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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2016 year, number 6

1.
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN KYRGYZSTAN

Sh. B. Bikirov1, R. T. Murzakmatov2, N. K. Umetalieva1, Y. Jumagul kyzy1, K. K. Bostonalieva1, B. B. Ashyrova1
1P. A. Gan Forest Institute, National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic, Karagachevaya roscha, Bishkek, 720024 Kyrgyz Republic
2Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: горные леса, биоразнообразие, деградация лесов, лесовосстановление, лесосеменное дело, выпас скота, mountain forests, biodiversity, forest degradation, reforestation, forest seed growing, grazing

Abstract >>
Kyrgyzstan is a natural repository of genetic resources and the diversity of species and natural laboratory, where at the small area are represented almost all altitudinal belts, ranging from semi-desert, ending with glacial-nival belt. This article discusses water-protective, water-regulating, anti-erosion and anti-mudflow functions of each forest category. It analyzes the main factors affecting the degradation of forests and reduction of forest cover in the study area. The complex of silvicultural measures on reforestation in the country and, in particular, the improvement of the forest seed business. It notes the importance of mountain forests in the national economy, and examines prospects for their conservation and restoration. Protection and rational use of forest genetic resources, which are an integral part of the global ecosystem, began to take on a special significance in recent years. Due to the high sensitivity of mountain ecosystems of the Tien Shan to human impact, there is a need for particularly careful monitoring of wildlife. The practical solution of many problems for the protection of mountain ecosystems directly or indirectly linked to the protection of the unique vegetation of the mountains. To solve these problems we should use the objects of flora and fauna on a legal basis under the rules and regulations set by laws and other normative legal acts of the Kyrgyz Republic, as well as to benefit from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources. Such sharing shall be on mutually agreed terms with the local authorities and local communities in their jurisdictions providing such resources.
																								



2.
THE INFLUENCE OF MICROBIAL ANTAGONISTS ON THE SOIL BIOGENIC AND THE CONIFEROUS SEEDLINGSSAFETY IN ARTIFICIAL PHYTOCENOSES

I. D. Grodnitskaya1, O. E. Kondakova1, N. N. Tereschenko2
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat, Gagarin str., 3, Tomsk, 634050 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, лиственница сибирская, микробы-антагонисты, эколого-трофические группы микроорганизмов, микробная биомасса, базальное дыхание, ферментативная активность, Scots pine, Siberian larch, microbes-antagonists, ecological-trophic groups of microorganisms, hydrolytics, copiotrophics, oligotrophs, microbial biomass, basal respiration, enzymatic activity

Abstract >>
Strains of microorganisms that have antagonistic and growth-stimulating activity ( Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Bac. subtilis and Trichoderma harzianum ) were added to the dark-gray soil of a forest nursery (Pogorelsky EEF) and to conifer seeds ( Pinus sylvestris L., Larix sibirica L.). Pre-sowing seed treatments of Trichoderma harzianum , Bacillus sp., and Pseudomonas sp. strains increased Scots pine ground germination in 1.5-1.7 and Siberian larch - in 1.3-5.8 times; improved safety and quality of viable pine seedlings in the 1.4-11.0, larch - in 1.3-3.5 times in the end of the growing season, compared with the control. Morphometric parameters of the pine seedlings increased processing of Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus subtilis , larch seedlings - Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus sp. in 1.5-2.0 times (both). The pine and larch seeds bacterization, initially infected by Fusarium , reduced to 1.2-2.5 times the population of phytopathogen, which helped lower the death of coniferous seedlings. The biologically active microbial strains, which were introduced in the nursery soil, have increased and maintained the total number of microorganisms (ETGM) in conifer seedlings during the whole period of vegetation. It has had a positive effect of bacilli treatment ( Bacillus sp. and Bac. subtilis ) on the dynamics of microbial biomass content, the rate of basal respiration and microbial metabolic coefficient values ( q CO2). In general, the introduction of spore bacteria ( Bac. subtilis and Bacillus . sp.) and micromycetes ( Trichoderma harzianum ) populations with coniferous seeds increased the biogenetic and productivity of the nursery soil (MB, enzymatic activity, the ETGM number) to 1.5-3.0 times in comparison with the control and, despite of the high values of specific microbial respiration throughout the growing season, had a positive impact on the restoration of the ecophysiological functioning rule of soil microbial community.
																								



