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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2017 year, number 1

1.
THERMOSTABILITY OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN TISSUES F SCOTS PINE IN HEAT SHOCK CONDITIONS

N. E. Sudachkova, L. I. Romanova, N. V. Astrakhantseva, M. V. Novoselova
Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, хвоя, камбий, тепловой шок, окислительный стресс, антиоксидантные ферменты, термоустойчивость, Scots pine, needles, cambium, heat shock, oxidative stress, antioxidative enzymes, thermal stability

Abstract >>
Samples of needles from the middle part of the crown and cambial zone scrapings, which includes cambium cells and nonlignified xylem cells from five stems of 15 years old Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. trees from green moss-forb groups stands on sod-podzolic soil in Krasnoyarsk forest steppe were investigated. Thermal stability of the antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase, catalase, glutathione reductase (GR); enzymes of carbohydrate and phenolic metabolism: amylase, invertase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) which are involved in providing the xylogenesis process; and markers of oxidative stress: peroxide hydrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) were studied in the temperature interval 20-80 °C. It was found that the positive effect on the antioxidant enzymes activity mainly manifested up to 40 °C. As the temperature increases, antioxidant protection weakens. The mechanisms of oxidative stress in cambium zone and needles in condition of pyrogenic heat shock are distinguished due to different thermal stability of antioxidant enzymes in these tissues. The most sensitive to elevated temperatures was catalase both in cambium zone and needles. In the cambium zone, peroxidase and GR detect low resistance to high temperature, while SOD has a higher level of. In the needles on the contrary, peroxidase and GR exhibit high thermal stability, whereas SOD activity rapidly reduces at higher temperatures. Amylase, invertase and PAL exceed, according to the thermal stability of examined antioxidant enzymes, what allow quick restoration of carbohydrate and phenolic metabolism after pyrogenic heat shock to providing of xylogenesis process.
																								



2.
THE INFLUENCE OF NITRATE NITROGEN ON THE PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY IN TISSUES OF Betula pendula Roth var. pendula and B. pendula var. carelica (Mercklin)

K. M. Nikerova, N. A. Galibina
Forest Research Institute, Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya str., 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
Keywords: карельская береза, аномальный ксилогенез, пероксидаза, внесение нитратов, Karelian birch, abnormal xylogenesis, peroxidase, application of nitrate

Abstract >>
We studied the peroxidase activity during the period of active cambial growth in two forms of 8-year-old Silver birch trees with different degrees of manifestation of wood grain figure: Betula pendula var. pendula and Betula pendula var. carelica. We selected leaves from short shoots and leaves from long shoots, small roots, xylem and phloem for the analysis. It was determined that peroxidase activity in B. pendula var. carelica was higher than in B. pendula var. pendula. The more the degree of manifestation of wood grain figure was in Betula pendula var. carelica, the more the peroxidase activity in xylem was. It was suggested that local violation of cambial activity in Betula pendula var. carelica leads to increased quantity of reative oxygen species and it can enhance the peroxidase activity. To identify the response of birch plants under the excess of nitrogen fertilizers, we studied the influence of nitrate on the peroxidase activity. This investigation was made for the first time. Application of nitrate had led to the increase in the peroxidase activity in xylem and phloem only in Betula pendula var. carelica. In Betula pendula var. pendula the peroxidase activity in xylem and phloem has not changed under the application of nitrogen fertilizers. Application of KNO3 gave multidirectional changes in leaves in both forms. Peroxidase activity in B. pendula var. pendula increased, but activity of the enzyme in B. pendula var. carelica decreased.
																								



