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Avtometriya

2015 year, number 4

1.
CHANGE DETECTION IN BUILD-UP AREAS ON THE BASIS OF STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF SATELLITE IMAGES

S. M. Borzov1, A. O. Potaturkin1, O. I. Potaturkin1,2
1Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: дистанционное зондирование Земли, выделение антропогенных территорий, обнаружение изменений, спектральные и пространственные (текстурные, структурные) признаки, классификация изображений, remote sensing, selection of man-made areas, change detection, spectral and spatial (textural and structural) features, classification of images

Abstract >>
It is shown that spatial structural features based on determining the maximum angle within which each pixel has a neighborhood that is not shadowed by other pixels of the contour provide the best efficiency in detecting man-made areas in satellite images of moderate resolution. A combined method of detection of build-up area expansion on the basis of multispectral data provided by the SPOT-4 satellite is proposed and demonstrated. This method implies the formation (with allowance for chosen features) of spatial masks of man-made objects in the reference (earlier taken) image and natural zones of the tested (later taken) image, searching for spectral-temporal anomalies, and sequential masking of selected pixels with the use of masks being formed.
																								



2.
HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS FOR SEGMENTATION OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES

I. A. Pestunov1, S. A. Rylov1, V. B. Berikov2
1Institute of Computational Technologies, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrent’eva 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
2Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: иерархический ансамблевый алгоритм кластеризации, сеточный подход, сегментация мультиспектральных спутниковых изображений, ensemble hierarchical clustering algorithm, grid approach, segmentation of multispectral satellite images

Abstract >>
Computationally efficient HCA and HECA hierarchical clustering algorithms for segmentation of multispectral images have been developed using the grid and ensemble approaches. A special metric is proposed to identify embedded clusters even in the presence of overlapping. The efficiency of the algorithms has been confirmed by the results of experimental studies using model and real data.
																								



3.
INTERPOLATION FILTER OF NONLINEAR ESTIMATION OF THE PHASE COORDINATES OF TRACKED OBJECTS IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES

A. N. Katulev1, M. F. Malevinskii2
1Research Center of the Central Research Institute of Aerospace Defense of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, Naberezhnaya Afanasiya Nikitina 32, Tver, 170026 Russia
2Tver State University, ul. Zhelyabova 33, Tver, 170100 Russia
Keywords: интерполяционный, рекуррентный, нелинейный, адаптивный фильтры, interpolation, recurrent, nonlinear, adaptive filters

Abstract >>
A method of nonlinear estimation of the coordinates of the geometric center of objects tracked in two-dimensional optoelectronic images is considered. The dynamics of the object and measurements of the geometric center of objects in optoelectronic images are described by nonlinear difference equations. Nonlinearities can be smooth and nonsmooth functions. The method is based on the normal correlation theorem and the approximation of solutions of the equations by Lagrange interpolation polynomials with adaptive selection of their orders. Modeling has shown that the interpolation method is more accurate than the known nonlinear unscented Kalman filter.
																								



4.
INFORMATIVENESS OF THE FACIAL ASYMMETRY FEATURE IN PROBLEMS OF RECOGNITION OF OPERATORS OF ERGATIC SYSTEMS

B. N. Epifantsev, A. A. Arkhipov
Siberian State Automobile and Highway Academy (SibADI), pr. Mira 5, Omsk, 644080 Russia
Keywords: человеко-машинная система, изображение лица, асимметрия изображений лиц, идентификационный потенциал асимметрии лиц, тепловые и видимые изображения, man-machine system, facial image, asymmetry of facial images, identification potential of facial asymmetry, thermal and visible images

Abstract >>
This problem of identifying operators during interaction with a technical system of thermal and visible face imaging is considered. The informativeness of the facial asymmetry feature is estimated. It is concluded that it is preferred to use thermal images to solve the problem. Estimates of the probabilities of correct identification of operators are obtained.
																								



