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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2015 year, number 10

1.
Features of the water vapour continuum absorption in 0.94 and 1.13 Ојm bands

A.A. Simonova1,2, R. McPheat3, I.V. Ptashnik1, K. Smith3, K. Shine4
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
3RAL Space, Didcot, OX11 0QX, United Kingdom
4Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, PO Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB, United Kingdom
Keywords: континуальное поглощение, водяной пар, полосы поглощения, модель континуума MT_CKD, continuum absorption, water vapour, absorption bands, MT_CKD continuum model

Abstract >>
The water vapour continuum absorption (or continuum) has a special importance for radiation balance of the Earth. In this paper one of the poorly studied spectral regions of the continuum absorption 8500-12500 cm -1 (1.17-0.8 μm) is investigated, focusing on two absorption bands of water vapour. The continuum was derived from experimental pure water vapour absorption spectra obtained using a high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out at elevated temperatures (from 398 to 471 K) and pressures (from 1 to 5 atm). Well-pronounced spectral absorption peaks were found within absorption bands, that are absent in the widely used MT_CKD model. Estimation of the total dimerization equilibrium constant for stable and metastable dimers, derived by fitting a simulated water dimer spectrum to the experimental continuum at 400 K, amounted of 0.028 atm -1, which is twice higher than the modern ab initio prediction of this value.
																								



2.
Moscow smoke haze in October 2014. Aerosol mass concentration variations

G.I. Gorchakov1, V.M. Kopeikin1, S.A. Sitnov1, E.G. Semoutnikova2, M.A. Sviridenkov1, A.V. Karpov1, E.A. Lezina2, A.S. Emilenko1, A.A. Isakov1, G.A. Kuznetsov1, T.Ya. Ponomareva3
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky per., 3, 119017, Moscow, Russia
2LomonosovMoscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russia
3Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 11-13, Bol'shoj Predtechenskij per., 123242, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: дымовой аэрозоль, массовая концентрация, эмпирические функции распределения, спектральная плотность мощности, два источника задымления, дальний перенос, smoke aerosol, aerosol mass concentration, empirical distribution function, spectral power, two sources of smoke, long-range transfer

Abstract >>
Aerosol mass concentration variations in a smoky atmosphere of Moscow region in autumn 2014 have been analyzed. The soot mass fraction and ratio between aerosol mass concentrations PM-2.5 and PM-10 were typical of the fires in boreal forests. Smoke screening of the Moscow region was due to long-range transfer of the smoke aerosol, that was confirmed by a joint analysis of aerospace monitoring data and inverse trajectories of air mass transfer, and local fires in Moscow region. As the result, statistical characteristic variations of the smoke aerosol mass concentrations, including empirical probability distributions and power spectra, turned to be non-typical.
																								



3.
The annual dynamics of aerosol organic component in the free atmosphere above the South of West Siberia

M.Yu. Arschinov1, B.D. Belan1, N.G. Voronetskaya2, A.K. Golovko2, D.K. Davydov1, A.S. Kozlov3, S.B. Malyshkin3, G.S. Pevneva2, D.V. Simonenkov1, G.N. Tolmachev1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2Institute of Petroleum Chemistry of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3, Academichesky ave., Tomsk, 634021, Russia
3V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 3 Institutskaya str., 3, 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: атмосферный аэрозоль, состав, углеводороды, н-алканы, atmospheric aerosol, composition, hydrocarbons, n-alkanes

Abstract >>
The annual behavior of concentration of an organic component of the atmospheric aerosol which is selected from a board of the Tu-134 “Optic” airplane-laboratory in the atmospheric layer of 500-8500 m is investigated. It is revealed that the greatest concentration of the organic components as a part of the aerosol is observed in spring, the smallest, in the fall. As a part of aerosol particles compounds from C 8H 18 to C 35H 72 are found. The range is widest during the winter period (C 12H 26-C 35H 72) and in spring (C 8H 18-C 31H 64). In the summer (C 18H 38-C 33H 68) and in the fall (C 16H 34-C 31H 64) it is noticeably narrower. During the whole year as a part of an aerosol one mode (n-alkane C 20H 42) dominates. During the summer period there is a secondary maximum, falling on the n-alkane C 29H 60.
																								



