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Journal of Mining Sciences

2015 year, number 3

1.
Water Inrush in Mines as a Consequence of Spontaneous Hydrofracture

V. N. ODINTSEV, N. A. MILETENKO
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskiy tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: underground excavations, underground water, water inrush, hydrofracture, numerical modeling

Abstract >>
The authors review water inrushes in mines as a consequence of spontaneous hydrofracture of surrounding rocks. In the developed hydrofracture model, the fracture grows under the pressure of underground water in the area of reduction in mining-induced stresses. The model includes two criteria of fracture growth-critical extension of rocks at the fracture tip and opening of fracture throughout the length. It is found that spontaneous hydrofracturing is conditioned by natural and induced stresses, hydrostatic pressure of underground water and by mining sequence.
																								



2.
Experimental Justification of Nonlocal Failure Criteria for Geomaterial Plates with a Circular Hole under Nonequicomponent Compression

S. V. SUKNEV
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lenina 43, Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
Keywords: failure, geomaterial, scale factor, stress concentration, hole, nonlocal failure criteria

Abstract >>
The theoretical and experimental analyses involve influence of boundary conditions on failure of brittle geomaterial in the area of high stress concentration under nonequicomponent compression, considering scale factor. The critical stress values calculated based on integral and gradient criteria are compared with the experimental data.
																								



3.
Ill-Posed Problems in Rock Mechanics

V. E. MIRENKOV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: rock block, boundary, stress, displacement, singular equation, inverse problem, solution

Abstract >>
Boundary value problems of rock mechanics include many variables that exercise complex influence on the problem solutions. The influence of some variables may be considerable while the other variables have minor effect. The nature of the variable-solution relationship becomes evident after conversion of a boundary value problem. The conversion and the analysis of the solution versus variable is as a rule carried out numerically, which raises questions on the solution accuracy and description of the influence of simultaneously changed variables on the solution. Currently there are known solutions to single-variable inverse subproblems. This article offers a new method for solving multi-variable inverse problems based on obtained exact solutions connecting boundary values of stresses and displacements and eliminating regularization.
																								



4.
Estimate of Maximum Permissible Height of Pit Wall Based on a Rigid-Plastic Body Scheme

G. M. PODYMINOGIN, A. I. CHANYSHEV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: maximum permissible height, plasticity, stability, pit wall slope, internal friction angle, cohesion

Abstract >>
The authors describe mathematical model for estimating stability of an extended pit wall. Dilatancy and internal friction angle are included. Based on a rigid-plastic body scheme, maximum permissible height of pit wall from the viewpoint of its safety is estimated. The article gives relations of the maximum permissible pit wall height, pit wall slope and rock mass properties.
																								



5.
Ultrasound Correlation Logging for Roof Rock Structure Diagnostics

V. L. SHKURATNIK, P. V. NIKOLENKO, A. A. KORMNOV
National University of Science and Technology-MISiS, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: roof rocks, ultrasound, noise signal, correlation method, control, fracture, structure diagnostics

Abstract >>
Influence of a fracture and lamination in roof of an underground excavation on correlation characteristics of stationary continuous acoustic noise signal is studied by means of computer and physical modeling. It is shown that against conventional time-impulse method of roof rock structure diagnostics, the use of acoustic signal and the new method of log data processing enhances perceptibility and reliability of the analysis of roof rocks and their damage with fractures.
																								



6.
Contact Friction Included in the Problem on Rock Failure under Compression

L. M. VASIL’EV, D. L. VASIL’EV
Polyakov Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Simferopol’skaya 2a, Dnepropetrovsk, 49005 Ukraine
Keywords: rock, ultimate strength, failure, fracture, stress-strain curve

Abstract >>
The authors have developed the analytical method for estimating ultimate compression strength and plotting normal stress-axial strain curves using experimentally obtained indexes of rock properties-ultimate shearing strength and coefficients of internal and external friction. The values of the listed properties are readily found in mine experiments. The method is advantageous for simple and efficient acquisition of source data for stress-strain plots and estimation of ultimate strength of rocks immediately in mines.
																								



7.
Nanoindentation in Studying Mechanical Properties of Heterogeneous Materials

F. M. BORODICH1, S. J. BULL2, S. A. EPSHTEIN3
1Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, the Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales, United Kingdom
2Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, United Kingdom
3National University of Science and Technology-MISiS, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: continuous nanoindentation, macerals, mechanical properties

Abstract >>
A procedure has been developed for estimation of elastic moduli and microhardness of elements composing heterogeneous materials, including coal and rocks. The procedure is based on the joint application of continuous nanoindentation and optical microscopy. The article gives an example of the procedure application in terms of two different coal samples.
																								



