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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2016 year, number 6

Analysis of the connections between total column ozone and precipitable water vapor over European Russia with the North Atlantic Oscillation in the summer of 2010

S.A. Sitnov, I.I. Mokhov, V.A. Bezverkhny
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: общее содержание озона, общее влагосодержание, атмосферное блокирование, европейская территория России, аномальное лето 2010 г, Североатлантическое колебание, total column оzone, precipitable water vapor, atmospheric block, European Russia, Russian heat wave in summer 2010, North Atlantic oscillation

Abstract >>
Using satellite data, connections between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the daily anomalies in total column ozone (TCO) and those in precipitable water vapor (PWV) over Europe during the summer of 2010 heatwave were analyzed. The analysis revealed over the northern European Russia (ER) spacious and closely located regions of negative correlation between TCO and NAO and positive correlation between PWV and NAO, with the extreme (maximum) local correlation coefficients up to -0.55 and 0.68, respectively. The results of correlation analysis and cross-wavelet analysis showed that the increased correlations between TCO, PWV, and NAO in the summer of 2010 were mainly due to coherent variations of atmospheric parameters in the period of the destruction of blocking anticyclone.

Numerical model for bioaerosol transformation in the atmosphere

A.V. Penenko1,2, A.A. Sorokovoy1,2, K.E. Sorokovaya1,2
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: математическое моделирование, аэрозольные популяции, трансформация примесей, коагуляция, интегро-дифференциальные уравнения, mathematical modeling, aerosol populations, impurities transformation, coagulation, integral-differential equations

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Non-stationary mathematical model of bioaerosol dynamics is considered. It is based on nonlinear integral-differential equations describing coagulation, condensation, and evaporation processes. Unconditionally positive numerical schemes for transformation problem is presented. The algorithm is based on discrete analytical approximations using fundamental solutions of local ajoint problems. The model was numerically compared with the models describing individual mechanisms in its composition. The relative contribution of each mechanism in the overall dynamics of aerosol populations is investigated based on numerical experiments.

Numerical analysis of atmospheric circulation and pollution transport in vicinity of the Norilsk industrial region

A.A. Lezhenin1, V.F. Raputa1, T.V. Yaroslavtseva2
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, 7, Parkhomenko Str., Novosibirsk, 630108, Russia
Keywords: атмосфера, снежный покров, загрязнение, численное моделирование, реконструкция, atmosphere, snow cover, pollution, numerical modeling, reconstruction

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Using a numerical mesoscale model of the atmospheric boundary layer the dynamics of air streams in the Norilsk valley is investigated. Results of calculations for typical weather conditions are presented. It is shown that the orographic peculiarities of the region form a wind field, nonhomogeneous in the horizontal and highly variable in the vertical. With data on pollution of the snow cover in vicinity of the Norilsk copper plant a numerical reconstruction of fields of dust and heavy metals sedimentation is carried out.

Quasiperiodic saltation in the windsand flux over desertified area

G.I. Gorchakov, A.V. Karpov, G.A. Kuznetsov, D.V. Buntov
A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: опустынивание, ветропесчаный поток, механизм сальтации, концентрация сальтирующих песчинок, квазипериодические вариации концентрации, длительность цугов, мгновенная частота, струйная сальтация, когерентность пульсаций скорости ветра, desertification, windsand flux, saltation mechanism, saltating sand concentration, quasiperiodic variations of concentration, wave packet duration, instantaneous frequency, jet saltation, wind velocity pulsation coherence

Abstract >>
Saltation mechanism investigation in the windsand flux over the desertified area has been carried out on fast video recording data using spectral and wavelet analysis. Quasiperiodic variation peculiarities of the saltating sand concentration are studied. It is established that narrow bands in spectrum (“spectral lines”) of saltating sand concentration fluctuation density power in the range from 100 to 200 Hz are consistent with wave packets, which duration achieves 8-9 periods. It is suggested to use the duration of the wave packets observed as a measure of a pulsation coherence of the wind velocity in a near surface layer of the atmosphere. It is shown that quasiperiodic variability saltating sand concentration appearance is explained by interaction of the wind gusts with wave irregularities on the underlying surface type of fine ripples. The wave packet formation with duration to 4-5 periods can be explained using the model of jet-pulse saltation.

Analysis of Siberian rivers runoff in the 21st century

V.I. Kuzin, N.A. Lapteva
Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: математическое моделирование, климатический речной сток, бассейны рек Сибири, mathematical modeling, hydrological data, climatic river runoff, Siberia rivers basins

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The article discusses the results of the analysis of the hydrological input data for the Siberian river runoff model for the XXI century. The data of the INM, CRNM, GFDL, MIROC5, and HadGEM models of the RCP 8.5 scenario of the CMIP5 IPCC Project were used for the analysis. The results show the positive trend for the data for all the models. The data were used for the calculations of the Siberian rivers runoff to the Arctic Ocean. The calculation also gives the positive trend in accordance with the data with some differences in the values.