3.
THE CHANGES IN REDOX STATUS OF ASCORBATE IN STEM TISSUE CELLS DURING SCOTS PINE GROWTH

G. F. Antonova, V. V. Stasova, N. V. Astrakhantseva
Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, levels of stem, non-contacting phloem, conducting phloem, forming xylem, mature xylem, ascorbate/dehydroascorbate ratio

Abstract >>
The contents of ascorbate (AsA) and dehydroascorbate (DHA) and their ratio, showing cellular redox state of AsA, were studied in the cells of the separate tissues at different levels of Pinus sylvestris L . stem during early- and latewood formation. Morphological status of the cells in the tissues and the content of soluble carbohydrates were also estimated. The cellular redox potential of AsA has been found to depend on the type of tissue, cell development degree, the level of stem and the type of forming wood. The content of AsA and AsA/DHA ratio in the cells of non-conducting phloem along the stem were higher than in mature xylem and less during earlywood than latewood formation. The cells of conducting phloem and forming xylem, as the principal tissues taking part in annual ring wood formation, differed in the content of acids in the course of early and late xylem formation. Along the stem, the content of AsA decreased in conducting phloem cells and increased in the cells of forming xylem during both early- and latewood formation. The AsA/DHA of conducting phloem during earlywood formation was greatest below the stem and diminished to the top of the tree, while in the course of latewood development it was similar at all levels. In forming xylem AsA/DHA increased to the top of tree during the early xylem formation and decreased in late xylem that indicates the differences in oxidation-reduction reactions into the cells of two type of forming wood. The data are discussed according to morphological development of cells and the content of carbohydrates.
																								



4.
CHANGES IN THE CONTENT OF NITROGEN FRACTIONS WITH LOOSING VITAL CAPACITY OF THE SIBERIAN FIR Abies sibirica Ledeb. SEEDS

S. G. Prokushkin1, V. V. Panova1
Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: пихта сибирская, семена, потеря жизнеспособности, общий азот, белковые фракции, Siberian fir, seeds, loose of vitality, total nitrogen, albumin fractions

Abstract >>
Siberian fir seeds often lose their germinating capacity during storage. This results from, among other factors, changing contents of nitrogen compounds in the seeds, especially those of protein fractions. This paper focuses on analyzing changes of these compounds in nonviable seeds of the species depending on ecological and conditions and stand location, as well as on tree growth class (Kraft growth classes I and IV). The contents of the total and protein nitrogen in the nonviable seeds of the trees of growth classes I and IV appeared to vary widely and to depend on stand location and seed location in the tree crown. The maximum contents were in the seeds located in the upper part of the crown. The seeds from the middle and lower crown parts contained much less total and protein nitrogen. The hard-to-solve protein fraction dominated over other protein fraction in the seeds from the upper part of the crowns of the trees of growth classes I and IV. However, this fraction, like prolamines, changed uniformly throughout the crowns, whereas seed glutelin content varied insignificantly among the crown parts. Albumins and globulins showed a uniform crown top-to-bottom decrease. A comparison of viable seed with unviable seeds for contents of the nitrogen forms revealed a marked decrease in the total and protein nitrogen in the latter, especially for the trees of growth class IV. The seeds that lost their germinating capacity exhibited increasingly hard-to-solve protein fraction and drastically decreasing albumins and globulins wherever the seeds were in the crown. Their glutelin and prolamine contents changed inconsiderably.The changes of the quantitative ratio between the protein fractions found by the study cause, along with other physiological and biochemical factors, the loss of viability of Siberian fir seeds during storage.
																								



5.
THE DYNAMICS OF PINE FORESTS IN PREBAIKALIA UNDER ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT

T. A. Mikhailova, O. V. Kalugina, O. V. Shergina
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Siberian Branch, Lermontov str., 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная Pinus sylvestris L., техногенное загрязнение, рекреационная нагрузка, индекс жизненного состояния древостоев, Южное Предбайкалье, Scots pine L., technogenic pollution, recreational impact, index of tree-stand vital condition, South Prebaikalia

