MPCF, including a recommendation for intensity and time of thinning.
																								



2.
THE RESULTS OF INTRODUCTION OF SCOTS PINE Pinus sylvestris L. IN NORTHEN KYRGYZSTAN

A. V. Ivanov
P. A. Gan Forest Institute, National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic, Karagachevaya roscha, Bishkek, 720024 Kyrgyz Republic
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, интродукция, продуктивность, смена древесных пород, Северный Кыргызстан, Scots pine, introduction, productivity, change of tree species, Northern Kyrgyzstan

Abstract >>
The forests of Northern Kyrgyzstan are distinguished by poor species composition. Severe forest growing conditions, dry climate, vertical zoning, exposition of forests to the northern slopes, while the opposite slopes are treeless created a more or less tolerable conditions for the existence of only one species - Tien Shan spruce Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey . Increase of productivity and stability, as well as strengthening protective properties of the spruce forests of Northern Kyrgyzstan is possible by the introduction of a tree species growing in other areas. For more than 80-year period in the region have been introduced about 120 different species of coniferous and deciduous trees. Many of them have second stage of introduction, noted by good growth, fruiting, and in some cases regeneration. The article summarizes the introduction of 83 years old Scots pine forest plantations in Northern Kyrgyzstan, growing in a variety of forest conditions. Forest inventory characteristic and an analysis of the growth in stem diameter is done. There is an estimation of the viability and prospects for the species in local conditions. Phenological observations completed. Regeneration of Scots pine and Tien Shan spruce in forest crops and out of its boundaries have been studied, which can lead to a species’ change in future. Pine in local conditions starts to occupy areas with severe forest growing conditions, and this confirms that the specie is acclimatized well and able to occupy areas, where Tien-Shan spruce can’t grow due to its bio-ecological features.
																								



3.
GENETIC-CLIMATOLOGIC-GEOGRAPHICAL PRINCIPLES OF SEED ZONING OF PINE FORESTS IN RUSSIA

S. N. Sannikov1, I. V. Petrova1, N. S. Sannikova1, A. N. Afonin2, A. I. Chernodubov3, E. V. Egorov1
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, 8 Marta str., 202, Yekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
2Saint-Petersburg University, 10-th Line-str., VO, 33-35, Saint-Petersburg, 199178 Russian Federation
3G. F. Morozov Voronezh State University of Forestry and Technology, Timiryazev str., 8, Voronezh, 394087 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, провениенция, интродукция, выживание, продукция, градиент климата, лесосеменное районирование, трансфер семян, Scots pine, provenance, introduction, survival, production, climate gradient, forest seed zoning, seed transfer

Abstract >>
The microevolution theory can serve as the theoretical foundation of forest seed zoning and of the population introduction, the subdivision of Pinus sylvestris range in Russia into 10 phylogenogeographical regions - as their genetic-geographical base and climatologic-geographical regularities of the acclimatization of the introduced crops - as the ecological base. As a result of regressive analysis of Pinus sylvestris provenance crops parameters in Russian Plain forest-steppe is was determined the authentic decrease of the parameters of their survival and stands production, according to the increase of gradients of climate limiting factors - duration of vegetative period and photoperiod - between sites of origin and introduction of populations both along of the submeridional transect and of the longitudinal ones. Thus, the hypothesis about the greater adaptivity of the local plant populations by comparison with introduced ones and the correctness of the principle of «climatic topoanalogues» in the acclimatization were confirmed on the quantitative factorial-climatological level. The total net of geographical coordinates and of corresponding elementary forest seed regions measuring 1° in latitude and 5° in longitude formed by it was suggested as the ordination matrix of forest seed zoning within the P. sylvestris areal. The parameters of seed transfer reglamentation in latitude, longtitude and altitude were suggested on the connections base of survival and stands production of introduced Scots pine crops with climatic gradients. These principles can serve as a genetic-climatologic-geographical base for the development of the theory of plants acclimatization and of regional and federal seeds zoning of Scots pine forests for their crops, selection and hybridization.
																								