3.
FORESTS IN THE BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CORRIDORS CONNECTING THE FENNOSCANDIAN SHIELD AND THE RUSSIAN PLAIN: NATURAL FEATURES, CONTEMPORARY STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE

A. N. Gromtsev, V. A. Karpin, N. V. Petrov, A. V. Tuyunen
Forest Research Institute of the Karelian Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushkinskaya str., 11, Petrozavodsk, Republic of Karelia, 185910 Russian Federation
Keywords: биогеографические коридоры, таежные ландшафты, леса, охраняемые территории, biogeographical corridors, taiga landscapes, forests, protected areas

Abstract >>
The results of long-term research on forests in natural biogeographical corridors (territories with forests, mires, inland lakes and other land categories) connecting the largest bodies of water in Northern Europe (Baltic Sea-Gulf of Finland and lakes Ladoga and Onego to the White Sea) are reported. These corridors link isolated pieces of the Eurasian taiga biome at the boundary between two of Europe’s physiographic divisions - Fennoscandian Shield and Russian Plain. They facilitate the dispersal and migration of plant and animal species. The straight-line terrestrial stretch between the Gulf of Finland and the White Sea is around 320 km, and it falls into three sections in the southern, middle and northern taiga subzones, respectively. The corridors were characterized and assessed as follows: 1) physiographic (landscape) features; 2) key natural characteristics (typological structure, quantitative ratios, spatial arrangement, productivity, etc.), present-day condition of forests, including data from forest management inventories of the past decade; 3) overall assessment of the forest cover transformation by human impact; 4) current system of protected areas and protective forests, and its capacity to fulfill the functions of the corridors (sufficiency).
																								



4.
PHYTOMASS OF PLANT COMMUNITIES AT THE DUMPS OF OPENCAST COAL MINES IN THE SOUTH OF CENTRAL SIBERIA

O. V. Trefilova1, D. Yu. Efimov1, P. A. Oskorbin2, R.T. Murzakmatov1
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Lenin str. 125, Krasnoyarsk, 660009 Russian Federation
Keywords: продуктивность, структура запаса фитомассы, рекультивация отвалов, восстановление растительности, Канско-Ачинский угольный бассейн, productivity, structure of phytomas stock, dumps, reclamation, revegetation, recultivation, Kansk-Achinsk coal basin

Abstract >>
The paper presents the evaluation of the stock and structure of plant communities formed in the dumps of the Borodino brown coal pit (the eastern part of the Kansk-Achinskcoal basin). A comparison of different age dumps reclaimed with top soil (TS), planned dumps and slopes. The observations cover the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2013. Almost immediately after its creation, on the surface dumps with TS a solid grassy vegetation formed, which was characterized by high productivity. Over the next two decades, a biomass reserve decreased more than 2 times. The major portion of the biomass of 7 and 31-year-old community is concentrated in the 0-10 cm layer. The plant communities amount to the original level of stocks and the structure of the biomass of both aboveground and underground are as no earlier than in 25-30 years. Forest plantations making to force the accumulation of biomass of young biogeocenosis formed on poor substrate (litostratah). The stock biomass of pine man-made stands on 30 % less than in the grass lands to growing on the dumps with TS. Slopes of reclaimed dumps were slowly overgrown and emerging communities were characterized by a low cover and productivity. The major portion of biomass was located above ground. Significant seasonal variations in quantities of above-ground phytomass of plant communities of old dumps, indicating their«immaturity»in spite of thethirty years of the formation of vegetation.
																								



