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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2016 year, number 9

1.
About the global model of radiation forcing on the climate and remote sensing

T.A. Sushkevich, S.A. Strelkov, S.V. Maksakova
Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Miusskaya sq., 4, Moscow, 125047, Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, перенос излучения, радиационный форсинг, климат, computer science, Earth remote sensing, radiation transfer, radiation forcing, climate, computer sciences

Abstract >>
This article is dedicated to the memory of genius scientist and organizer of science, the chief theorist of astronautics, the only mathematician three times Hero of Socialist Labor, the President of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, Academician Mstislav Keldysh in the year of 105 anniversary of his birth (10.02.1911-24.06.1978). The work is dedicated to the 55th anniversary of the first manned flight into space on April 12, 1961. The first cosmonaut of the planet was a citizen of the Soviet Union, Yuri Gagarin. This work is focused on the applications of the theory of the radiation transfer with hyper spectral approach to the space projects of remote sensing of the Earth climate system. The spectral observations are one of the important channels of information in the remote sensing. The measurement of the spectral radiation characteristics of the Earth as a planet in all spectral ranges from UV to the millimeter wavelengths allows one to receive the important information both about the properties of the sources and mechanisms of their radiation and of the environment, which absorbs, scatters and reflects the electromagnetic waves. In terms of the implementation of field observations, this is a challenge for the future; currently, it is suggested to develop information and mathematical aspects and the scenario approach to the solution of the problem on the basis of mathematical modeling on supercomputers and parallel supercomputing. It is important to formulate universal system models and methods for the supercomputing in problems of environmental and climate monitoring and research of the spectral characteristics of the radiation balance and albedo of the spherical Earth as global characteristics of climate evolution of the planet.
																								



2.
Spectroscopic challenges in direct problems of the satellite atmospheric sounding and ways of their resolving

V.A. Falaleeva1, B.A. Fomin2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: спутниковое зондирование, поляризация, перенос атмосферной радиации, полинейный метод, форма линии, спектроскопические банки данных, метод k-распределений, remote sensing, polarization, atmospheric radiative transfer, line-by-line method, line shape, spectroscopic databank, k-distribution method

Abstract >>
In this work, we discuss the possibilities to obtain more information content from atmospheric IR sounding through an increase in the instruments’ spectral resolution and the use of the polarization measurements of solar and thermal radiation. The disadvantages of the modern methods for accounting the molecular absorption spectra in both rigorous and fast (based on k -distributions) atmospheric radiative transfer models are shown. The approaches to eliminate these disadvantages are suggested.
																								



3.
Fast and accurate algorithm for the numerical simulation of radiative transfer in turbid media

V.P. Budak, V.S. Zheltov, A.V. Lubenchenko, K.S. Freidlin, O.V. Shagalov
National Research University "Moscow Power Engineering Institute", Krasnokazarmennaya 14, Moscow, 111250, Russia
Keywords: дискретное уравнение переноса излучения, квазидиффузионное приближение, синтетические итерации, discrete radiative transfer equation, quasi-diffusion approximation, synthetic iteration

Abstract >>
It is shown that the regular part of the solution (RPS) remained after the separation of the anisotropic part of the solution (APS) in the small-angle modification of the spherical harmonics method (MSH) is a smooth quasi-isotropic function with some peaks in the angular distribution. The smooth part of the RPS without peaks can be determined in two-streaming or diffuse approximation. The first iteration of the resulting radiance angular distribution significantly refines the solution and allows restoring the specified angular peaks. Quasi-diffusion approach - the separation of APS by MSH, the definition of RPS in the diffuse approximation and refinement of solutions based on the first iteration, - is independent of the problem symmetry, and therefore can be generalized to the case of arbitrary medium geometry.
																								



4.
Monte Carlo simulation of the effects caused by multiple scattering of ground-based and spaceborne lidar pulses in clouds

S.M. Prigarin
Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, наземные и космические лидары, облачность, многократное рассеяние света, метод Монте-Карло, remote sensing, ground-based and spaceborne lidars, clouds, light multiple scattering, Monte Carlo simulation

Abstract >>
This paper deals with studying specific features of the laser pulse propagation and lidar return signals in remote sensing of clouds by ground-based and spaceborne lidars using Monte Carlo simulation. In particular, the paper describes the effect of "return signal sharpening" that makes a distant cloud boundary more visible. Moreover, the paper presents the results of stochastic simulation of the expanding solid torus of light that can be generated by a laser pulse in a cloud layer. A brief description of the software created by the author to simulate the lidar return signals is enclosed.
																								



