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Region: Economics and Sociology

2016 year, number 4

Strategic Planning and Strategic Miscounts: Russian Realia and Trends

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: стратегическое планирование, стратегические решения, стратегирование, стратегическое управление, публичное управление, региональная политика, Сибирь, Дальний Восток, Программа реиндустриализации экономики Новосибирской области, реформирование Российской академии наук, Стратегия научно-технологического развития Российской Федерации, Сибирский наукополис, strategic planning, strategic decisions, strategizing, strategic management, public administration, regional policy, Siberia, the Far East, Program for Reindustrialization of the Economy of Novosibirsk Oblast, reformation of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Strategy for Science and Technology Development of the Russian Federation, Siberian Science City

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The article considers certain aspects of strategic planning in the Russian Federation at its current state, with an emphasis on regional strategic planning. We demonstrate how poor control at the national and sub-national levels affects the crisis of the contemporary Russian economic system. We discovered that Russian practices of national and regional strategizing, as well as some of the most important strategic decisions, include model success stories, examples of undeveloped opportunities, and erroneous ways of their implementation. This is evident with the examples of development strategies and programs for the eastern regions of the country, the Program for Reindustrialization of the Economy of Novosibirsk Oblast till 2025, the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Strategy for Science and Technology Development of the Russian Federation, and the Siberian Science City strategic initiative. These successful cases of regional strategizing show that their positive results have been substantially achieved by introducing a mechanism for interaction and cooperation among key stakeholders: federal and regional authorities, business structures, institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, civil society institutions. At the same time, a number of national strategic initiatives failed mostly due to neglecting the partnership, which has led to wrongly chosen strategic guidelines and implementation techniques. We analyzed positive trends in the system of strategic planning related to the development of the Strategy of Spatial Development of the Russian Federation, the creation of the Presidential Councilfor Strategic Development and Priority Projects, and the work of public councils at federal and regional executive agencies - the trends that mark the evolution of principles of public administration.

The Methodical Problems in Creating an Information Base for a Dynamic Input-Output Model of the Economy of the Buryat Republic

1Chair at Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 1, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Department of Regional Economic Investigations, Buryatia Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sakhyanova st., 8, Ulan-Ude, 670047, Russia
3Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Politechnicheskaya st., 29, Saint-Petersburg, 195251, Russia
4Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: информационная база динамической межотраслевой модели, экономика Республики Бурятии, information base of dynamic input-output model, economy of the Buryat Republic

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The article presents distinctive features of a dynamic input-output model of the economy of the Buryat Republic, which has an information base built for it, in comparison with similar domestic and foreign models. In determining the interindustry flows of products and some other elements of the information base, we used the 2011 Input-Output tables designed for this region, as a well as statistical data for the Buryat Republic. The paper introduces the basic elements making up the information base of the dynamic input-output model of the region's economy and describes the methods of their formation. Our research findings will be used in variant prediction calculations of Buryatia's development and for better forecasting of consolidated budget revenues.

The extraterritorial and the local in regional development

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: экстерриториальность, локализация, крупные корпорации, Сибирский федеральный округ, ресурсные регионы, налоговые доходы, extraterritoriality, localization, large corporations, the Siberian Federal District, resource regions, tax revenues

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The article shows that the observed aggravation of budget balancing problems in many Russian regions and, above all, in resource ones is associated with an objective gradual increase of extraterritoriality that has both budgetary and corporate projections. In this regard, it is critical not only to ensure fair distribution of effects emerging from the operations of extraterritorial agents (large corporations) but also to make these agents participate in the development of the territories where they do business. Through the example of the Siberian Federal District, we demonstrate that the role of extraterritorial factors related primarily to changes in tax legislation and the activities of major resource corporations has significantly increased over the last ten years. Having analyzed the dynamics and structure of the largest companies' revenue, we can quantify the growth of extraterritoriality, as well as the observed and expected consequences of this trend for the development of resource regions and certain territories. In order to compensate for its negative impact, we propose to take on new principles of regional policy and, in particular, a controlled formation of local content in regions with large-scale natural resource projects.