5.
THE FEATURES OF SILVER BIRCH Betula verrucosa Ehrh. AND DOWNY BIRCH Betula pubescens Ehrh. SEED REGENERATION IN SUBTAIGA AND FOREST-STEPPE OF WESTERN SIBERIA

B. E. Chizhov1, R. I. Ivanova1, V. A. Shtol1, O. A. Kulyasova2
1All-Russian Research Institute of Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, Mekhanizatorov str., 5a, Building 2, Tyumen, 625017 Russian Federation
2State Agrarian University of Northern Zauralie, Roschinskoye Shosse str., 18, Tyumen, 625041 Russian Federation
Keywords: Западная Сибирь, лесостепь, береза, семенное размножение, гари, вырубки, пашни, Western Siberia, forest steppe, birch, seed reproduction, burns, logging lands, arable lands

Abstract >>
Article considers results of long-term studies of birch undergrowth in subtaiga subzone and forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia, the features of silver and downy birch seed regeneration under the canopy of parent stands, on logging, burned and abandoned arable lands, and hayfields. The distance of seed dispersal by wind, dynamics of accumulation of self-sown birch after continuous tillage and plough furrows is specified. It was found that seed regeneration under the birch stand canopy is hindered by drying of litter and root competition of the parent stand. A necessary condition for the germination of small seeds and the survival of weak shoots of birches is sufficient rainfall during the period of seed production and careful soil treatment, which provides removal of litter, total removal of herbaceous vegetation and soil reserve of weed seeds: continuous repeated plowing, bulldozing strips or shallow plow furrow with 0.7-1.0 m in width, with their additional cultivation. The most effective way of preparing land for seed regeneration of birch trees in arid steppe conditions is to transfer it under temporary cultivation of grain-crops, providing suppression of permanent weeds. Autumn plowing after harvest will provide annual readiness of the site for seed colonization of the birches. When there is an optimum combination of good seed harvest, rainy weather conditions, and appearance of mass self-sown birch, the land is excluded from the agricultural use. Prerequisites: the presence of seed productive walls of birch with preliminary removal of aspen and undesirable forms of birch. In spring of the next year an inventory is done of wintered self-sown birches, at least on 100 evenly spaced accounting plots. If the self-seeding dies, the site continues to be used by agriculture. Less reliable but acceptable is tillage by bulldozer stripes and furrows with 0.7-1.0 m in width, in a year of abundant seed production, before the start of mass seed fall.
																								



6.
DYNAMICS OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS REGENERATED ON BURNED AND HARVESTED AREAS IN MOUNTAIN REGIONS OF SIBERIA: CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, STRUCTURE AND PRODUCTIVITY

I. M. Danilin1, I. A. Tselitan2
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Krasnoyarsk Institute of Economics - Branch of Saint-Petersburg Academic University, Kirensky str., 70a, Krasnoyarsk, 660100, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest ecosystems, structure, productivity, burned and harvested areas, restoration, biological diversity, mountain regions, Siberia

Abstract >>
Complex estimation of forest ecosystems dynamics based on detailing characteristics of structure, growth and productivity of the stands and describing general geographical and biological management options for preserving their biodiversity and sustaining stability are discussed in the paper by describing examples of tree stands restored on burned and logged areas in mountain regions of Siberia. On vast areas in Siberia, characterized as sub-boreal, subarid and with a strongly continental climate, forests grow on seasonally frozen soils and in many cases are surrounded by vast steppe and forest-steppe areas and uplands. Developing criteria for sustainability of mountain forest ecosystems is necessary for forest resource management and conservation. It is therefore important to obtain complex biometric characteristics on forest stands and landscapes and to thoroughly study their structure, biological diversity and productivity. Morphometric methods, Weibull simulation and allometric equations were used to determine the dimensional hierarchies of coenopopulation individuals. Structure and productivity of the aboveground stand components were also studied.
																								



