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Philosophy of Sciences

2017 year, number 1

1.
SCIENCE AND THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE

Anatoliy Ilyich Rakitov
Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 51/21 Nakhimovsky Ave., Моsсow, 117997, Russia
Keywords: философия науки, наука, критика философии науки, эпистемологический квадрат, парадигма, синтагма, ревизия философии науки, philosophy of science, science, criticism of the philosophy of science, epistemological square, paradigm, syntagma, revision of the philosophy of science

Abstract >>
A number of scientists and philosophers have expressed doubts about the usefulness of the philosophy of science to scientists. The most special sciences do not provoke philosophical reflection. There is no exact definition of science, properly applicable to all special scientific disciplines. The epistemological square is proposed as a more clear analytical structure of the philosophical problems of science. It allows to organize the relationship, the genesis, the functioning of the laws, hypotheses, problems, methods, empirical facts, extensive taxa and highly specialized sciences. There are marked restrictions of T. Kuhn’s concept of paradigms. In many special sciences no revolution occurred. In the proposed “syntagm” concept the knowledge is borrowed from different disciplines and applies to solve new non-standard scientific problems and tasks. The thorough epistemological, logical and methodological analysis of the philosophy of science itself is necessary.
																								



2.
IF-LOGIC IN THE MATHEMATICAL THEORIZING

Vitaliy Valentinovich Tselishchev1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 8, Nikolaev st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: IF-логика, логика первого порядка, равномерная непрерывность, квантор, теоретико-игровая семантика, IF-logic, first-order logic, uniform continuity, quantifier, game-theoretic semantics

Abstract >>
The article is deals with the comparison of expressive means of the standard first-order logic and IF-logic as the logic of mathematical discourse. The problem of the uniform continuity in Cauchy's theorem serves as an illustration of the analysis in both systems. It is shown that we can overcom limitations of the standard first-order logic in the IF-logic. Also, the fallacy of criticism of IF-logic as a vehicle for mathematical theorizing is shown.
																								



3.
PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO PROBLEM OF MATHEMATICS APPLICATION

Vladimir Moiseevich Reznikov1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev st. Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: наука, адекватность математического аппарата, проблема корректного применения математики, теория, модель, математический платонизм, эмпиризм, философская критика, Хинтикка, Эбботт, Шейфер, science, adequacy of mathematics, tools, the problem of the correct use of mathematics, theory, model, mathematical Platonism, empiricism, philosophical criticism, Hintikka, Abbott, Shafer

Abstract >>
The article presents the scientific community’s critical arguments against the value of philosophical research. The criticism is caused by the fast that philosophical work deals only with classical problems of science, while modern topical problems slip through the net. By the example of the topical problem of the correct use of mathematics, the article formulates some explanations of the significance of philosophical research for science; it presents a pragmatic grounding for the function of philosophers of science in scientific research and offers some recommendations concerning the description of conditions of applying mathematics.
																								



4.
FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS: SET THEORY VS. TYPE THEORY

Lev Dmitrievich Lamberov
Ural Federal University, 620000, 51, av. Lenin, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: теория множеств, теория типов, гомотопии, основания математики, set theory, type theory, homotopies, foundations of mathematics

Abstract >>
The paper deals with a brief history of the development of set theory as the foundations of mathematics, and a brief history of the formation process of the type theory. The paper contains a detailed comparison of set theory and type theory, discussion of the problems of the set theory, and the advantages of the type theory as the foundations of mathematics. In addition, the article discusses the pragmatic aspect of the type theory as the foundations of mathematics and contains a brief overview of a modern version of the type theory, namely homotopy type theory.
																								



5.
THE CHARACTERISTIC OF GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF NARRATOLOGY

Vasiliy Anatolyevich Mironov
National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin av., Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: геология, нарратив, теория познания, нарративные предложения, методология повествования, философия геологии, философия науки, geology, narrative, epistemology, narrative sentences, methodology of narration, philosophy of geology, philosophy of science

Abstract >>
The paper considers geological knowledge from the point of view of narration methodology developed initially for studying and constructing historical and literary texts. The consideration of geology, which is a natural-science discipline, from the perspective of humanitarian methodology enables to explain peculiarities of creation of geological theories about the past of our planet. In turn, such an explanation becomes a basis for solving the problem of the discrepancy of geological methods to criteria of experimental natural sciences. In addition, such an approach enables to define which information is important for geological knowledge and to define in what form the concepts of geological past are presented.
																								