4.
ANALYSIS OF SCOTS PINE CLIMATYPES GROWTH DYNAMICS IN THE PROVENANCE TRIAL IN CENTRAL SIBERIA

N. A. Kuzmina, S. R. Kuzmin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, географические культуры, дифференциация по росту, отбор, сорта-популяции, Средняя Сибирь, Scots pine, provenance trial, growth differentiation, selection, breed-populations, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
Differentiation of 83 Scots pine climatypes by height growth at the age of 37 years in the provenance trial was done. Three groups of climatypes were distinguished as: fast-growing, moderate-growing and slow-growing. The research at the age of 20-25 revealed 13 climatypes of 27 from the fast-growing group as candidates to breed-populations. These climatypes are from Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Karelia, and the Republic of Komi. At the age of 37 years they confirm the status of perspective climatypes in height growth, survival, and resistance to fungal pathogens as it was noted earlier (Kuzmina, Kuzmin, 2007, 2008). The average height of trees of these climatypes exceeds control height by 32 %. The moderate-growing group consists of 18 climatypes, five of them are candidates to breed-populations. The intensity of their growth was reduced but average height is at the level of control average value. The third group has the largest number of climatypes. After the inventory in 2013 two climatypes previously marked as perspective were added into the third group. Last years the intensity of their growth was significantly reduced because of disease caused by cenangium dieback at the 22-24 years old. So the rank status of studied climatypes in different age periods is significantly changeable because of different reaction to ecological factors. The analysis of annual height increments growth confirms that objective conclusions about selection of perspective climatypes could be possible only after 25 years old of pine.
																								



5.
CHARACTERISTIC OF COMPOSITE PINE FORESTS ON VOLGA TERRACES OF TATARSTAN

N. B. Prokhorenko1, S. G. Glushko2
1Kazan Federal University, Kremlyovskaya str., 18, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420008 Russian Federation
2Kazan State Agricultural University, Karl Marx str., 65, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420015 Russian Federation
Keywords: древние террасы р. Волга, сосняки сложные, видовое богатство, структура и возобновление древостоя, мозаичность травяного покрова, эколого-ценотическая структура, ancient Volga terraces, composite pine forests, species richness, structure and renewal of the stand, mosaic of grass cover, ecological and coenotic structure

Abstract >>
The structure of pine forests in various natural areas of European Russia depends on environmental conditions, specifics of soil and underlying parent rock. Types of pine forests are distinguished by such features as their species composition of the lower layers, structure of grass-shrub layer and the nature of its mosaic. The purpose of the study are regional features of the composite pine forests, distributed on ancient terraces of left bank of the Volga River in north-western Tatarstan, considering specifics of their position in the contact zone of coniferous-deciduous forests with steppes. The structure of the communities of the pine forests on such indicators as species richness, quantitative participation of species, their occurrence and horizontal structure of grass cover were analyzed, and detailed description of the stand and of its renewal was given. In addition, ecological and coenotic structure of communities of pine forests was investigated. It was found that group of types of composite pine forests on the slopes and flat sections of high Volga terraces in northwest of Tatarstan are distinguished by age and completeness of the stand, but is characterized by similar composition of dominant species of lower layer and microgroups in grass layer composition. These communities are characterized by high participation of meadow-steppe plants. This feature distinguishes them from composite pine forests that are found in the central part of the European Russia. This is due to the fact that the area of our study takes position of a buffer, with broad invasion of meadow and meadow-steppe species in the communities of pine forests, especially when anthropogenic disturbances take place. The probability of further transformation of pine stands in the direction of their xerophytization has been identified.
																								