Extreme wildfires in Russia during summertimes of 2010 and 2012: atmospheric transport of black carbon to the Arctic

A.A. Vinogradova1, N.S. Smirnov2, V.N. Korotkov2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2Institute of Global Climate and Ecology of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring and Russian Academy of Sciences, Glebovskaya street, 20b, 107258, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: черный углерод, сажа, природные пожары, эмиссии с территории России, дальний атмосферный перенос, Арктика, black carbon, soot, nature forest fires, Russian BC emissions, long-range atmospheric transport, the Arctic

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Model estimates of black carbon (BC) air concentrations were made for some Arctic points under extreme wildfires in Russia during summertimes of 2010 and 2012. The initial information on monthly burned areas by fires on the territories of Russian administrative units through 2000-2013 were taken from the official site of Federal Forestry Agency of RF (Rosleshoz). These data were converted in BC atmospheric emissions taking into account differences in flora and fire types. Atmospheric BC concentrations in the Arctic were calculated with the help of back-trajectory statistics for five arctic points situated on Kola Peninsula, in the south-east of Arkhangelsk area, and at Nenetsky, Gydansky, Ust’-Lensky Nature Reserves. Specific circulation conditions in the atmosphere accompanying extreme fires can decrease transport efficiency from fire territories to the Arctic points. BC air concentrations are minimal in the north-western areas of European Russia and near Ust’-Lensky Nature Reserve. The region near Nenetsky Nature Reserve (in the north-eastern part of Europe) is polluted by BC from fires maximally. At the same time, the north-western areas of Siberia are mainly polluted by BC from anthropogenic emissions. Intense wildfires in Siberia and Yakutiya can increase BC air concentrations in summertime in the North of the Asian part of Russia. The results of the work may be used as qualitative estimates in comparative climatic or ecological analysis for different arctic regions.

Material and elemental composition of near ground aerosols of north-western coast of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea

D.P. Starodymova1, V.P. Shevchenko1, V.P. Sivonen2, V.V. Sivonen2
1P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, 36, Nakhimovski prospect, Moscow, Russia, 117997
2Nikolai Pertsov White Sea Biological Station of the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, a/ya 20, Glavpochtamt, Kandalakshsky raion, Murmanskaya oblast, 184042, RUSSIA
Keywords: аэрозоли, тяжелые металлы, медь, никель, дальний атмосферный перенос, обратные траектории, aerosols, heavy metals, copper, nickel, long-range atmospheric transport, backward trajectories

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Continuous sampling of aerosols is carryed out on the NW coast of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Aerosol matter from 30 filters collected in summer and autumn 2013 and in spring 2014 was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Elemental composition of aerosol matter was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). The major part of aerosol particles collected in summer is of biogenic origin. Heavy metal concentrations in aerosols are on the Arctic background level. The distribution of trace element concentrations is characterized by simultaneous peaks of different elements. Backward trajectory analysis shows increasing of Ni and Cu concentrations corresponding to air masses coming from western part of the Kola Peninsula. That suggests influence of smelters.

Causes and factors of positive anomalies of surface ozone in the Moscow region and the south-eastern coast of the Crimea

A.M. Zvyagintsev1, I.N. Kuznetsova2, I.Ju. Shalygina2, V.A. Lapchenko3, N.E. Brusova2, A.A. Arkhangelskaia2, N.V. Tereb4, E.A. Lezina5
1Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
2Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
3Karadag Nature Reserve of the National Academy of Sciences of RAS, 24 Nauki str., Kurortnoye stlm., Feodosia, AR Crime, 298188
4Russian Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Research and Production Association В«Typhoon», 4, Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038 Russia
5Mosjekomonitoring, 11/1, Novyj Arbat, 1119019, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: озон, озоновый эпизод, метеорологические факторы, адвекция загрязнений, мегаполис, пригород, прогноз озона, ozone, ozone episode, meteorological factors, advection of pollutions, megapolis, suburb, forecast ozone

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Surface ozone sources and factors forming anomalous ozone concentration are discussed. The relations between elevated surface ozone concentrations, air temperature, and wind speed in planetary boundary layer are studied using data from Moscow, its environments and more far territories, Black Sea coast, foreign air quality stations. Impacts of advection of ozone and its precursors on ozone levels are shown. Studies of factors causing ozone episodes and reasons of below-average ozone concentrations under meteorological conditions, favorable for photochemical ozone production, are the base for interpretation and correction of ozone forecasting from chemistry-transport models.