5.
Trends of total ozone content according to remote sensing data in 2005-2015

V.B. Kashkin, A.A. Romanov, T.V. Rubleva
Siberian Federal University, 79, Svobodny Prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russia
Keywords: стратосферный озон, метод сингулярного спектрального анализа, тренды общего содержания озона, дистанционное зондирование, stratospheric ozone, singular spectrum analysis, total ozone trends, remote sensing

Abstract >>
The problem of total ozone change rate estimation is discussed. The analysis of published data reveals contradictory facts. This paper is based on OMI satellite total ozone data for 2005-2015. The singular spectrum analysis is used for estimation of the ozone trends and seasonal variations. The trend analysis shows that ozone increased with a rate of 1.97% per decade in the Northern hemisphere midlatitudes; and 1.52% per decade in the South hemisphere. There was an anomalous decrease in ozone in the Southern hemisphere from August to December of 2015; a large ozone hole was formed. It is shown that one of the caused could be the circulation conditions: from the tropical latitudes to the South less ozone than usually was moved.
																								



6.
Influence of cloud 3D effects on the spatio-angular characteristics of reflected solar radiation

T.B. Zhuravleva, I.M. Nasrtdinov, T.V. Russkova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: солнечная радиация, метод Монте-Карло, изолированное облако, разорванная облачность, 3D-эффекты облаков, solar radiation, Monte Carlo method, isolated cloud, broken clouds, cloud 3D effects

Abstract >>
Numerical simulation of the spatio-angular characteristics of reflected solar radiation in broken clouds is performed in the spherical model of the atmosphere using statistical algorithms developed at IAO SB RAS. The regularities of the formation of brightness fields caused by the finite cloud size, their mutual shading and radiation reflection by neighboring clouds in selected cloud realizations are considered. The spatio-angular features of brightness fields in the realizations with small and medium cloud fraction mainly depend on the location of clouds relative to the viewing direction and direction «to the Sun».
																								



7.
Observation of the ground surface from space through a gap in the cloud field

M.V. Tarasenkov1,2, I.V. Kirnos1,2, V.V. Belov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, метод Монте-Карло, атмосферная коррекция, облачное поле, remote sensing, Monte Carlo method, atmosphere correction, cloud field

Abstract >>
For the purposes of atmospheric correction of satellite images the task of estimation of the distance from the center of a cloud gap is considered, at which the effect of clouds is negligible. The Monte Carlo method with backward scheme is used. The value of the gap radius is found, at which the effect of clouds changes the received radiance by 10%. Dependences of received radiance on the gap radius are found and explained.
																								



8.
Technology for producing tools for processing and analysis of data from very large ever-expanding archives

A.V. Kashnitskii, E.A. Lupyan, I.V. Balashov, A.M. Konstantinova
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow, Russia, 17997
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, информационные системы, распределенная обработка данных, обработка спутниковых данных, сверхбольшие архивы данных, технологии работы с данными, дистанционные методы наблюдений атмосферы и океана, remote sensing, information systems, distributed data processing, satellite data processing, very large data archives, data management technologies, ocean and atmosphere remote observation approaches

Abstract >>
Rapid growth of Earth satellite observation data over the recent years actualizes the problem of development of new technologies for effective data search, selection and processing within very large distributed ever-expanding archives. The paper describes the features of such technologies developed by Space Research Institute of RAS (IKI RAN). These technologies provide implementation of various data processing tools for satellite data analysis operating with distributed computing resources of remote sensing data processing and archiving centers. The paper shows their advantages and capabilities and gives the examples of developed tools for distributed processing of data from various satellite remote sensing systems. The examples given are provided to demonstrate the possibilities of described tools for various atmospheric and ocean surface phenomena analysis.
																								