4.
Retrieval of the aerosol microstructure from light extinction data measured in a limited spectral range

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Men’shchikova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: аэрозольная оптическая толщина, микроструктура аэрозоля, обратные задачи, aerosol optical depth, aerosol microstructure, inverse problem

Abstract >>
The influence of the upper limit λ max of the spectral range, in which atmospheric transmission measurements are performed, on retrieving aerosol microstructure parameters is investigated. Aerosol microstructure parameters are determined by solving the inverse sun photometry problem using data of numerical simulation and field experiments. The aerosol model formed by fine ( f ) and coarse ( c ) particle fractions is used in the numerical experiment. The value of λ max is chosen in the range from 1.052 to 3.973 mm. The method of integral distributions is used for solving the inverse problem. It is shown that the contribution of large particles to the total aerosol distribution is underestimated. In particular, at λ max = 1.246 μm, the losses in the retrieval of concentration of c-particle fraction can achieve 42% against the 18% decrease in the aerosol volume concentration.
																								



5.
Numerical simulation of polarized terahertz echo-signal properties at ground-based cloud remote sensing

E.G. Kablukova1, B.A. Kargin1,2, A.A. Lisenko3,4, G.G. Matvienko3,4
1Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 6, Ac. Lavrentieva ave., 630090, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
4National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: спектр размеров облачных капель, терагерцовое излучение, дистанционное зондирование, поляризация, метод Монте-Карло, локальная оценка, cloud droplet size distribution, terahertz radiation, remote sensing, polarization, Monte Carlo method, local estimate

Abstract >>
The results of numerical statistical simulations of experiments of the cloud layer ground-based sensing by the terahertz linearly polarized radiation at few wavelengths from the atmospheric transparency windows are presented in the paper. Liquid droplet size distributions, summarized results of many years field measurements in the midlatitudes of the Earth and the distributions obtained by aircraft experiments off Great Britain coast are used in the scattering layer models. The models of the scattering medium take into account the vertical stratification of the water vapor concentration in the atmosphere and the differences in the cloud layer microstructure at the top and base.
																								



6.
Determination of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from data measured by a “Stream Line” lidar in the atmospheric surface layer

I.N. Smalikho, V.A. Banakh, A.V. Falits, Yu.A. Rudi
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: когерентный доплеровский лидар, акустический анемометр, ветер, турбулентность, coherent Doppler lidar, sonic anemometer, wind, turbulence

Abstract >>
Possibility of determination of the turbulent energy dissipation rate from data measured by a 1.5-μm pulsed coherent Doppler lidar using the conical scanning of the probing beam under different atmospheric conditions has been studied experimentally. It is shown that from array of the radial velocities measured by this lidar in the atmospheric surface layer during 5 min one can estimate the dissipation rate with the relative error 20-30% under conditions of moderate and strong wind turbulence.
																								



7.
Air temperature in the lower troposphere over Moscow during heat wave in summer of 2010

M.A. Lokoshchenko1, I.A. Korneva1, A.Z. Dubovetsky2, A.V. Kochin2
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-3, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119899, Russia
2Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: температура воздуха, радиозондирование, аэроклиматология, приземные инверсии, неустойчивая стратификация, синоптический анализ, воздушная масса, air temperature, radio-sounding, aeroclimatology, surface inversions, unstable stratification, synoptic analysis, air mass

Abstract >>
Dynamics of the air temperature in the lower 4 km layer have been studied by the data of radio-sounding in Dolgoprudny and ground meteorological measurements at Moscow University in time of anomalous heat wave in summer of 2010. The results have been compared with the aero-climatic data during previous 19 years. Accordingly to these data average estimations of both the daily vertical thermal gradient values, thickness, and intensity of nocturnal surface inversions (correspondingly, 200-300 m and 2.0°С) are presented for Moscow region. As it shown, in summer of 2010 in the air layer up to 2 km height over Moscow record high air temperature was noted for the period from at least 1991. Among others, the 30°С value has been detected for the first time in the air layer from 400 to 800 m. During heat wave in 2010, as a result of clear anticyclone conditions, thickness, and intensity of nocturnal surface inversions were larger than usually (up to 700 m and 12°С correspondingly). The mean temperature profiles have been studied for different types of air masses. As it shown, the tropical air mass dominated over Moscow region in summer of 2010 during more than half of the time.
																								