The Reindustrialization of Rural Economies (Case Study of Novosibirsk Oblast)

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Siberian Research Institute of Agricultural Economics of the Siberian Federal Scientific Centre of Agro-Biotechnologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoobsk, Novosibirsk Oblast, 630501, Russia
3Korpus OOO, Gorsky res. 1, district, Novosibirsk, 630089, Russia
4Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090
Keywords: АПК, инфраструктура, производство, реиндустриализация, сельские территории, экономика, управление, господдержка, agroindustrial complex, infrastructure, production, reindustrialization, rural areas, economy, administration, government support

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This article substantiates the need for the reindustrialization of economies in rural areas and its problems under current conditions. Novosibirsk Oblast was chosen as an example, since its local government together with these authors are now developing a program for the reindustrialization of regional economy. Having studied domestic and foreign experience, analyzed statistics and existing practices, we have suggested ways to overcome the problems related to the reindustrialization of rural economies at different administration levels (rural settlement, municipal district, subject of the Russian Federation). A problem-solving basis should be as follows: a comprehensive program-oriented and goal-oriented approach to managing the reindustrialization of rural economies; the formation of sectoral and territorial-industrial clusters; the selection of promising innovative projects and support for their implementation by state agencies and business. The article considers advanced experiences and promising innovative projects, submitted to the Government of Novosibirsk Oblast, that will significantly increase the efficiency of various kinds of business in rural areas.

Integrated Assessment of Economic Security in a Resource Region

1Institute of Economics, Management and Environmental Studies, Svobodny av., 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
2Siberian Federal University, Svobodny av., 79, Krasnoyarsk, 660041
Keywords: экономическая безопасность, Красноярский край, экономическая политика, ресурсная экономика, economic security, Krasnoyarsk Krai, economic policy, resource-based economy

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The article provides a comparative analysis of existing approaches to the assessment of regional economic security and proposes an original integrated assessment of economic security in resource regions. It includes an assessment of economic security thresholds based on Russia's strategic development priorities, in comparison with the level of developed countries, as well as trend and multivariate statistical analyses that help to identify crucial imbalances which threaten economic development in the region. The evaluation is based on data from Krasnoyarsk Krai. We have identified a number of paradoxes within economic security, namely an unbalanced development of human capital and the environment, the industrial sector and high-tech business, as well as disequilibrium in financial security that make a region to transform from an advanced industrial territory with a diversified economy into a «national storehouse» with predominant extractive enterprises focusing on one product and end to up be trapped in technological inferiority.

The Role of Arctic Discourse in the Construction of a Northern Regional Identity

Murmansk Arctic State University, Kapitan Egorov st., 15, Murmansk, 183038, Russia
Keywords: региональная идентичность, механизмы конструирования, имидж региона, Арктика, Мурманская область, Кольский Север, арктический дискурс, regional identity, constructing mechanisms, regional image, the Arctic, Murmansk Oblast, the Kola North, Arctic discourse

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The article deals with the problems of a regional identity of the Murmansk Oblast population, recorded with statistics and data from a sociological survey. It shows the motivation of alien population at settling the Kola North (the northern part of the Kola Peninsula). Theoretical and methodological foundations for research are based on the constructivist approach to the study of regional identity through such concepts as «image of a territory», «collective notions», and ((techniques for the representation of collective notions». Considering the example of Murmansk Oblast, we have analyzed processes and mechanisms involved in the construction of a regional identity, one of which is discourse as a «social dialogue», a communicative practice of social reality production. The so-called Arctic discourse is one of mechanisms for the construction of the image of Murmansk Oblast, for the revival and articulation of the population's regional identity. Joining the region to a larger community, namely the Arctic zone, determining its own place in this area, and entering a relevant discourse are the current development scenarios.

Means-Testing in Regional Systems of Social Assistance: How and What For?

Institute for Social Analysis and Forecasting, Prechistenskaya Embankment, 11, Moscow, 119034, Russia
Keywords: адресность, проверка доходов, региональная политика, социальная поддержка детей, социальная поддержка пожилых, targeting, means-testing, regional policy, social assistance for children, social assistance for the elderly

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The article analyzes changes in regional systems of social assistance after 2013. We have found out that regions introduce income and other additional social assistance eligibility requirements for children and families with children more frequently than for the elderly. Mainly means-testing is more often used in social assistance for children rather than for the elderly. Positive legislation changes aimed at lowering inclusion and exclusion errors are more common in social assistance for children. Changes in social assistance for the elderlytend to be more controversial-reducing the number of one type of errors and raising the number of others at the same time. In whole, regions pursue an asymmetric policy in means-testing implementation: some regard targeting as a means of higher priority in assistance for families while others decide to prioritize the elderly. Means-testing in the distribution of social support was used as an excuse for regional budget cuts in half of the cases. The size of provided benefits decreased, which reduced the effectiveness of anti-poverty measures. One-third of the cases showed a contradictory policy when means-testing did not result in the concentration of resources for most deprived sections of the population. However, in some cases, regions implemented means-testing in a more reasonable way when the introduction of income requirements was accompanied by an increase in the size of benefits. This experience can serve as a guide for regional policy in means-testing implementation.