8.
Geomechanical Service in Mining under Gas-and-Dynamic Phenomena

K. N. TRUBETSKOY, M. A. IOFIS, E. N. ESINA
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: resource-saving and resource-reproducing geotechnologies, gas-and-dynamic phenomena, borehole mining, preliminary degassing, overburden pressure

Abstract >>
The authors validate efficiency and safety of mining under possible gas-and-dynamic phenomena by directing natural energy of rocks to breakage and based on preliminary coal degassing and implementation of resource-saving and resource-reproducing geotechnologies. Relevant recommendations are given. In addition, the authors present a procedure to forecast and control geomechanical processes, considering formation and expansion of mined-out void in borehole mining.
																								



9.
Justification of Methods to Open up Ore Bodies with Various Combinations of Conveyor Transport

S. V. LUKICHEV, O. V. BELGORODTSEV, E. V. GROMOV
Mining Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 24, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: underground mining, opening-up schemes, shaft, skip, tunnel, hoist machine compartment, crushing chamber, conveyor, technical and economic comparison

Abstract >>
The article gives a brief description of geology of Oleniy Ruchey deposit and the characteristic of current mining situation in Oleniy Ruchey Mine, Northwestern Phosphorus Company. The limitations of the current scheme used to open up the ore body with ore drawing via vertical blind skip-hoist shaft and conveyor tunnel are discussed. The new-developed rational schemes for opening-up and mining, taking into account stagewise commissioning of the Mine, are compared from the viewpoint of economic performance. The authors point out benefits of stagewise opening-up of Oleniy Ruchey ore body by inclined conveyor shafts.
																								



10.
Validation of Rational Backfill Technology for Sekisovskoe Deposit

L. A. KRUPNIK1, M. ZH. BITIMBAEV2, S. N. SHAPOSHNIK3, YU. N. SHAPOSHNIK4, V. F. DEMIN5
1Satpaev Kazakh National Technical University, ul. Satpaeva 22a, Almaty, 050013 Kazakhstan
2Data Invest LTD, ul. Shevchenko 157, Almaty, 050000 Kazakhstan
3East Kazakhstan State Technical University after Serikbaev, ul. Protozanova 69, Ust-Kamenogorsk, 070004 Kazakhstan
4Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
5Karaganda State Technical University, Blv. Mira 56, Karaganda, 100027 Kazakhstan
Keywords: backfilling, backfill, backlfill preparation and feed flowsheets, backfill strength

Abstract >>
The article gives geological characteristic of ore and enclosing rocks at Sekisovskoe gold deposit. The underground mining involves room-and-pillar and sublevel caving for medium thick ore bodies and shrinkage stoping for thin ore bodies. The use of the solidifying backfill technology is validated. Based on the laboratory research into rheological and strength properties of backfill mixtures, rational backfill compositions are proposed for the said deposit. The technical and economic estimation of backfilling scenarios in Sekisovsky Mine is made for: 1) preparation of backfill in a mixer-activator and gravity flow in pipeline; 2) backfill preparation in a concrete mixer and feed in mine via vertical holes and horizontal mine mixers. Efficient flowsheet is developed for backfill feed from the surface backfill plants. Selection of the rational backfill technology for Sekisovskoe deposit is described.
																								



11.
Mining of U-Shaped Hard Mineral Bodies

V. I. CHESKIDOV, V. K. NORRI
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: U-shaped mineral deposits, dragline mining method, reexcavation factor

Abstract >>
The authors analyze structural features of U-shaped hard mineral bodies and offer an approach to selecting scenarios of opening-up and sequence of mining at such deposits. It is validated to be efficient to use draglines for actual mining and overburden removal. The analytical method of finding reexcavation factor in dragline mining is proposed.
																								



12.
Estimate of Stability of Overburden Dumping on an Inclined Surface

A. I. BARULIN
AGS Manufacturing Company, Rudnyi, 111500 Kazakhstan
Keywords: dump, finite element method, dump truck, failure mechancs, sliding surface, stability criteria

Abstract >>
The author analyzes potential dumping on an inclined surface by small-capacity dump trucks. A mathematical model is developed for FEM analysis of stresses in a dump, using a proprietory method of dump stability estimation. Safe operation of dump trucks Kamatsu MOXY in such conditions is proved. The research findings are used in construction of conveyor hoist in Kachar open pit mine, Sokolov-Sarbai Mining Production Association.
																								



