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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2015 year, number 4

Complex Use of Geochemical Features of Bottom Deposits and Pollen Records for Paleoclimate Reconstructions (on the Example of Lake Teletskoye, the Altai Republic)

1V. S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Koptyuga ave., 3
2Institute of Archeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Lavrentieva ave., 17
3Novosibirsk State University, 630090, Novosibirsk, Pirogova str., 2
Keywords: climate, paleoreconstruction, bottom sediments, pollen analysis, biomes

Abstract >>
The delayed response of taiga and steppe biomes to climatic changes was detected on the example of Lake Teletskoye. On the basis of the complex use of geochemical features of bottom sediments and pollen records a paleoreconstruction was made. It showed average 100-year temperatures at the depth of 4000 years with the isolation of the assumed boundaries of climatic reconstructions in XIV, IV centuries B.C. and XIII, XX centuries A.D. The comparison between temperature reconstruction for Lake Teletskoe with temperature time series for the Northern hemisphere and North-Eastern Europe was carried out.

Extreme Climatic Events in the Tuva Republic Described on the Basis of Tree-Ring Analysis

1Siberin Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
2Tuvan State University, 667000, Kyzyl, Lenin str., 36
Keywords: upper boundary of the forest, anomalies in the structure of annual rings, frost rings, climatic extremes, the Tuva Republic

Abstract >>
The study of spatial distribution of anomalies in anatomical structure of annual rings of the Siberian larch was carried out on the upper boundary of a forest in the Tuva Republic. The spatial analysis of dendrochronological data was conducted in six areas: Mongun, Kolchan, Tan, Derzik, Kungur, Taris. The results helped to single out extreme climatic events of three categories: local (years 1662, 1699, 1792, 1804, 1814, 1821, 1847, 1867, 1993), regional (years 1698, 1754, 1775, 1779, 1785, 1788, 1789, 1797, 1813, 1819, 1843, 1854, 1869, 1870, 1882, 1911, 1923) and transregional (years 1783, 1784, 1812, 1884). The latter correspond well with the dates of large volcanic eruptions (Grimsvotn, Lakagigar, Soufriere St.Vincent and Krakatau volcanoes) and with historical data.

Reaction of Coniferous Trees of Kuznetsky Alatau Alpine Tundra Ecotone on Climate Change

1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
Keywords: alpine forest-tundra ecotone, Larix sibirica, Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, elfin wood forms, affect of climate on the growth rate

Abstract >>
In recent decades, there has been an increase in radial growth of Larix sibirica Ledeb., Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Abies sibirica Ledeb., which grow in Kuznetsky Alatau alpine tundra ecotone. Larch growth positively correlated with summer temperatures; cedar and fir growth was determined by temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration. It was shown that the current growth of maturing larch trees on average was 55 % higher than that of a similar age group 200 years ago. The rate of larch advancement along the height gradient was estimated as 1m / 10 years. Periodical limitation of fir radial growth by winter and summer temperatures was noted; the strongest correlation was observed with summer temperatures (r = 0.9). For all conifers there was a high correlation of growth rate with atmospheric CO2 concentration (r = 0.42...0.84). Increased winter temperature induced transformation of elfin forms of larch and cedar (early 1970s) and fir (early 1980s) into vertical forms.

Compensation Reactions of Forest Stands in the Western Caucasus to the Reduction of Density of Dominants

Maikop State Technological University, 385000, Maikop, Pervomaiskaya str., 191
Keywords: forest stands, tree species, dominants, compensation processes, species richness, the Western Caucasus

Abstract >>
The reaction of forest stands of the Western Caucasus to the possible reduction in the density of dominant species was estimated. The results showed that the increase in the number of accompanying tree species, growth of their habitats and appearance of new species (the compensation processes) should be expected. Moreover, in some types of forest stands the essential increase in the density of only one accompanying species - preferably, the subdominant - was predicted; in other types of forest stands - the increase in the density of two or three accompanying species; in yet other types of forest stands - the increase in the density of the majority of accompanying species. Such division can be explained by different proportion of the species with dissimilar life strategies in the forest stands.