7.
CALCULATION METHOD FORDETERMINATION OF CARBONIN THE PEATAND MOSS LITTER OF FOREST SWAMPSBY ASH CONTENTOF PLANT SUBSTRATES

T. T. Efremova, A. F. Avrova, S. P. Efremov
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: органический углерод, физико-химические показатели, множественный и парный регрессионный анализ, болотные ельники, торфяная залежь, organic carbon, physical-chemical indices, multiple and pair regression analysis, bog spruce forests, peat mine, Kuznetsk Alatau

Abstract >>
Studies were carried out in the lowmountain part of the Kuznetsk Alatau. The spruce stands were studied in the peaty valley of river Tunguzhul and swamp near Agaskyr Lake (valley of river Pechische, basin of river Black Iyus). The objects belong to the group of high ash content flood plain peat lands of cryogenicseries. We have done the evaluation of organic carbon response to physical-chemical properties - decomposition degree, ash content, and bulk density, connected together ( r - 0.5-0.7), that in contrast to carbon, is easy determined analytically. Received results according to stepwise regression analysis characterize the strong conditionality predictors of carbon: multiple determination index R 2 - 0.86. The highest partial correlation coefficient with the response belongs to the ash content in range (5-68 %). Partial correlation coefficient values of bulk density and decomposition degree is not significant. The determination index ( R 2 - 0.93), constant and negative coefficient of pair regression analysis are highly significant and evidence of the strong bond of carbon and organic substrate ash content. The relative error of approximation is in the range of 2-8 % and characterizes the high accuracy of prognosis. Including only one indicator (ash content) in the calculation formula makes it convenient and simple in practical application for the carbon content prediction on the forest litter, modern peat soils, buried peat and peat-mineral formations with ash content of 5-68 %. We are the first to present the geochemical characteristics of forest swamps peat mine for the KuznetskAlatau intermountain basins.
																								



8.
NATURAL REGENERATION AND SEED PRODUCTION OF PINE STANDS ON THE DUMPS OF COAL MINING INDUSTRY IN KUZBASS

V. I. Ufimtsev
Federal Research Center on Coal and Coal Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Prospekt Leningradskii, 10, Kemerovo, 650065 Russian Federation
Keywords: сосна обыкновенная, отвалы, сомкнутость крон, возобновление, подрост, семеношение, Scots pine, dumps, crown closure, regeneration, undergrowth, seed production

Abstract >>
On the basis of the accounting of undergrowth in 5 gradations of crown closure density of Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, growing on the dumps in 4 ecological-geographic areas of Kuzbass, inverse relation of parameters of renewal from hydrothermal coefficient of the district is established. Optimum conditions develop in a steppe kernel where the number of shoots, seed production and undergrowth reaches 110 thousand trees per hectare with crown closure of 50 % and density of forest stand of 0.75 thousand trees of the II class of age on 1 hectare. At decrease or increase of forest canopy density of the main tree stand layer quantitative characteristics decrease. The smallest amount of undergrowth is recorded in the mountain-taiga area - from 0.4 to 23 thousand trees per hectare with a tendency to increase in the process of increasing crown closure. Areas of the northern forest-steppe and the southern forest-steppe on quantitative signs of renewal are intermediate. The number of undergrowth has high direct correlation dependence on the size of the current fructification of forest stands - around a steppe kernel ripens to 3.7 million seeds on 1 hectare, in mountain and taiga - to 0.39 million seeds on 1 hectare. Sowing qualities of seeds - the weight 1000, energy of germination and viability, and morphometric characteristics of 2-year seedlings, which are grown up from them - height, diameter and point of a vital state between ecological-geographic areas have no statistically reliable distinctions, but the characteristics stated above, than in the stands on zone soils. It testifies to usefulness of dumps’ conditions for natural regeneration of Scots pine, high actual reproductive opportunities for pine stands in forest-steppe areas and a steppe kernel, and also potential opportunities of the stands in the mountain and taiga region of the southern Kuzbass.
																								