Abstract >>
Analyzed and generalized were the results of prolonged (10-25 years) monitoring of condition pine Pinus sylvestris L. forests affected by technogenic pollution and high recreation load in the South Prebaikalia. The results show that both factors have similarity in the stress effect on pine tree-stands, as confirmed by alteration in morphometric parameters of tree assimilating phytomass, decrease in photosynthetic pigments level, as well as by disturbance the nutrient elements proportions in the needles. As tree crown defoliation level reaches 65-70 %, the morphometric parameters for shoots and needles are found to decrease the background level by in 1.3-4.5 times. Under technogenic pollution, the needles’ chlorophylls sum was reduced 2.8-3.5 times, level of carotenoides - to 3.9 times maximum in comparison with the background needles while under high recreation load the green pigments content was reduced 1.9-5.7 times, carotenoids content - to 5.5 times. There is a imbalance in quantitative proportions between nutritional elements under any type of stress, N : P : K proportion changes due to increase of nitrogen level and reduction of phosphorus and potassium level. Index of tree-stand vital condition was calculated on the basis of the representative parameters to analyze the long forest dynamics. Significant reduction was shown in the index in the present time and correspondingly the obvious tendency to pine forest decline in the territories polluted by Irkutsk, Shelekhov, and Angarsk-Usolie industrial centers. At the same time near Cheremkhovo and Sayansk-Zima centers there are not heavy changes in the forest’s condition; during long time a middle level of weakening is registered but in the distance 20 km - a low level of weakening. In the territories characterized by a high recreation load, a sharp trend to declining pine tree-stands vital condition was found, and most clearly it is expressed in the towns of Khuzhir (Olkhon island) and Listvyanka, where there is a particularly high soil disturbance. Based on these results a schematic map has been developed to show the identified problem areas with revealed significant tendency to decline of the vital condition the pine tree-stands in the contemporary period.
																								



6.
THE INFLUENCE OF AIR TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON DYNAMICS OF WATER POTENTIAL IN Betula pendula (Betulaceae) TREES

G. P. Tikhova, V. B. Pridacha, T. A. Sazonova
Forest Research Institute, Karelian Research Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya str., 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
Keywords: Betula pendula Roth, Betula pendula Roth var. carelica, водный потенциал, суточный биоритм, сезонная динамика, факторы среды, water potential, diurnal biorhythm, seasonal dynamics, environmental factors

Abstract >>
Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ) of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia). The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and curly (Karelian) birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica ). It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037-0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05). Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10-15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05). In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH) and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH), respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.
																								



7.
PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS OF THE SIBERIAN SPRUCE NEEDLES IN THE MIDDLE TAIGA FORESTS OF THE EUROPEAN NORTH-EAST RUSSIA

V. V. Tuzhilkina
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28, Syktyvkar, Komi Republic, 167982 Russian Federation
Keywords: ель сибирская Picea obovata Ledeb, хлорофилл, каротиноиды, хвоя, тайга, Север, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb, chlorophyll, carotenoids, needles, taiga, north

Abstract >>
The seasonal changes in content and ratio of chlorophylls and carotenoids in the Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb. needles growing in bilberry, bilberry-sphagnum and polytric-sphagnum forest types in the middle taiga subzone of the European North-East were studied. The largest amount of chlorophyll in needles is accumulated towards late summer and autumn, the smallest one - in winter and is determined by forest growth and environmental conditions. А functional realignment of needle pigment of the spruce forests on boggy-podzolic soils was revealed. Edaphic environmental factors affect pigment complex of spruce needles. Excessive soil moisture content at particular vegetation periods in forest types on boggy-podzolic soils depresses pigment synthesis in needles. There exists a linear dependence of chlorophyll content in spruce needles from studied spruce communities on soil temperature during vegetation period. Yellow pigments in spruce needles was exposed to lower fluctuations during the growing season. The increase of the relative content of carotenoids having a protective role of the photosynthetic apparatus from damage by low temperatures was noted in the winter. The character of the seasonal dynamics of carotenoid in contrast to the chlorophyll in spruce studied phytocenoses was identical. Needles of Siberian spruce are characterized by stable accumulation of photosynthetic pigments belonging to the light-harvesting complex.
																								