Biotic and Abiotic Factors as Causes of Coniferous Forests Dieback in Siberia and Far East

V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: root rot disease, edaphic anomalies, climate change

Abstract >>
The study was based on 20 years of research of the massive dieback of coniferous forests ( Pinus sibirica Du Tour , Picea obovata Ledeb ., Abies sibirica Ledeb ., Pinus sylvestris L. , Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen. , Abies nephrolepis (Trautv. ex Maxim.) Maxim., Pinus koraiensis Siebold & Zucc.) in Siberia and the Far East. It was found that the dieback had been provoked by the causative agents of root rot ( Armillaria mellea s.l., Heterobasidion annosum s.l., Phellinus sulphurascens Pilat ., Porodaedalea niemelaei M. Fischer , Phaeolus schweinitzii (Fr.) Pat.). The disease spread due to decreased biological sustainability of coniferous trees. A. borealis Marxm. & Korh. should be considered the most dangerous species affecting a large variety of woody plants in different forest site conditions. Trigger mechanism of the dieback was a combination of adverse climatic anomalies and certain edaphic conditions and/or a set of factors favorable for pathogenic organisms.

Correlations of Heterozygosity with Sexual Type and Sensitivity of Pinus Sylvestris L. Trees to the Influence of Environmental Factors

V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok, 50/28
Keywords: correlations, heterozygosity, sex, sensitivity, Scots pine

Abstract >>
The correlations of genotype heterozygosity with sex and sensitivity of a tree to the influence of ecological factors were considered. Rather close triple correlation between the considered treats was noted. Wave character of correlation of sex and heterozygosity level with sensitivity of trees to growing conditions can testify the existence of optimal combinations of alleles of homo- and heterozygous loci for the given conditions. They were manifested in lowering of sensitivity of trees to environmental factors at values of heterozygosity 0.125 and 0.375. The influence of heterozygosity of trees on the stability of their sexual type in time was revealed. The pines characterized by the greatest hormonal reorganizations in reply to change of environmental conditions had lower values of heterozygosity.

Population of Birds of the Main Forest Biotopes in Southern SikhoteAlin

The Ussuri reserve FEB RAS, 692519, Ussuriysk, Nekrasova str., 1
Keywords: birds, forests, species diversity, nesting density

Abstract >>
Of 6 main forest biotopes in Southern Sikhote-Alin the highest species diversity (61 nesting species) and birds population density (444 pair/km2) were noted in lowland deciduous forests. The lowest species diversity was detected in oak forests (32 species and 137 pair/km2, respectively). The most similar forests in terms of species composition of nesting birds were Manchurian fir forest and Korean pine forest (97 % of common species).

Biochemical Processes and Gas Conditions of Bogs of Different Genesis

1Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634061, Tomsk, Kiyevskaya str., 60
2Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1
Keywords: peat bog, Western Siberia, transformation of organic matter, carbon dioxide, methane, microflora, gas conditions, emission

Abstract >>
The study of biochemical processes of gas conditions formation in oligotrophic and eutrophic peat deposits of bogs in Western Siberia in 20112013 was presented. It was shown that the dynamics of formation of CO2 and CH4 in a peat deposit was controlled by the activity of microorganisms. The correlations between CO2 and CH4 emission and gas conditions of the peat deposits were determined. The peculiarities of biochemical processes running in oligotrophic and eutrophic peat deposits were specified.

The content of microelements (Cu and Zn) in reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) of a constructed wetland system

Nicolić Ljiljana, Ivana Maksimović, Dejana Džigurski, Marina Putnik-Delić
University of Novi Sad, 21 000, Serbia, Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića, 8
Keywords: reed, bioaccumulation, essential microelements, Cu, Zn, constructed wetland system