13.
Justification of Basic Diagrams of Horizontal Drilling Deflectors

B. B. DANILOV, B. N. SMOLYANITSKY, D. O. CHESHCHIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: rock mass, hole, soil, directional drilling, trajectory, deflection

Abstract >>
The authors discuss approaches to engineering a directional drilling tool to be used in underground mining and construction. Justification is provided for operating principles of devices for deflection of drilling in a required direction. Experimental research of changing pneumatic drilling machine trajectory in soil is reported.
																								



14.
Influence of Air Distribution System on Energy Efficiency of Pneumatic Percussion Unit of Circular Impact Machine

A. M. PETREEV, A. YU. PRIMYCHKIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: circular pneumatic impact machine, air distribution, elastic valve, design model

Abstract >>
The article describes computer modeling of three options of pneumatic percussion unit in a circular impact machine. All options have similar construction diagrams and mechanical linkage parameters but different control of energy-carrier feed in a working chamber: valveless; with one or two circular elastic valves. The obtained data allow quantitative evaluation of operation of such systems given the accepted constraints for mechanical block.
																								



15.
Complexing Collecting Agent for Selective Flotation of Chalcopyrite

I. G. ZIMBOVSKY1, T. A. IVANOVA1, V. A. CHANTURIA1, E. L. CHANTURIA2
1Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 11120 Russia
2College of Mining, National University of Science and Technology-MISiS, Leninskii pr. 6, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Keywords: sulfide selection, sorption, flotation, chalcopyrite, pyrite, extraction, reagents

Abstract >>
Under analysis is interaction between 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethylaminopyrazolone-5 (AMD) and copper in solution and on the surface of chalcopyrite. It is found that AMD experiences chemical adsorption on the surface of chalcopyrite as a compound with copper. Effect exerted on adsorption of AMD agent on copper sulfide by ammonium rhodanate (NH4CNS), introduced as an additional ligand, or its mixture with acetic acid is defined. Based on the analytical research and the analytical chemistry data, the type of adsorption on the surface of chalcopyrite is determined. The flotation tests on monomineral fraction of chalcopyrite and pyrite, and copper sulfide ore prove selectivity of AMD in separation of chalcopyrite and pyrite.
																								



16.
Fahl Ore Flotation

V. A. BOCHAROV, V. A. IGNATKINA, A. A. KAYUMOV
National University of Science and Technology-MISiS, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow, 119049 Russia
Keywords: flotation, tennantite, copper sulfides, oxidation, modifiers, technology

Abstract >>
The authors discuss flotation of fahl ore. It is proved that tennantite should be separated into an individual copper product in order to enhance overall copper recovery and mitigate ecological impact by means of preventing arsenic volatilization under smelting. Single mineral fractions of pyrite, chalcopyrite, tennantite, secondary sulfides, sphalerite and quartz sampled in the Ural region, as well as the sample of copper-zinc ore containing fahl ore are examined. The research involves oxidation of copper sulfides and pyrite under grinding in different conditions. Concentration of oxygen and sulfur-bearing ions is under control. The differences in oxygen consumption, and in oxidation of pyrite, tennantite and other sulfides are used to develop the mode of separation of tennantite from other copper sulfides, sphalerite and pyrite. Based on the research findings, the authors recommend a flotation technology for copper-zinc pyritic ore with high content of tennantite with separation of tennantite and secondary copper sulfides in different flotation circuits at varied pH.
																								



17.
Experimental Investigation of Interaction between Modified Thermomorphic Polymers, Gold and Platinum in Dressing of Rebellious Precious Metal Ore

V. A. CHANTURIA, V. V. GETMAN
Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
Keywords: thermomorphic polymers, modification, platinum, gold, flotation, flocculation, optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray phase analysis

Abstract >>
The article reports physical and physico-mechanical test data on interaction between modified thermomorphic polymers and gold- and platinum-bearing sulfides. It is found that the reagents interact selectively with the noble metals and are applicable as efficient flocculants.
																								