The Tuva Republic Population Adaptation to the Market Economy and Its Ethno-Social Peculiarities

Tuva Institute for Exploration of Natural Resources, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Internatsionalnaya st., 117a, Kyzyl, 667007, Russia
Keywords: рынок труда, модели адаптации, этнические особенности, Республика Тыва, самозанятость, labor market, adaptation models, ethnic peculiarities, the Tuva Republic, self-employment

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The article reveals the specificities of labor activity in the Tuva Republic and the adaptive behavior of its population. With an analysis of subjective characteristics and objective statistical data, we determine the main development trends in the region's economy, taking into account dispositions and preferences of representatives of the dominant nations. We dwell on the theory of studying the ethnic peculiarities of population adaptation to the market economy and the ways to improve socio-economic regulation in the Tuva Republic. We use sociological surveys to examine the dynamics of changing attitudes towards entrepreneurship and farming, to assess the prospects of local employment. The article analyzes self-employment, defines the conditions for its development, and determines its disadvantages. We idenify the ethnic peculiarities of residents' behavior when searching for work and assessing employment conditions, the degree of deprivation and frustration among various ethnic and social groups. The study characterizes the models of adaptation to market realities for major ethnic groups. It is concluded that although market orientations and population values in the region are still forming, the speed and intensity of this process has slowed down in recent years. We notice a high level of frustration among the Russians in the Tuva Republic and a significant level of deprivation among the rural and young population.

The Diversification of Regional Economic Structure as a Growth Strategy: Pros and Cons

Institute of Economic Forecasting, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nakhimovsky av., 47, D-418, Moscow, 117418, Russia
Keywords: диверсификация, специализация, отраслевая структура, занятость, валовая добавленная стоимость, промышленное производство, экономический рост, diversification, specialization, industrial structure, employment, gross value added, industrial production, economic growth

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The article considers various aspects related to diversification of the regional economy. It provides results from the analysis of shifts in the industrial structures of employment, gross value added, and industrial production for 2000-2014. Here we have estimated diversification processes in regional economies and their influence on economic growth. The estimations show that industrial structures of employment and production remain stable over a rather long period of time; that structural shifts are essentially driven by the economies of scale; and that industrial structures are most changeable in regions with a low economic potential and most steady in large regions. Quantitative assessments of diversification in employment, gross value added, and industrial production testify that these processes are orientated differently. During the period of review, employment patterns have gained in diversity, diversification of gross value added and industrial production has decreased, and generally regional economies have become more specialized. Diversification processes in employment, gross value added, and industrial production vary in their impact on economic dynamics. We can see a negative correlation between diversification in employment and dynamics indicators for the growth rates of employment and industrial production. Growth rates of GRP, real household incomes, and labor productivity are positively correlated with employment diversification. There is a negative correlation between the level of diversification and growth rates for GVA and industrial production. We have confirmed a hypothesis that diversification can assure sustainable regional economic growth, but it does not provide high growth rates. Regions show breakthrough results by strengthening their specialization as is evident from dynamics in the regions that have reached the greatest growth rates.

Competitiveness of a Region Under the Innovative Economic Development

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vesennyaya st., 28, Kemerovo, 650000, Russia
Keywords: регион, конкурентоспособность, модели развития, инновации, Кузбасс, уголь, region, competitiveness, models of development, innovation, Kuzbass, coal

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Using the example of Kemerovo Oblast, the research provides a quantitative assessment of how the innovative development of individual economic sectors affect the competitive position of a region. We mark out five factors which adequately characterize the state of the region referring to its attractiveness for people's lives and business development. The article conducts a comparative analysis of competitiveness levels in five regions of the Siberian Federal District. It also determines the indicators for the innovative development of the Kuzbass coal industry, which, when met, help to raise the competitive advantages of the region's economy. We put forward a proposal that a new development paradigm in Kemerovo Oblast should be based on the innovative development of the coal industry.