5.
APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF LAND COVER DYNAMICS USING CHANGE DETECTION AND SPATIAL STOCHASTIC MODELING

A. V. Zamyatin1, A. A. Afanasyev2, P. Cabral3
1Tomsk State University, pr. Lenins 36, Tomsk 634050, Russia
2Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050, Russia
3NOVA IMS, New University of Lisbon, Lisbon, 1070-312 Portugal
Keywords: ландшафтный покров, идентификация изменений, стохастическое моделирование, клеточный автомат, пространственное прогнозирование, динамика ландшафта, land cover, change detection, stochastic simulation, cellular automata, spatial prediction, land cover dynamics

Abstract >>
The important problem of land cover dynamics analysis is considered. We propose a multistep approach using methods of land cover change detection and an original method for evaluating the scale of changes is proposed. Applying this approach to a large archive of multi-temporal aerospace monitoring data makes it possible to choose only large-scale changes in land cover that deserve a more careful expert examination, and as a consequence, to perform a more rapid and comprehensive aerospace monitoring. The approach has been tested on problems of analyzing the land cover dynamics in Portugal under the LANDYN international research project. This paper presents some estimates of the scale of changes in the study area and results of long-term modeling of the development of the area, including alternative conditional scenarios.
																								



6.
USE OF THE CAVALIERI CONDITIONS IN REGION-OF-INTEREST TOMOGRAPHY

A. V. Likhachov
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: ROI-томография, условие Кавальери, пополнение проекционных данных, Region-of-interest tomography, Cavalieri condition, projection data replenishment

Abstract >>
A new method based on the Cavalieri condition for the Radon transform is developed to solve a problem of ROI tomography. This condition is used to construct a system of linear algebraic equations to estimate unknown projection data. Computational experiment has shown that the proposed method significantly improves the reconstruction accuracy, weakens artifacts, and provides an estimate of the internal structure of the object outside the region of interest.
																								



7.
CONSTRUCTION OF CONFIDENCE BOUNDARIES FOR THE DECISION FUNCTION IN A TWO-ALTERNATIVE PROBLEM OF PATTERN RECOGNITION

A. V. Lapko1,2, V. A. Lapko1,2
1Institute of Computational Modeling, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok 50, building 44, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
2Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, pr. im. Gazety “Krasnoyarskii rabochii” 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia
Keywords: распознавание образов, решающая функция, непараметрическая оценка, доверительное оценивание, правило Хайнкольда - Гаеде, pattern recognition, decision function, nonparametric estimate, confidence estimate, Heinhold-Gaede rule

Abstract >>
A nonparametric estimate of the decision function in a two-alternative problem of pattern recognition is considered. The principle of expansion of the learning sample and the analysis of the probabilistic characteristics of the obtained sets of random variables are used to synthesize this estimate. On this basis, a technique of construction of confidence boundaries for the Bayesian equation of the separating surface is derived. The efficiency of this technique is proved by results of computational experiments.
																								



8.
FORMATION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGE OF THE EARTH SURFACE IN AN ONBOARD DOPPLER RADAR

V. K. Klochko
Ryazan’ State Radio-Engineering University, ul. Gagarina 59/1, Ryazan’, 390005 Russia
Keywords: радиолокация, 3D-изображение, доплеровская фильтрация, оценки координат, маловысотный полёт, radar location, 3D image, Doppler filtration, estimates of coordinates, low-altitude flight

Abstract >>
A problem of formation of a three-dimensional image of the Earth surface in an onboard Doppler radar in a low-altitude flight on the basis of multichannel processing and obtaining estimates of spatial coordinates of reflection elements is solved. Algorithms of solving the problem are presented, and their workability is demonstrated by the method of computer modeling.
																								



9.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL OPTOELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS AND LASER TECHNOLOGIES FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

Yu. V. Chugui1,2,3
1Technological Design Institute of Scientific Instrument Engineering, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Russkaya 41, Novosibirsk, 630055 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. Karla Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: трёхмерный оптический контроль, оптические измерительные системы, низкокогерентная интерферометрия, лазерные технологии, лазерный генератор изображений, three-dimensional optical inspection, optical measurement system, low-coherence interferometry, laser technologies, laser generator of images

Abstract >>
The most important results of the development and manufacturing of unique optoelectronic measurement and laser technologies and systems for various purposes aimed at solving urgent problems in industry and academic research, which are obtained at the Technological Design Institute of Scientific Instrument Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, are reviewed. Technical characteristics of developed devices and systems and results of their testing at industrial enterprises and research institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences are reported.
																								



