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Philosophy of Sciences

2016 year, number 1

1.
SCIENTIFIC CREATIVE WORK AND RELIGION: COMMUNICATION THROUGH MYTHOLOGICAL CONSTRUCTIONS

E.A. Shishkin
Moscow state university of geodesy and cartography, 105064, 4 Gorokhovskii side-str., Moscow, Russia
Keywords: философия науки, научное творчество, мифологическая рациональность, способ мышления эпохи, связь науки и религии, philosophy of science, scientific creative work, mythological rationality, epoch’s mode of thought, relationship between science and religion

Abstract >>
The article discusses an important function, performed by mythological creativity in the modern world, - communication between different spheres of differentiated knowledge. The philosophical reconstruction of historical relation between philosophy and religion through the epoch’s mode of thought and the mythological constructions is given on the basis of research on history and philosophy of science, made in the twentieth century.
																								



2.
METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF KOLMOGOROV’S CONDITIONS OF MATHEMATICS APPLICATION

V.M. Reznikov
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 630090, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: принцип Курно, теорема Бернулли, устойчивость частот, субъективистская интерпретация вероятностей, объективистская интерпретация вероятностей, Колмогоров, Cournot’s principle, Bernoulli’s theorem, frequencies stability, subjectivistic interpretation of the probability theory, objectivistic interpretation of the probability theory, Kolmogorov

Abstract >>
There is a belief that Kolmogorov's condition about the closeness of event probability with frequency characteristics of an event is a conclusion of Bernoulli’s theorem and that if Cournot’s principle is taken into account, the conclusion is true on any typical sampling. The article shows that this assertion is correct within the subjectivistic interpretation of the probability theory. The author proves that in the objectivistic interpretation the closeness of probability and frequencies is understood as the stability of frequencies, i.e. their grouping in a narrow field. He demonstrates that in this interpretation the frequencies stability is a precondition of an application of Bernoulli’s theorem and it depends neither on the theorem nor on the principle.
																								



3.
THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY TRANSFORMATIONS DURING UNIFICATION

A.Yu. Storozhuk
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 630090, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: трансформация научного знания, становление парадигмы, стандартизация, унификация, transformation of scientific knowledge, development of paradigm, standardization, unification

Abstract >>
In the course of the transformation of a scientific theory, there are changes that require unification and standardization of concepts, methods and procedures. Usually, the unification is nesessary at the stage of a paradigm formation when one of the competing schools begins to dominate while the other ones have to conform to it. During the unification, the theory undergoes changing, systematization and axiomatization, the diversity of statements is reduced to basic postulates. A unified theory gets a number of advantages including its increased flexibility and expanded area of its application also there are some disadvantages, one of them is the growth of a theory vulnerability because criticism aimed at the foundation of a theory weaken its state. We the last statement illustrate by an example taken from the history of mathematics. Disadvantages of the unification appear in science applications to practice as well, we illustrate it by examples too.
																								



4.
STATUS FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTS IN THE PHYSICAL THEORY

E.A. Bezlepkin
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 630090, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: метафизика, онтология, фундаментальный объект, физическая теория, metaphysics, ontology, fundamental object, physical theory

Abstract >>
The paper presents a review of existing types of basic objects in physical theories, such as a material point, an elementary particle (virtual particle), quark, a fundamental string. Fundamental objects are considered in the historical perspective. It is shown that these objects, first, may be classified as formal, physical and hypothetical; secondly, they have a different ontological status. In view of this, a unified (consistent) description of reality is based on introduction of modalities into ontology which results in a model of polyontic reality (the idea of information capacity of mathematical spaces and that of a nongeocentric world comprise a concrete realization of this model).
																								



5.
A WITTGENSTEINIAN DEMYSTIFICATION OF AN EVERETTIAN INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

I.E. Pris
Fachhohschule Dortmund, 44263, 23 Unverhofftstr, Dortmund, Germany
Keywords: квантовая механика, проблема измерения, интерпретация Эверетта, реализм, прагматизм, контекстуализм, вероятность, рациональный выбор, правило Борна, правило/концепт, Виттгенштейн, quantum mechanics, measurement problem, Everett interpretation, realism, pragmatism, contextualism, probability, rational choice, Born’s rule, rule/concept, Wittgenstein

Abstract >>
It can be argued that if we commit ourselves to classical realism and classical logic we are forced to adopt an Everettian interpretation of quantum mechanics. But we cannot adopt it without substantial philosophical and physical qualifications. Nevetheles the classical metaphysical realism can be modified. We suggest an interpretation of quantum mechanics within a Wittgensteinian contextualiste non-metaphysical realism, which is indeed a demystified version of the Everett interpretation. The quantum theory is a Wittgensteinian rule. The “gap” between this rule and a concrete result of measurement is closed pragmatically (the measurement problem is dissolved). The Everettian branches-worlds are possible (not actual) applications of the theory-rule. The suggested deduction of the Born rule from the deterministic part of quantum mechanics, the most general principles of rationality and the symmetry principles, in our view, means that in a sense the Born rule is implicit in the formalism of quantum mechanics taken in its application. A complicated theory of the Everettian interpretation of quantum mechanics, developed by David Wallace, is the price to pay for refusing to modify the doctrine of metaphysical realism.
																								