ESPO and Power of Siberia: the Impact of Mega-Projects on the Economy and Environment of Yakutia

1Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kulakovsky st., 50, Yakutsk, 677000, Russia
2State Autonomous Institution В«Strategic Research Center of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)», Lenin av., 28, Yakutsk, 677000, Russia
Keywords: Якутия, экономика, экология, инвестиционные проекты, магистральные трубопроводы, рост, ВРП, налоги, загрязнение воздуха, Yakutia, economy, ecology, investment projects, long-distance pipelines, growth, GRP, taxes, air pollution

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The paper analyzes the first results coming after the implementation of the ESPO and Power of Siberia mega-projects in Yakutia. We estimate the contribution that these projects have made to develop the economy and regional energy system, as well as their integration effect. We consider how the projects influence GRP dynamics and tax revenues to the Yakut consolidated budget. We characterize social and environmental risks associated with the implementation of the projects. This article contains information on the dynamics of air pollution in Yakutia by the fuel and energy complex for the years 2000-2014.

Assessing the Eco-Economic Efficiency of Technologies for Integrated Processing of Raw Materials

1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Pirogov st., 2, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: комплексность, сибирская наука, наилучшая доступная технология, эколого-экономическая эффективность, ущерб, integrity, Siberian science, best available technique, eco-economic efficiency, damage

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The article presents the advanced technological achievements by Siberian scientists for the creation of environmentally friendly industrial production. Studying the field of complex processing and using the example of carbonaceous raw material, we consider plasma technologies as part of Best Available Techniques (BAT) in the energy sector. Today the requirement for BAT is becoming the main element of the new, already adopted nature conservation law. We show environmental and economic advantages of joint extraction of valuable components of multicomponent materials that improve the eco-economic efficiency of BAT. We explain our point of view on overdue changes in the enterprise investment planning and financial reporting as related to the newly adopted legislation. Changes are necessary to display the eco-economic damage prevented by BAT. The article suggests methodological approaches and a settlement scheme to achieve the ecologically sound performance of investment projects for the implementation of BAT. We have evaluated the efficiency of proposed innovations based on the feasibility of energy plasma technologies in the Gusinoozersk SDPP modernization program. We assess a potential decrease of environmental damage with having BAT as an additional source of environmental investment and give organizational recommendations on how to accelerate the introduction of BAT in industrial production.

Realia of Rural Local Self-Government: Reforms and Their Implications

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: муниципальная реформа, сельские поселения, реалии местного самоуправления, Алтайский край, Томская область, municipal reform, rural settlements, realia of local self-government, Altai Krai, Tomsk Oblast

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The article deals with the problems encountered in the system of rural local self-government during the municipal administration reform. Using the example of two rural districts in Altai Krai and Tomsk Oblast, we analyze the effects resulting from the so-called optimized allocation of power and finance between among levels of government. On the basis of budget statistics, we reveal significant differences in revenue and expenditure budgeting between agricultural and resource regions. The article examines the declared priorities and the actual experiences of local authorities, as well as some urgent problems that cannot be solved within the current system. We present evaluations of the implications of the reform made by various members of rural communities. The conclusion is that the link between rural budgeting and economic performance in regions is breaking down. Rural self-government is increasingly becoming detached from the functions related to organizing the economic and social life of the village.

Planning Stable Operation of an Enterprise Under Instability of External and Internal Environment

Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ac. Lavrentiev av., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: стратегическое, тактическое и оперативное управление производством, риск, неопределенность, оптимизация, сетевое и календарное планирование, согласование задач планирования и управления, strategic, tactical and operational management, risk, uncertainty, optimization, network planning, scheduling, coordination of planning and management tasks

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Under the dynamism of external environment and global crisis developments in Russia and the world, the intra-company management of industrial enterprises is becoming substantially more challenging. This situation arises from the fact that currently there are virtually no reasonable methods of risk management at the enterprise level. This paper presents an original conceptual approach to the planning of the stable operation of an enterprise under risk and uncertainty in the external and internal environment. Key strategic indicators are achieved by tactical planning, which helps define the magnitude estimations for the creation of stochastic reserves upon key indicators (through the implementation of additional innovations) that address economic and other risks associated with business activities. Operations management is organized as an iterative, rolling process (reducing production risks) carried out as a single task along with tactical management. The system uses optimization models for the planning of enterprise activities and operations management.