Abstract >>
The method for purification of municipal waste waters with the use of constructed wetland system (CWS) was put in operation in Serbia for the first time in 2004, in the Gložan village near Novi Sad. Biological factors in this anthropogenic ecosystem are microorganisms and reeds ( Phragmites communis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.). In the process of bioaccumulation, among other substances, emergent plants often accumulate large quantities of microelements. Although microelements are present in plants in relatively small quantities, in emergent plants that grow on the surface where wastewater (which contains various substances, including microelements) flows, their quantity in plant dry weight can be higher. This paper presents the results of the three-year study (2004-2006) of Cu and Zn concentration in different organs of reed plants (leaf, stem, rhizome with root and inflorescence) grown in the Gložan CWS. The study was carried out on three fields. The first year of the study was taken as control, as thats when the Gložan CWS was established, while 2005 and 2006 were the first and the second years of the system exploitation. In 2004 Cu concentration varied from 3.20 ppm in reed stems to 5.30 ppm in inflorescences. In 2005 Cu concentrations were lower in comparison to the first year, while in the third year the trend of reduction of Cu concentration was present in all analyzed organs in the third field. Concentration of Cu had diminishing tendency in all three fields over time, with exception of inflorescences where it was mostly constant. In the first year of the study the highest concentrations of Zn were recorded, ranging from 13.97 ppm in rhizomes with roots to 34.60 ppm in inflorescences. In the second year, concentration of Zn was the lowest in all three fields, and in the third year overall concentration of Zn (except for inflorescences) was lower in comparison to the first year of the study (control).

Litter priming and trenching greatly affect soil respiration in a mature subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest in Southwestern China

Jian Wang Jian1,2, Ming Lai Li1,2, Chun Zhao Xue1,2, He Jiang Lian1,2, Wang Yongji1,2, Hua Zhou Ji1,2, Wang Fei3, Zhang Chao3, Run Zheng Yan1
1Institute of Botany CAS, 100093, Chin, Beijing
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100039, Beijing, Chin
3West Chin Subalpine Botanical garden, 611843, Chin, Dujiangyanyan
Keywords: soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration, litter, litter addition, litter removal

Abstract >>
Global warming will stimulate primary production, which is likely to drive shifts in litter production and lead to an increase in carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, the effects of such changes on soil C cycling in subtropical forests remain largely unknown. In a typical subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in Southwestern China we conducted a controlled experiment that included addition and removal of litter, and trenching. Annual soil respiration in control, trenching, litter addition, and litter removal treatments were 1083.47, 521.50, 1363.30, and 896.15 g C m–2 y–1, respectively. Soil respiration was significantly related to temperature in all treatments, but was independent of soil moisture, except in control plots. Q10 values in control, trenching, litter addition, and litter removal treatments were 3.46, 6.36, 2.72, and 4.85, respectively. Litter addition reduced Q10, but litter removal and trenching increased it. Average heterotrophic soil respiration produced C in the amount equivalent to 48 % of the efflux from the soil. Soil respiration in the litter addition treatment was 25 % higher than in the control treatment; this increase is about 8 % larger than the 17 % decrease in soil respiration caused by litter removal. This implies a priming effect on soil respiration. Our results suggest that increases in litter production in response to human disturbances and global warming could have rapid and important consequences on soil respiration in subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests.

Peculiarities of Maintaining the Hypericum perforatum L. Coenopopulation Size on the Dry Meadow During the Dry Season

Kazan Federal University, 420000, Kazan, Kremlevskaya str., 18
Keywords: Hypericum perforatum L, root sucker plant, ramet, vegetative growth, ontogenetic structure of a coenopopulation

Abstract >>
The mechanism of conservation of the Hypericum perforatum L. coenopopulation size was studied on a dry meadow on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan during the dry seasons in 20102012. On the dry meadow the coenopopulation size was increased with the help of root sprouts. The ramets formed as soon as the conditions were optimal. There was no correspondence detected between the vegetative growth and climatic factors during the season. On the other hand, the ontogenetical structure of the coenopopulation and reproduction processes did depend on climatic conditions. Flexibility of the vegetative growth process provided for the stable size of the coenopopulation and the fluctuation type of its dynamics.

Reproductive Ability of Lonicera caerulea (Caprifoliaceae) in the Area of Geological and Geophysical Heterogeneity in the Altai Mountains

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskya str., 101
Keywords: Lonicera caerulea, seed production, embryolethality, germinating capacity and readiness, flavonoids, active tectonics

Abstract >>
Variability of the reproductive capacity of Lonicera caerulea in the area of geological heterogeneity was studied. The study was carried out in the Altai Mountains (Kamenniy Belok ridge). Significant influence of a complex of geo-environmental factors in the area on the weight of the fruits, their seed production, germinating capacity and germination readiness was detected. It was assumed that the change of secondary metabolism in the organs of L. caerulea , which occurs under the influence of the factors related to geological activity, had an impact on reproductive characteristics of the plants.