9.
EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES IN SOUTHERN AND CENTRAL AREAS OF THE ZABAYKAL REGION

L. V. Buryak1, E. A. Kukavskaya2, O. P. Kalenskaya1, O. F. Malykh3, E. O. Baksheeva1
1M. F. Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, Prospekt Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
2Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
3Institute of Natural Resources, Ecology and Cryology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Nedorezova str., 16а, Chita, 672014 Russian Federation
Keywords: горимость, сосновые и лиственничные насаждения, вид, форма и сила пожаров, отпад древостоев, лесовозобновление, fire frequency, Scots pine and larch forests, fire type, form and severity, tree mortality, forest regeneration

Abstract >>
The fire frequency situation in Zabaykal region from 1964 to 2015 is evaluated and discussed in the paper. The main reasons of decadal increase of fire numbers and the area burned are revealed. The main reasons of high fire frequency and the increase of fire activity in the last decades are shown. The characteristics of the weather conditions in the years of high fire frequency are presented. Fire activity was found to increase not only because of the droughts in the last decades but also due to forest disturbances in Zabaykalsky Krai by illegal logging. Based on the data from 170 sample sites laid out with the use of satellite images, forest inventory data and results of ground sample transects, the impact of the wildfires of different type, form and severity on tree mortality in the light-coniferous forests was estimated, as well as the amount of tree regeneration in the forest areas disturbed by fires, logged sites (both burned and unburned), and sites burned repeatedly was evaluated. Wildfires in the Zabaykal region were found to be strong ecological factor influencing on the probability of existence of many forest ecosystems. In case of further climate warming and repeated fires, the part of the forests may transform to the non forest areas. The steppification of the burned sites in the southern forest-steppe regions and in the low parts of the southern slopes at the border with steppe landscapes as well as desertification in the central parts of the region and swamping of burned sites located in the wet soils are observed. Wind and water soil erosion happens at the large burned sites.
																								



10.
LIVING STATUS AND ELEMENT COMPOSITION OF THE SIBERIAN FIR Abies sibirica Ledeb. NEEDLE AT DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF GROWTH IN WESTERN SAYAN

E. V. Bazhina
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: пихта сибирская Abies sibirica Ledeb, жизненное состояние разновысотных биоценозов, биометрические характеристики побегов и хвои, элементный состав хвои, Западный Саян, Siberian fir, Abies sibirica Ledeb, life status of biocenosis at different altitude, biometric characteristics of shoots and needle, element content of needle, Southern Siberia, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
A complex assessment of different elevation dark-forest stands of northern, super wet macro slope of Western Sayan was accomplished. Research was conducted during thirteen years (2001-2013) in low mountains (450 m a.s.l.), middle mountains (700-800 m a.s.l.), and high mountains (1450 m a.s.l.). The biocenoses were defined as damaged. The significant differences in the life status of stands are revealed in different elevations. The life status index is varied from 36.4 (in the middle mountains, temperately warm conditions) till 92.0 (in the low mountains, temperately cold conditions). The Siberian pine ( Pines sibirica Du Tour.) haven’t signs of damage, fir trees are drying according to species specific “under the top” type. The biometric signs (increment and needle parameters) of fir shoots of female and male shoots and vegetative shoots are differed. In whole, there are decreases in the middle mountains and high mountains ecosystems. At the same time needle damage (chlorosis and necrosis, in percent) is increased. The element content of needle is changed. In the stands with the low index in the fir needles accumulated potassium, lead, cadmium, and the zinc content decreased. The changes of element content lead to changes correlations in biophillic and technogenic elements Mn/S, Fe/Mn, F/Ca in high mountains (in 2.2-3.6 times) and in middle mountains strongly damaged (in 1.4-3.7 times) stands. It was suggested, that changes in element composition of Siberian fir needle are shown air pollution in the region.
																								



11.
RADIAL GROWTH AND PERCENT OF LATEWOOD IN SCOTS PINE PROVENANCE TRIALS IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL SIBERIA

S. R. Kuzmin1, R. V. Rogovtsev2
1Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Russian Centre for Forest Protection, Centre for Forest Protection of Novosibirsk Oblast, Gogolya str., 221, Novosibirsk, 630015 Russian Federation
Keywords: географические культуры, сосна обыкновенная, радиальный рост, поздняя древесина, Новосибирская область, Красноярский край, provenance trial, Scots pine, radial growth, latewood, Novosibirsk Oblast, Krasnoyarsk Krai

Abstract >>
Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place). For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai), the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast) and vice versa for Suzun climatype - forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers - 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe - 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %). Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.
																								