8.
Comparative analysis of the total ozone and UV- B radiation observation series in boreal forest zones

V.V. Zuev1,2, N.E. Zueva1, E.M. Korotkova1
1Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050,Russia
Keywords: УФ-В-радиация, спектр биологического действия, озоносфера, общее содержание озона, корреляционный анализ, UV-B radiation, biologically active spectra, ozonosphere, total ozone, correlation analysis

Abstract >>
The paper represents the results of the correlation analysis of observation series of total ozone and ultraviolet radiation in 300-315 nm wavelength band for temperate zone stations of Russia and Canada (Northern hemisphere, 50 N and higher) in the boreal forest zones. It is shown that the ozonosphere is the primary modulator of the biologically active UV-B radiation spectrum part in this climatic zone. Radiation amplification factors of solar UV-B spectral region are determined. It is demonstrated that 20% of total ozone depletion leads to the increase of the dose of the shortwave part of solar UV-B radiation more than twice relative to its climatic norm.
																								



9.
Metrological support of ultrasonic thermoanemometers for measurement of pulsation properties of meteorological parameters

V.A. Korolkov, A.E. Telminov, A.A. Tikhomirov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 634055, Tomsk, 10/3, Academichesky ave.
Keywords: ультразвуковые термоанемометры, портативный комплект для поверки технических параметров УЗТА, аэродинамическая труба, ultrasonic thermoanemometers, mobile complex for UTA technical parameters check, air tunnel

Abstract >>
Metrological support for production and exploitation of ultrasonic (anemometers/thermometers) thermoanemometers (UTA) for measurement of meteorological parameters of the atmospheric boundary layer is considered in this article. Necessary types of UTA test: in zero wind chamber, air tunnel, climatic chamber, pressure chamber are represented. Parameters of the air tunnel ADS-60, which was created in IMCES SB RAS, are described. ADS-60 is designed for testing UTA against rules of Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring for wind velocity. Mobile complex of check technical parameters of UTA in field conditions is represented.
																								



10.
Development of control algorithms for flexible mirror

L.V. Antoshkin, V.V. Lavrinov, L.N. Lavrinova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: волновой фронт, алгоритм управления, гибкое зеркало, wave front, control algorithm, flexible mirror

Abstract >>
In order to reduce the effect of time delay on the work of the adaptive system as a dynamic feedback system, a modern approach to the correction of turbulent distortions of optical radiation involves the use of new control algorithms for correcting mirror using prediction of phase distortion. Here the results of numerical simulation are presented.
																								



11.
Some questions of optimal focusing during second harmonics generation in nonlinear crystals. Part 1. Mathematical apparatus

V.O. Troitskii
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: генерация второй гармоники, одноосный нелинейный кристалл, скрещенные цилиндрические линзы, оптимальная фокусировка, second harmonics generation, uniaxial nonlinear crystal, crossed cylindrical lenses, optimal focusing

Abstract >>
The problem of second harmonics generation (SHG) of monochromatic spatially coherent paraxial radiation in homogeneous quadratic nonlinear uniaxial crystals is considered theoretically. It is assumed that the laser radiation is focused into a crystal by two crossed cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths. The aim of this study is to find dependences of optical focusing parameters on the primary radiation power. The work consists of two parts. Part 1 describes the mathematical apparatus required for the study. It is suggested to transform a set of nonlinear wave equations to a form, more convenient for further use. Some important particular cases are considered. An asymptotically exact analytical solution of the SHG problem is presented.
																								



12.
Some questions of optimal focusing during second harmonics generation in nonlinear crystals. Part 2. Results of numerical calculations

V.O. Troitskii
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: генерация второй гармоники, одноосный нелинейный кристалл, скрещенные цилиндрические линзы, оптимальная фокусировка, second harmonics generation, uniaxial nonlinear crystal, crossed cylindrical lenses, optimal focusing

Abstract >>
The problem of second harmonics generation (SHG) of monochromatic spatially coherent paraxial radiation in homogeneous quadratic nonlinear uniaxial crystals is considered theoretically. It is assumed that the laser radiation is focused into a crystal by two crossed cylindrical lenses with different focal lengths. The aim of this study is to find dependences of optical focusing parameters on the primary radiation power. The work consists of two parts. Part 2 presents main results of numerical calculations. It is shown that optimal focusing parameters first vary insignificantly as the primary radiation power increases. Then, beginning from a certain power value, which depends on the initial conditions of the problem, the SHG efficiency maximum becomes attainable at weaker and weaker focusing, and the value of the efficiency maximum monotone increases, probably tending to a value close to 100% under an infinite increase in the power.