6.
HERMENEUTICAL AND HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN CONCEPT R. FRODEMAN’S

V.A. Mironov
National Research Tomsk State University, 634050, 36 Lenin av., Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: Философия геологии, герменевтика, герменевтический круг, теория познания, геология, философия науки, геологическое познание, философия, эпистемология, philosophy of geology, hermeneutics, hermeneutic circle, theory of knowledge, geology, philosophy of science, geological knowledge, philosophy, epistemology

Abstract >>
The paper analyses specific aspects of geological research. It is possible to connect them with using hermeneutical and historical procedures that extends and adds classical ideas about natural-scientific cognition. The theoretical basis of the paper is the research work of American scientist R. Frodeman. Geological cognition in a field investigation is a similar to text interpretation. There is no any prefabricated geological outcrop in a laboratory. Geologist has to choose substantial object for research by himself basing on knowledge. Geological outcrop is clearer in a general geological environment of region, area. In other words, the scientist is consistent with surrounding context. This approach leads to affirmation that geologist has two or more has several types of interpretation. Therefore, every geologist can make different conclusions. It is significant to admit that experiment cannot find any solution about genesis of geological solids. Because geological solids has being forming during millions years in a generous area. Chemical and physical experiments are just an element of interpretation or “reading” of the geological conditions in an area, which defines the properties of minerals, rock. On the assumption of this theory, the geology is a science, which has an object of investigation as the natural world, and at the same time uses methods of humanitarian knowledge including hermeneutic and historical procedures.
																								



7.
FROM THE HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT PERIPATETIC SCHOOL OF METEOROLOGY: WEATHER OMENS AND WINDS

E.V. Afonasin1,2
1Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 630090, 8 Nikolaeva str., Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 630090, 2 Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: приметы погоды, роза ветров, анемоскоп, Аристотель, Теофраст, Башня ветров, weather signs, wind-rose, anemoscopes, Aristotle, Theophrastus, the Tower of the Winds

Abstract >>
The article opens a series of studies dedicated to ancient meteorology. I discuss the method and content of Pseudo-Theophrastus’ “On weather signs” and translate a short treatise “On the location and names of the winds”, traditionally included in the Corpus Aristotelicum. The treatise is translated into the Russian for the first time. We see that the unknown author tries to correlate the theoretical wind diagram with the empirical data, and the picture, which appears as a result, significantly differs from the theoretical scheme developed in Aristotle’s Meteorology. On the other hand, his approach is more practical since he tries to take account of the local condition. After all, even Aristotle admits that his simple scheme is not exact and allows adjustment to specific geographic places.
																								



8.
G. E. MOORE’S В«COMMON SENSE» AND THE PROBLEM OF OTHER MINDS

A.Yu. Moiseeva
Institute of Philosophy and Law, SB RAS, 630090, 8 Nikolaeva str. Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Д.Э. Мур, здравый смысл, проблема других сознаний, G.E. Moore, common sense, the problem of different mind

Abstract >>
The paper discusses if it is possible to justify the assumption of the existence of other minds in terms of common sense as G.E. Moore understands it in his article «A Defence of Common Sense».
																								



9.
A NEW SCIENTOMETRIC INDICATOR HIRSCH +

A.Yu. Mironkina
Smolensk State Agricultural Academy, 214000, 10/2, Bolshaya Sovetskaya str, Smolensk, Russia
Keywords: Российский индекс научного цитирования, индекс цитирования, индекс Хирша, h-индекс, индекс Хирша+, h+ индекс, наукометрия, Russian science citation index, citation index, Hirsch index, h-index, Hirsch index+, h+ index, scientometrics

Abstract >>
This article suggests a new scientometric index that takes into account not taken into account in the calculation of citation of the classical h-index - Hirsch index+ developed the formula for finding the index by table to find the h-index from 1 to 20. The h-index+ can be used for internal monitoring of scientific productivity of a scientist in any scientific or higher educational institution. The proposed index allows you to more finely rank the growth of the team members, regardless of age and past scientific achievements.