10.
OPTIMAL ESTIMATES OF VELOCITY BASED ON THE MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD CRITERION FOR LASER DOPPLER ANEMOMETRY

V. S. Sobolev, G. A. Kashcheeva, F. A. Zhuravel’
Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 1, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: лазерная доплеровская анемометрия, максимально правдоподобные оценки параметров сигналов, laser Doppler anemometry, maximum likelihood estimates of signal parameters

Abstract >>
Methods of obtaining the maximum likelihood estimates of the Doppler frequency (velocity of examined flows) for laser Doppler anemometry in the multiparticle scattering mode in the presence of additive noise with the use of a finite number of signal samples are presented.
																								



11.
NONLINEAR REGULATOR WITH DISTURBANCE COMPENSATION

S. I. Kolesnikova
Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Keywords: многомерный нелинейный объект, целевое многообразие, скользящее управление, адаптация на многообразиях, возмущения с неизвестным описанием, multidimensional nonlinear object, target manifold, sliding control, adaptation on manifolds, disturbance with an unknown description

Abstract >>
The problem of generalizing the method of analytical construction of aggregated regulators to the case of controlling a poorly formalized object on manifolds under the condition of uncertainty is considered. A comparative overview of the conditions of applicability of two methods for the control on manifolds is given, and the property of robustness of these methods is illustrated. An algorithm for the synthesis of a control system for a multidimensional nonlinear object with incomplete information about the right sides of the description based on the principles of synergetic control theory is given. The results of numerical simulation of the operation of the regulator constructed under off-design conditions (with additive random noise) are obtained.
																								



12.
SIMULATING THE CROSS SECTION OF INELASTIC SCATTERING OF ELECTRONS IN LAYERED STRUCTURES ON THE BASIS OF DIELECTRIC FUNCTIONS AND EXPERIMENTAL SPECTRA OF THE FILM AND SUBSTRATE

A. S. Parshin1, S. A. Kushchenkov1, O. P. Pchelyakov2, Yu. L. Mikhlin3
1Siberian State Aerospace University, pr. Im. Gazety “Krasnoyarskii Rabochii” 31, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 Russia
2Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrent’eva 13, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50, str. 24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: электронная спектроскопия, сечение неупругого рассеяния отражённых электронов, длина свободного пробега электрона, electron spectroscopy, cross section of inelastic scattering of reflected electrons, mean free path of an electron

Abstract >>
This paper describes a technique of simulating the cross section of inelastic scattering of electrons in layered structures from the experimental spectra of the cross section of inelastic scattering of reflected electrons of structural components on the basis of the theoretical Yubero - Tougaard model of the cross section of inelastic scattering in a homogeneous medium and its generalization for the case of layered structures. This technique is tested by an example of studying the spectra of the cross section of inelastic scattering in a two-layer SiO2/Si structure.
																								



13.
ELLIPSOMETRIC STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BY ANNEALING SIOX FILMS IN OXYGEN-CONTAINING MEDIA

N. V. Sopinskii1, A. V. Russu2
1Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, pr. Nauki 45 Kyiv, 03028 Ukraine
2National University of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy,”, ul. Grigoriya Skovorody 2, Kyiv, 04655 Ukraine
Keywords: кремниевые наночастицы, эллипсометрия, оптическая модель, разделение фаз, окисление, silicon nanoparticles, ellipsometry, optical model, phase separation, oxidation

Abstract >>
The multiangle ellipsometry method was used to study phase-structural transformations occurring during thermal annealing of vacuum-deposited SiOx films in air. The analysis of the experimental results carried out with a set of optical models that take into account nonuniformity and anisotropy made it possible to obtain data about the impact of the competitive processes of phase decomposition and oxidation of SiOx films into macro- and microstructures of systems formed in the annealing temperature range from 650 to 1000 °C.