6.
LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO CALCULATION OF MENTAL STATES

Alena Semyenovna Kashpurova
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, Nikolaeva str, 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: сознание, логика, нечеткая логика, ментальные состояния, consciousness, logic, fuzzy logic, mental states

Abstract >>
In the article it is shown that the construction of the logical structure of mental States possibly using fuzzy logic and used its linguistic approach
																								



7.
ANCIENT PHYSICIANS ON HEALTH AND CAUSES OF DESEASES

Evgeniy Vasilyevich Afonasin1,2
1Novosibirsk National Research State University, 2, Pirogov st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute Philosophy and Law SB RAS, 8, Nikolaeva st., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: эмпирическая наука, история медицины, Филолай, Алкмеон, Гиппократ, Гален, empirical sciences, the history of medicine, Alcmeon, Philolaus, Hippocrates, Galen

Abstract >>
In the article, we study the evolution of Ancient concept of health and the causes of disease. We start with the earliest natural philosophers (mostly based on the Anonymous Londinensis medical papyrus) and conclude with a study of Galen’s De morborum differentiis (VI.836-880 K.). Health is invariably defined as a condition, which is in accord with nature, while disease is that which is contrary to nature. Our major concern is to discuss how this definition influenced consequent distinction between ‘natural’ and ‘non-natural’, ‘contrary to nature’ and ‘in accord with nature’, and in general, norm and deviation.
																								



8.
A.L. CHIZHEVSKY'S IDEAS IN THE MODERN SCIENCE

Anna Yuryevna Storozhuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 8, Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: холистическая философия, гелиобиология, история науки, holism, heliobiolodgy, history of science

Abstract >>
The article considerates the basic Chizhevskiy’s thoughts: the idea of the cosmic radiation influence on living organisms, air ionization concept found bringing in ionizer constructed them - "Chizhevskiy’s chandelier", ideas about linking the solar cycles with other astronomical factors. It is shown Chizhevskiy’s idea on the influence the cosmic rays on the live that he proved by statistical method, was developed in modern heliobiology, where they took a confirmation by current measurements. It was shown that the effect of the big changes of solar activity is not specific, and like a stress reaction to external stimuli. The idea of the planets influence on the solar cycle dynamics is actively discussed in the papers but it has not received sufficient evidence, nor was constructed a computable model of the Sun. From a philosophical point of view, Chizhevskiy’s ideas are holistic philosophy cosmism, denying the occasion and replaces the last action of the universal law of evolution.
																								



9.
AKADEMGORODOK AND STANDFORD: SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY IN THE INNOVATION ECOSYSTEMS DURING 50TH-70TH OF THE XX CENTURY

Vladimir Semenovich Fedorov
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskiy per 9, Dolgoprudniy, 141707, Moscow Region, Russia
Keywords: инновационные экосистемы, философия техники, инновации, высокие технологии, философия прикладных наук, история науки и техники, innovation ecosystem, philosophy of technology, innovation, high-tech, philosophy of applied science, history of science and technology

Abstract >>
Innovation ecosystem is defined as a system that fosters application of scientific knowledge to development of new technologies. The genesis and further development of two innovation ecosystems, Akademgorodok of Novosibirsk and Stanford University, is investigated. These ecosystems are similar during 50-th to 70-th: they share similar internal development dynamics and strategy, organization structure featuring a strong visionary leader, namely F. Terman and M. Lavrentiev, types of problems solved within the ecosystem. By the 1970, a novel ecosystem based on Stanford University ecosystem, so-called Sillicon Valley, was born. Contrasting to ecosystems of Stanford and Akademgorodok, the main function of the Sillicon Valley orgranization was not creation of new narrow-scoped technologies, but production of novel high-tech products. A high-tech product consists of multiple technologies and inteded for broad spectrum of applications. The notion of high-tech product is crucial for understanding of contemporary postindustrial mode of science-technology interaction, whilst the notion of ecosystem is crucial for understanding of the environment in which the interaction takes its place.
																								



10.
CASUISTRY OF OBJECT-SUBJECT MATTER AND ANOTHER TYPES OF DISSERTATION SCHOLASTICISM

Dmitriy Vladimirovich Vinnik
Institute of Philosophy and Law SB RAS, Nikolaeva str. 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: диссертация, квалификационная работа, схоластика, казуистика, объект, предмет, гипотеза, актуальность, степень разработанности, цели, задачи, автореферат, введение, теоретическая значимость, практическая значимость, деградация образования, dissertation, scholasticism, сasuistry, object, subject matter, hypothesis, topical, research task, abstract, introdaction, theoretical significansy, practical significansy, degradation of education

Abstract >>
Critical view on formal demands for structure of dissertation introduction in Russia. Regulatory specifications of state standard and non-formal demands are being analyzed. Existing dissertation introduction structure is common and do not takes into account difference between natural and human sciences, theoretical and empirical research; overloaded by degenerative formalisms and red tape constructions. Existing requirements for paper thesis introductions is a kind of phenomena that could be called dissertation scholasticism. The structure is formed by emasculative philosophical and even pseudophilosophical categories pretended to construe as universal and ultimate methodological framework.