8.
POTENTIAL FOR Salixschwerinii Е. Wolf TO UPTAKE HEAVY METALS IN THE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES OF MINING INDUSTRY IN THE NORHT-WEST RUSSIA

E. N. Terebova1, E. F. Markovskaya1, V. I. Androsova1, N. A. Galibina2, E. L. Kaipiainen3, M. A. Salam3, A. O. Villa3
1Petrozavodsk State University, Lenina str., 33, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
2Forest Research Institute of the Karelian Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya str., 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
3University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu, 2, P.O. Box 111, Joensuu, FI-80101 Finland
Keywords: Salix schwerinii, phytoremediation, heavy metals, photosynthetic pigments, biometric parameters, specific leaf area, joint stock company В«Karelsky OkatyshВ», Republic of Karelia

Abstract >>
The study was carried out on the industrial territory of Joint Stock Co. «Karelsky Okatysh» (Russia, Republic of Karelia, Kostomuksha). The species Salix schwerinii E. Wolf (Finland) was used as a phytoremediant and was cultivated on the contaminated territory of the mining enterprise - the tailing dump (the main pollutants being Ni and Fe). After one year, the willow plant samples were divided into two groups: healthy plants with higher biomass production (HBP) and suppressed plants with lower biomass production (LBP). The root system of HBP and LBP plants had no differences, but aboveground biomass was higher in HBP willow plants. The content of photosynthetic pigments was low in both groups of willows at (1.62 ± 0.10) mg/g wet weight. SLA index (specific leaf area) was 1.53 mm2 mg-1 and 1.21 mm2 mg-1 in HBP and LBP groups, correspondingly. About 50-90 % of Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Cr were absorbed by the roots and leaves of willow. All of these elements accumulated in maximal amounts in the roots (70 %) of plants from the HBP group, while in the LBP group they accumulated mostly in leaves (70 %). Pb was deposited in the roots, leaves and bark (20-30 % for each structure), Cd, Zn - in the bark (50-60 %). According to the coefficient of biological absorption, heavy metals in the willow plants formed the following sequence: Zn (8) > Mn (6-8) > Cd (4-6) > Cu (4-5) > Pb (3) > Co (1) > Ni (0.6) = Cr (0.5-0.7) > Fe (0.2).
																								



9.
THE INFLUENCE OF PINOSYLVIN AND ITS METHYL ESTER ON THE GROWTH OF PLANTS

K. A. Petrov, V. E. Sofronova, V. A. Chepalov
Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Lenina, 41, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 677000 Russian Federation
Keywords: пиносильвин, метиловый эфир пиносильвина, биотесты, pinosylvin, pinosylvin methyl ester, biological tests

Abstract >>
In this article are given the biotesting data of pinosylvin (PS) and its methyl ester (PSME) isolated from dormant buds of Alnus fruticosa (Rupr.). Coleoptile segments of wheat and aquatic plant Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. were used as the test objects. Low concentrations of PS and PSME have weakly stimulated the growth of wheat during 22 hours of incubation. If concentrations of PS and PSME are increased up to 10-15 mg/L during the first 3 hours of incubation, the growth of coleoptiles slowed by 20-35 %, but during 22 h the growth reduced by 21-48 %. The PSME has stronger growth-inhibitory effect than PS. Further increasing of PS concentration (up to 25 mg/l) inhibited the growth of coleoptiles by 61 % during 22 hours. At the same concentration the PSME inhibited the growth by 67 % during the first 3 hours and completely suppressed the growth with loss of turgor during 22 hours. In the case of S. polyrhiza adding PS with 1 mg/l concentration to the nutrient medium resulted in decrease of its growth and development after 10 days of experiment by 40 %, but with higher concentration (25-50 mg/l) the growth process was completely inhibited. S. polyrhiza grown in a nutrient medium with 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg/l concentrations of PSME shows a weak stimulation of growth and development. At the same time the PSME concentrations higher than 10 mg/l leaded to yellowing of plants during the first 2 days. These results show that pinosylvin and its methyl ester inhibit the growth of wheat coleoptiles segments in 50-100 times stronger than the known phenolic inhibitors (carboxylic acids, polyphenols and their glycosides).
																								