Reproduction Biology of Gymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) on Its Northern Distribution Border

Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Centre, 167000, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str., 28
Keywords: Orchidaceae, reproductive biology, seed morphometry, seed productivity

Abstract >>
The article contains data on reproduction biology of Gymndenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. (Orchidaceae) in the Komi Republic, on the northern border of the species habitat. Morphometric characteristics of flowers, fruits and seeds in different coenopopulations of this species in the region were studied. Fruit set, seed productivity and seed quality were also defined.

Features of Seed Germination in Different Ecological Groups of the Species of the Section Violidum, Subgenus Nomimium, Genus Viola L. (Violaceae)

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: ection Violidum, subgenus Nomimium, genus Viola, biology of germination, germinating ability, germination energy, longevity of seeds, ecological groups

Abstract >>
Seed germination of 14 species (22 populations) of the section Violidum , subgenus Nomimium , genus Viola in different ecological groups was studied. The conditions for germination of seeds, germinating ability, germination energy, intensity of germination energy, longevity of seeds and profitability of their introduction, and the period when the seeds germinating ability decreased by 50 % (50) were determined. The seeds of most species of xeromesophytes and mesophytes massively germinated at + 2325 C within the period of 10 days. For other species of these ecological groups cold stratification was favourable. The hygromesophytes had prolonged seed germination (up to 2 months). The petrophyte seeds had shallow physiological dormancy (B1). Seeds of other species as a rule were non-dormant.

Ecological Interactions in the System: Entomopathogenic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Plant Pathogenic Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Host Plant Solanum tuberosum

1Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, 630039, Novosibirsk, Dobrolyubova str., 160
2All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, 196608, St. Petersburg, Pushkin-8, Podbelsky rd., 3
Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis, Rhizoctonia solani, Solanum tuberosum, biological control, disease suppression, polyfunctional activity, plant growth promotion

Abstract >>
Mutual functionl dependence in the three-component system ( Bacillus thuringiensis Rhizoctonia solani Solanum tuberosum ) was shown. Suppression of rhizoctonia disease of potato due to the treatment of tubers with entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. darmstadiensis ( BtH 10) was demonstrated. In vitro inhibitory activity of BtH10 towards R.solani exceeded 80 %. Field testing was carried out on two potato cultivars of different ripeness groups in 20132014. The rhizoctonia disease severity in stems, stolons and new tubers decreased significantly due to BtH10 treatment. Together with biological control of R. solani , BtH10 promoted the plants growth, increasing germinating capacity, stem height and number. Polyfunctional activity of the BtH10 bacteria contributed to the improvement of potato productivity.

Biochemical Specificity and Ecological Preferences of East Asian Species Bistorta pacifica and B. elliptica (Polygonaceae)

1Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630190, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
2Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry FEB RAS, 690022, Vladivostok, 100 let Vladivostoku ave., 159
Keywords: Bistorta pacifica, Bistorta ellitica, flavonols, catechins, tannins, saponins, pectins, protopectins, carotenoids, phenolcarbonic acids

Abstract >>
The content of secondary metabolites - flavonols, catechins, tannins, saponins, pectinaceous substances and carotnoids in leaves and inflorescences of East Asian species Bistorta pacifica (V. Petrov ex Kom) Kom. and B. ellitica (Willd. ex Spreng.) Kom. growing in Primorsky Krai was studied. A certain organospecificity in their accumulation was noted. Inflorescences contained more flavonols, catechins and saponins; leaves more tannins, protopectins and carotnoids. Phenolic compounds (hyperosid, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, rutin, astragalin, orientin, vitexin and isovitexin) were found in aqueous-alcoholic extracts from elevated parts of the studied plants through the use of HPLC methods. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, orientin, vitexin, isovitexin, chlorogenic and caffeic acids were found in hydrolyzates of the extracts. Morphologically similar species B. pacifica and B. ellitica differ not only by their ecological preferences, but also by the qualitative composition of phenolic compounds.