6.
REGIONAL SCALES OF FIRE DANGER RATING IN THE FOREST: IMPROVED TECHNIQUE

A. V. Volokitina1, T. M. Sofronova2, M. A. Korets1,3
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2V. P. Astafiev Krasnoyarsk State Pedagogical University, Ada Lebedeva str., 89, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
3Siberian Federal University, Prospekt Svobodnyi, 79/10, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russian Federation
Keywords: пожарная опасность, региональные шкалы, вероятная плотность действующих пожаров, Красноярский край, fire danger, local scales, probable density of active fires, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
Wildland fires distribute unevenly in time and over area under the influence of weather and other factors. It is unfeasible to air patrol the whole forest area daily during a fire season as well as to keep all fire suppression forces constantly alert. Daily work and preparedness of forest fire protection services is regulated by the level of fire danger according to weather conditions (Nesterov’s index. PV-1 index), fire hazard class (Melekhov’s scale), regional scales (earlier called local scales). Unfortunately, there is still no unified comparable technique of making regional scales. As a result, it is difficult to maneuver forest fire protection resources, since the techniques currently used are not approved and not tested for their performance. They give fire danger rating incomparable even for neighboring regions. The paper analyzes the state-of-the-art in Russia and abroad. It is stated the irony is that with factors of fire danger measured quantitatively, the fire danger itself as a function has no quantitative expression. Thus, selection of an absolute criteria is of high importance for improvement of daily fire danger rating. On the example of the Chunsky forest ranger station (Krasnoyarsk Krai), an improved technique is suggested of making comparable local scales of forest fire danger rating based on an absolute criterion of fire danger rating - a probable density of active fires per million ha. A method and an algorithm are described of automatized local scales of fire danger that should facilitate effective creation of similar scales for any forest ranger station or aviation regional office using a database on forest fires and weather conditions. The information system of distant monitoring by Federal Forestry Agency of Russia is analyzed for its application in making local scales. To supplement the existing weather station net it is suggested that automatic compact weather stations or, if the latter is not possible, simple weather observation points should be organized in forest ranger stations and aviation bases for obtaining up-to-date weather information.
																								



7.
VARIABILITY OF THE TREE-RINGS STRUCTURE OF GMELIN’S LARCH AT NORTHERN TREE LINE (PENINSULA OF TAYMYR)

V. V. Fakhrutdinova1, V. E. Benkova2, A. V. Shashkin2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zukovsky str., 100/1, Novosibirsk, 630082 Russian Federation
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: северная граница леса, годичные кольца, ранняя и поздняя древесина, клеточные характеристики, коэффициенты чувствительности, климатические факторы, northern tree line, tree rings, summer- and latewood, cell characteristics, sensitivity coefficients, climatic factors

Abstract >>
The study of tree-ring cell structure changes as the result of tree adaptation to varying environmental conditions becomes increasingly important to predict future vegetation shifts under projected climate changes. The estimate of intrapopulation annual variability of wood anatomy characteristics is particularly informative. It helps to divide the contribution of different ecological factors to total features dispersion. In this work, a comparative analysis of individual and climatic variability of tree ring structure characteristics of Gmelin’s larch Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) growth within northernmost forest was carried out. The trees from forest-tundra boundary has greater radial growth intensity, forms the bigger conductive zone in rings with wider mean lumen area in comparison with trees from closed forest. This result can be explained by adaptive features and height ecological xylem plasticity of larch. The tree rings structure of larch from boundary with tundra is determined by largely current weather conditions. Is because these ones evince high adaptive plasticity on the level of xylem structure. The xylem reflects joint changes of climate factors and local ecological conditions. The trees from closed forest are characterized by larger individual variability. The local conditions in oldest forest (for example, bad hydrothermal soil conditions) inhibit the radial growth and sensitivity to environmental factors. In this case, the trees on individual level are tended to save the normal functioning of water-transport system. The significant differences in ratio individual to climate variability of tree ring structure characteristics can be caused by the different in the level of ecological habitat heterogeneity or the different in the level genetic within-population heterogeneity.
																								