Measurements of fractional and chemical composition of non-volatil particles in emission products of aviation engine combustion chambers

A.A. Inozemtsev1, A.N. Sahzenkov1, A.M. Sipatov1, V.V. Tsatiashvily1, T.V. Abramchuk1, A.K. Petrov2, S.B. Malyshkin2, L.V. Kuibida2, A.S. Kozlov2, M.V. Panchenko3, B.S. Kozlov3
1Aviadvigatel JSC, 93, Komsomol'skij prospect, Perm', 614000, Russia
2V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: газотурбинный двигатель, эмиссия, нелетучие частицы, камера сгорания, gas turbine engine, emission, particular matter, combustor chamber

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The experimental investigation results of chemical and fractional composition of non-volatil matter in size ranges from 10 to 1100 nm for combustion products are presented. Researches were performed at high performance test bench for civil aviation engines combustors tests using dedicated equipment for real-time fractional composition measurements. Composition analysis of probes collected on filter was performed in laboratory way.

Nanoparticle thermal diffusion simulation in dense gases and fluids by the molecular dynamics method

V.Ya. Rudyak, S.L. Krasnolutskii
The Novosibirsk State University of architecture and Civil Engineering, 630008, Novosibirsk, 113 Leningradskaya Street 3
Keywords: коэффициент термодиффузии, коэффициент Соре, наночастицы, наножидкость, диффузия, аэрозоль, thermal diffusion coefficient, Soret coefficient, nanoparticles, nanofluids, diffusion, aerosol

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This paper is devoted to studying the thermal diffusion of nanoparticles in dense gases and liquids by the method of molecular dynamics with Rudyak-Krasnolutskii nanoparticle-molecule potential and Rudyak-Krasnolutskii-Ivanov nanoparticle-nanoparticle potential. Thermal diffusion and binary diffusion coefficients were calculated with the help of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Nanofluids simulated consisted of argon as а carrier medium and aluminum nanoparticles. Dependences of the thermal diffusion and Soret coefficients of nanoparticles on their diameter and volume concentration were obtained. For small diameter nanoparticles (1-4 nm) thermal diffusion coefficient showed a significant dependence on their size.

On the parametrization of the turbulent friction velocity for the mathematical heat-island model of the low-aspect-ratio in the stratified environment

L.I. Kurbatskaya1, A.F. Kurbatskii2
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 4/1, Institutskaya str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: турбулентность, планетарный пограничный слой, городской остров тепла, крупномасштабная циркуляция, численное моделирование, turbulence, planetary boundary layer, urban heat island, large-scale circulation, numerical modeling

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We examine the parameterizations of a turbulent friction velocity u * for the mathematical heat-island model of the low-aspect-ratio in the stratified environment. This study was performed to simulate the urban heat island in a calm stably stratified medium with the thermophysics inhomogeneity of the underlying surface: the unstable stratification over the localized surface heat source and the stable stratification out of it [1]. The numerical results of u * are presented with the of use the Louis’s and Paulson’s non-iteration algorithms for the quasi-steady circulation over the urban heat island.

Chemical composition and trends of oxidation of snow waters and waters of South Baikal tributaries

I.V. Tomberg, L.M. Sorokovikova, O.G. Netsvetaeva, N.P. Sezko, N.A. Zhuchenko
Limnological Institute of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya str., 664033, Irkutsk, Russia
Keywords: притоки Южного Байкала, снежный покров, рН, сумма ионов, сульфат, нитрат, tributaries of South Baikal, snow cover, рН, ions sum, sulphate, nitrate

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This paper presents data characterizing the changes of waters chemical composition in the Southern Baikal for 20-year period of observations impacted by precipitations with high content of pollutants. Levels of acidic components accumulation in the snow cover of river basins are calculated. Resistance of river waters to acidification at different levels of acidic charge is determined for each water flow.

Photochemical activity of precipitating aerosol of Ca(OH)2 microparticles under tropospheric conditions

V.S. Zakharenko1, E.B. Daybova2
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, pr. Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk, Russia, 630090
2Federal State Budgetary Institution ″Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Peat², Gagarina Str., 3, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: аэрозоль Са(ОН), состав поверхности, фотодесорбция, фотоадсорбция O, квантовый выход, вакансии аниона решетки, Са(OH) aerosol, surface composition, photodesorption, O photoadsorption, quantum yield, lattice anion vacancies

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The composition of surface compounds desorbing in darkness and under irradiation from microparticles of precipitated aerosol Ca(OH)2 without calcium carbonate were investigated. The quantum yield quantities and its spectral dependencies for the photodesorption from aerosol microparticles and the oxygen photoadsoption were determined.

Application of satellite data to identification and mapping high temperature oil producing areas in Western Siberia

M.N. Alekseeva, T.O. Peremitina, I.G. Yashchenko
Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: окружающая среда, попутный нефтяной газ, космические снимки, геоинформационные системы, месторождения нефти, environment, associated petroleum gas, satellite images, geoinformation systems, oil fields

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For timely assessment of the ecological status of hard wetlands in Western Siberia, methods for measuring and mapping the thermal anomalies (torches, fires, burning) of oil-producing territories are developed on the basis of satellite data.

On the eightieth birthday of Lev Semyonovich Ivlev, Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

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May 21, 2016 marks the 80th anniversary of the birth of one of the most prominent Russian scientists in the field of atmospheric aerosol research Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor Lev Semenovich Ivlev.