12.
INTRASPECIFIC VARIABILITY OF THE SIBERIAN LARCH Larix sibirica Ledeb. SEED SCALES

A. P. Barchenkov
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences Solitary Unit V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: полиморфизм, изменчивость, лиственница сибирская, морфологические признаки, семенные чешуйки, polymorphism, variability, Siberian larch, morphological features, seed scale

Abstract >>
The results of the study of morphological features variability of the Siberian larch seed scales are presented in the paper. Variation of seed scales size, forms of flat and scale edge ofithave been analyzed. Population analysis has been carried out on the phenotypic races and, depending on growing conditions. Four races of the Siberian larch have been investigated. The populations from highlands and low mountains sites of every race have been studied. Samples of seed scales have been selected from thirty trees on each plot. The length and widthof the seed scale, the form index of scaleand the edge form ofseed scale have been considered. The classification of trees on tight scale, wide scale and intermediate forms have been carried out in accordance with the index form of seed scales. The geographic variation analysis of seed scales sizes showed the differentiation of features between races, and, depending on growing conditions. The trees with small scales dominate in larch populations of Baikal race of this species. The largest seed scales have been found in the trees of Sayan race populations in the Kuznetsky Alatau low mountains sites. Polymorphism in the form of seed scale and form its edge has been detected in the studied larch populations. The dominance of «wide scale» and «intermediate» forms trees have been observed in the northern populations (the polar race). The «intermediate» form trees on type flat seed scale predominate in populations of the Sayan race. The most variability of seed scale forms have been found in populations of the Altai and Sayan races. Increased occurrence of wide scale form in the upper mountain belt have been found in both races (more than 50 %). In contrast, more than 50 % of the trees that have cones of tight scale form have been revealed in populations of the Baikal Olkhon Island at altitude of 500 meters above sea level.
																								



13.
WOOD LUMINESCENCE AS MARKER OF TREE ARMILLARIA INFECTION

A. P. Puzyr, S. E. Medvedeva
Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences Solitary Unit Institute of Biophysics Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/50, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: армилляриоз, биолюминесценция грибницы, Armillaria mellea sensu lato, Armillaria infection, mycelium bioluminescence, Armillaria mellea sensu lato

Abstract >>
Diagnostics of infectious diseases of trees is based on anatomical and morphological characteristics of the tree damage and determining the participants of this process. In the study of tree diseases caused by fungal pathogens their presence and description of morphological characteristics is necessary. Thus, the studies of the causes of the trees diseases are only possible fora limited amount of time, the determined period of the formation of fruiting bodies of fungi. Keep in mind that not every year the natural conditions are favorable for the basidia formation. The diagnostics of pathogen is complicated in the absence of fruiting bodies. In this case, it is required to carry out additional measures on the cultivation of fruit bodies or obtaining a pure culture of the fungal mycelium to determine the cause of the disease. According to the literature, the genus Armillaria fungi are the most common wood destroyers in all forest areas. In addition, they are found in the botanical gardens, parks, urban areas and on private garden plots. Unlike other fungi that destroy wood trees the mycelium complex Armillaria mellea sensu lato has bioluminescence. This feature allows you to identify them among other basidiomycetes growing in Russia. In this article, based on the experimental results is discussed a method for determining the infestation of trees by root pathogens complex Armillaria mellea s. L. by recording luminescence wood samples. It has been shown that the registration of bioluminescent signal of wood samples can be performed at any time of the year, not just during the growing season. It is supposed the possibility of identifying trees that are infected by mycelium of pathogenic fungi genus Armillaria in the absence of fruiting bodies. It may allow probably early detection of infected trees.