9.
Parameterization of outgoing radiation for quick atmospheric correction of hyperspectral images

L.V. Katkovsky
A.N. Sevchenko Institute of Applied Physical Problems, 7, Kurchatov, Minsk, 220045, Belarus
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование, гиперспектральные изображения, спектр уходящего излучения, параметризация, оптическая модель атмосферы, атмосферная коррекция, remote sensing, hyperspectral images, spectrum of outgoing radiation, parameterization, optical model of atmosphere, atmospheric correction

Abstract >>
An analytical approximation of outgoing radiation spectra at the top of the cloudless atmosphere in the visible and near infrared spectral regions and a method for atmospheric correction, which is based on the former, are suggested. The parameterization of the contributions of individual radiation components and a quite simple optical model of the atmosphere are used for derivation of analytical formulas. The optical model of the atmosphere includes several (5-7) parameters that are essential in terms of the effect on the radiation transfer. There is no need in a priori information about atmosphere or Earth’s surface parameters in this method. In order to determine unknown parameters of the model by solving an inverse problem with an analytical objective function, only the data to be corrected (images) with the number of spectral channels no less than the number of unknown parameters are used. The method developed is primarily intended for the correction of hyperspectral or multispectral images, which are made along with measurements of the spectra of individual spatial zones in the images (a spectrometer which operates simultaneously with the imaging system). The approximation suggested is highly accurate, which was checked in numerous calculations of outgoing radiation spectra with the use of software for the solution of the direct problem of radiation transfer.
																								



10.
Integrated information system based on the automated model for thematic processing of the Earth remote sensing data

M.V. Engel1, V.V. Belov1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: спутниковые данные, распределенные информационные системы, интеграция ресурсов, атмосферная коррекция, satellite data, distributed information systems, integration of resources, atmospheric correction

Abstract >>
This paper deals with the development of tools for integrating data and software for thematic processing of Earth remote sensing data (ERS). An automaton model of organizing distributed data processing, ensuring the integration of heterogeneous distributed data and algorithms of thematic processing within the information system is presented. The approach is described by the example of the prototype of an integrated system including an atmospheric correction algorithm for calculating the corrections on the basis of a physical model of the formation of optical images of the Earth's surface.
																								



11.
Quality control of satellite soil moisture measurements

N.N. Bogoslovskii, L.I. Kizhner, I.A. Borodina, D.S. Rudikov, S.I. Erin, K.A. Alipova
National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: влажность почвы, спутниковые наблюдения, сети наблюдений за влажностью почвы, численные прогностические модели атмосферы, soil moisture, the satellite observation, the observation network on soil moisture, atmospheric numerical forecasting model

Abstract >>
Soil moisture determines water and thermal regimes of the soil and the surface boundary layer of the atmosphere. It is an important factor in hydrology, ecology, climatology, meteorology, and agriculture. Nowadays, soil moisture is mostly measured with satellite remote sensing systems. The data measured by a satellite during the warm period of 2011-2012 years has been compared with data direct measured at 5 networks of weather stations in the USA. The aim of this study is evaluation of the soil moisture satellite data, finding regularities, anomalies and their causes, and development of satellite data quality control procedure for data assimilation system. Satisfactory agreement between two kinds of data observed has been shown. Areas with good and poor dependence were identified. These results can be used in other regions with similar underlying surfaces and orography. Criteria for satellite data quality control procedures are proposed.
																								



12.
Calculation of normalized vegetation index from spectral channels of spectral radiometer MODIS

M.Yu. Kataev1,2, A.A. Bekerov3, A.K. Lukyanov1
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, 40 Lenina Prospect, Tomsk, Russia
2Yurginskiy Technological Institute, 652055, Kemerovo region, Jurga, st. Leningrad, 26
3Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave
Keywords: вегетационный индекс, нормализация, спектрорадиометр MODIS, vegetation index, normalization, spectroradiometer MODIS

Abstract >>
The approach to normalization of the vegetation index calculated from measurements of the spectroradiometer MODIS is discusses in the paper. To do this, the normalization involves additional spectral channels of a spectroradiometer, based on the calculated cloud and snow indices allowing one to build a cloud mask and to allocate time periods of the presence of clouds. The built model for vegetation index dependency on the temperature allows further improvement of the form of time series of the vegetation index. The results of the application of the proposed approach to the real measurements are discussed in the paper.