8.
STOCKS AND FLUXES OF ORGANIC CARBON IN THE ECOSYSTEM OF MATURE BILBERRY PINE FOREST OF THE MIDDLE TAIGA

A. F. Osipov
Institute of Biology, Komi Republic Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: запасы углерода, нетто-продукция, опад, разложение, эмиссия СО, сосняк, carbon stocks, NPP, litter fall, decomposition, CO emission, pine forest

Abstract >>
The data on carbon stock and its distribution on the main pools in the ecosystem are presented for mature pine forest bilberry type in the middle taiga. The ecosystem of mature pine forest bilberry type concentrates 158.2 t C ha-1. Upper 1 m soil layer contribute 53 %, phytomass - 44, coarse woody debris - 3 % to total carbon stock. Net primary production is determined. Input of stand is 70 %, ground cover - 30 %. It is found active accumulation of wood. It forms about 36 % of biomass production. Litter fall and it distribution on separate fraction are characterized. Litter fall ranged from 1.13 to 1.53 t C ha-1. It is equal 3-5 % of forest floor mass. The tree plants are generating the most part of litter weight. Needless and leaves play the key role in litter of stand. Inactive fraction (branches, cones) are characterized by big inter-annual variation in litter fall production due to changing weather conditions during study period. Dynamic soil temperature is described on lower boundary of forest floor. We estimate that during growing season carbon flux from soil surface is 2.28-3.21 t С ha-1.
																								



9.
THE EXAMPLES OF FOREST MANAGEMENT IN SECONDARY FORESTS OF WESTERN SIBERIA

N. M. Debkov1, A. V. Bryukhanov2
1Institute for Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospect Akademichesky, 10/3, Tomsk, 634055 Russian Federation
2V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: кулисные рубки, выборочные рубки, улучшение характеристик насаждений, Томская область, Омская область, alternate strip clear-cutting, partial logging, improvement of forests stand quality, Tomsk Oblast, Omsk Oblast

Abstract >>
Identifying the best practices of responsible and sustainable forest use is an important aspect for possible learning of experience and replication of the most interesting examples in forestry. Qualitative and timely reforestation of disturbed areas with economically valuable species is the key indicator for the performance of effective forest management. Conservation of rare species of plants and animals in the logged areas is not less important factor. Today the priority is given to natural forest regeneration because it provides the best opportunity to avoid unreasonable financial costs and, as a rule, is more resilient against various natural and anthropogenic factors. The article discusses various examples and logging types in secondary forests in the Tomsk and Omsk Oblast, which allow increasing the economic, environmental, and social importance of forests. On specific examples it is shown that the principle of non-interference in the green zones of settlements is erroneous and may lead to undesirable consequences. The rejection of logging in these stands, as a rule, leads to increases of the fire danger, growth of phyto- and entomological threats, the reduction of recreational appeal, etc. The use of partial logging methods suggested in the papers has allowed solving some of these problems.
																								



10.
PHYTOMASS OF LITTER FALL IN POSTFIRE LARCH FORESTS OF ZEISKY NATURE RESERVE (UPPER PRIAMURIE)

S. V. Bryanin, E. R. Abramova
Institute of Geology and Nature Management, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern Branch, Pereulok Relochny, 1, Blagoveschensk, 675000 Russian Federation
Keywords: лесные пожары, опад, углерод, азот, лиственница Гмелина, forest fires, litter fall, carbon, nitrogen, Gmelin larch, Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr

Abstract >>
Forest litter is one of the major carbon flow and main source for long-term carbon accumulation in forest ecosystems. Wild fires is a frequent and powerful event destroys fluxes of matter and carbon accumulation. In the article the first data of stationary investigation of litter fall in flow and its organic matter content in larch forest (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) are presented. The study is conducted on Tukuringra range in Upper Priamurie (Amur Oblast, Russia) in the forest stand recovering after fire of 2003 year. Results shows that net annual inflow of forest above ground litter fall from all vegetation in burned forest is 2.8 times lower than in background forest. Grass litter fall and other tree debris (bark, seeds, cones, etc.) are main sources for annual litter fall input in burned forest. Litter fall composition in the burned forest is significantly changed and high variation of mass of litter fall fractions is observed. Accumulation of carbon and nitrogen is higher in majority of litter fall fractions in burned forest as compared to control one. Annual carbon input from litter fall is 164 gm-2 in control forest and 76 gm-2 in burned forest, total amount of nitrogen derived by litter fall is 1.7 and 2.4 gm-2 for control and burned forest respectively. Our findings suggest that carbon accumulation processes in fire-prone boreal forests changed significantly. The research results can be used for modeling of carbon balance in taiga forest damaged by fire.