10.
VARIABILITY OF NEEDLE ANTIMICROBIC ACTIVITY IN CLONE PLANTATION OF SCOTS PINE Pinus sylvestris L

V. V. Tarakanov1,2, L. N. Chindyaeva3, N. V. Tsybulya3, I. V. Tikhonova4
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zukovsky str., 100/1, Novosibirsk, 630082 Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Dobrolyubov str., 160, Novosibirsk, 630039 Russian Federation
3Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russian Federation
4Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: межклоновая изменчивость сосны обыкновенной, антимикробная активность, микробные тест-объекты, метод опарения, between clonal variability of Scots pine, antimicrobial activity, microbe test objects, the pair method

Abstract >>
Streak inoculation of microbial test-cultures was treated with volatile emissions of needles of 23-years clones of Pinus sylvestris L. The study was conducted in July 2011 on three test-objects - gram-positive bacteria Staphyllococcusepidermidis, gram-negative bacteria Esсherichia coli and yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. Antimicrobial effect of pine volatile emissions was assessed in comparison with the control on 0 (absence of the effect) - 4 (strong effect) scale of antimicrobial activity. The mean marks of antimicrobial activity of clones, calculated in relation to separate test-systems, were within the limits of 0.00-3.00. The weak differentiation of pine clones to S. epidermidis is revealed. Frequency of pair comparisons in which statistically significant differences between clones was found to be less than 5 % for S. epidermidis and about 1.5 % for all the test-microbes. Alongside with it significant effects of the time of testing (calendar dates), a microbial species («pathogens») and interactions «date of testing-pathogens» and «date of testing-clones» were revealed: in ANOVA their effects amounted to nearly 23, 33 and 15 % of the total dispersion accordingly. The most probable reasons for it are dynamics of structure of essential oils and «genotype-environment» interaction that should become object of future research. In this connection, an important question is what is the season that is optimum for reliable revealing of the pine genotypes with maximal antimicrobial activity? Negative between-clones (between-genotypes) correlations between antimicrobial activity to S. epidermidis and to C. albicans are revealed. It is probably caused by inversely proportional dependence between concentrations of the components in essential oils, which are responsible for inhibition of various pathogenic organisms. The sample of investigated clones was divided into two sub-samples that sufficiently differed by the levels of both antimicrobial activity to S. epidermidis and individual heterozygosity of allozyme’s loci. Such differentiation of genotypes is noted for the first time, and can be in focus of further studies.
																								



11.
SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS CONTENT IN Populus tremula L. LEAVES AT THE ADAPTATION ON AN OPEN-PIT COAL MINE REVEGETATING DUMP

Yu. V. Zagurskaya
Institute of Human Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Leningradskii, 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russian Federation
Keywords: осина Populus tremula, фотосинтетические пигменты, хлорофилл, каротиноиды, отвал угольного карьера, естественное лесовозобновление, aspen tree Populus tremula, photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll, carotenoids, coal mine waste dump, natural regeneration

Abstract >>
Seasonal dynamics of the basic photosynthetic pigments (a and b chlorophylls, carotenoids) content in the samples of aspen Populus tremula during natural regeneration on a revegetating pit dump of a worked-out coal pit has been studied. The studies were conducted every ten days during the vegetation period in 2015 (June-September) on the territory of «Yuzhniy» dump of «Kedrovskiy» open-pit coal mine (Kemerovo region). The pigment content was identified by the means of spectrophotometric detection. The content of photosynthetic pigments in aspen leaves was calculated on oven-dry weight of the leaves, as moisture aspen leaves can greatly vary, and the determination of accuracy of dry matter content higher than the for specific gravity of the sheet. No changes in visible absorption spectrum of acetone extracts indicating pheophytin formation in chlorophylls have been identified. For all variants the larger amount of b chlorophyll was contained in control samples. The largest differences in a/b chlorophylls and chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio were observed in the end of vegetation period. The ratio between a and b chlorophylls of aspen leaves in both cases by the end of the season was considerably lower. The adaptation of aspen photosynthetic system to the revegetating dump conditions was performed due to decrease in the total pigment content and the percent of b chlorophyll in their composition.