18.
Gold and Arsenic Recovery from Calcinates of Rebellious Pyrite-Arsenopyrite Concentrates

M. A. GURMAN, L. I. SHCHERBAK, A. V. RASSKAZOV
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrates, ferric arsenates, alkaline leaching, hydrogen peroxide, arsenic, gold, recovery

Abstract >>
The products of stepped calcination of pyrite-arsenopyrite concentrates contain ferric arsenate phases FeAsO4, Fe4As2O11, Fe3(AsO4)2. The article reports the research data on leaching of calcines in alkaline medium including caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide used as an oxidizer. The experiments prove the efficiency of alkaline leaching with H2O2 for dissociation of gold associated with ferric arsenates (II) and (III) and for reduction of arsenic content from 1.2–1.4 to 0.006–0.15%. Preliminary leaching of calcinates enhances gold cyanidation yield from 91–92.9 to 97.3–97.9%.
																								



19.
Effect of Galena Grain Size on Flotation Kinetics

L. CVETICANIN, D. VUCINIC, P. LAZIC, M. KOSTOVIC
University of Belgrade, Studentski trg. 1, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
Keywords: кинетика флотации, константа скорости, крупность галенита, концентрация коллектора, flotation kinetics, rate constant, galena grain size, collector concentration

Abstract >>
Laboratory tests of relationship between kinetics of flotation of pure galena smaller than 38 µm in size and concentration of potassium butyl xanthate show that flotation rate undergoes considerable reduction when mineral grains are under 18 µm in size. Size grades below 18 µm show the slowest flotation rates that are nearly equal at the collector concentration of 0.5 mg/l. With the higher collector concentration, the flotation rate grows in all size grades under testing.
																								



20.
Precipitation of Salts during Capillary Hoist in Solutions in Subsurface Aeration Zone

A. G. MIKHAILOV, M. YU. KHARITONOVA, I. I. VASHLAEV, M. L. SVIRIDOVA
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50, Bld. 24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: пористый массив, зона аэрации, испарительный барьер, водный раствор солей, концентрирование солей, porous rock mass, aeration zone, evaporation barrier, brine, salt concentration

Abstract >>
Series of experiments on seepage of water solutions of nickel and cobalt though an evaporation barrier in a porous low rock mass is described. Evaporation intensity shows tendency toward linear decrease with time due to change of the rock mass porosity as a consequence of salt precipitation in the subsurface aeration zone. It is possible to control evaporation intensity by redistributing vertical zonality of precipitate in the subsurface zone. The authors find mechanism of precipitated salt distribution in subsoil.
																								



21.
Services for Cloud Computing and Seismic Data Processing for Geomechanically and Geodynamically Active Coal Mining Areas in Kuzbass

V. P. POTAPOV1, V. N. OPARIN2, O. L. GINIYATULLINA1, I. E. KHARLAMPENKOV1
1Institute of Computational Technologies, ul. Rukavishnikova 21, Kemerovo, 650025 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: геомеханико-геодинамическая безопасность, угледобывающие районы Кузбасса, геоинформационные технологии, web-сервисы, облачные хостинги, сейсмичность, быстродействие, geomechanical and geodynamic safety, coal mining areas in Kuzbass, geoinformation technologies, web-services, cloud hostings, seismicity, speed

Abstract >>
The authors present a new, more efficient decision on using information services for cloud computing in geomechanical and geodynamic safety control in seismically active areas. The offered approach is trialed in terms of analysis of seismicity data obtained in the Kemerovo Region between Jan 1, 2006 and Dec 31, 2009, using the method of plotting migration trajectories for a reduced center of seismic energy release, as well as for a spot with an area of 150 km 2. The implementation of the developed services together with a cloud hosting enable cutting the time of seismic data processing algorithm.
																								



22.
New-Generation Portable Geoacoustic Instrument for Rockburst Hazard Assessment

I. YU. RASSKAZOV, D. S. MIGUNOV, P. A. ANIKIN, A. V. GLADYR’, A. A. TERESHKIN, D. O. ZHELNIN
Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
Keywords: удароопасность, массив горных пород, напряженно-деформированное состояние, геомеханический мониторинг, системы контроля горного давления, акустическая эмиссия, локальный контроль, Rockburst hazard, rock mass, stress-strain state, geomechanical monitoring, ground control, acoustic emission, local control

Abstract >>
The article gives specifications and design features of a new-generation portable digital geoacoustic instrument for local geomechanical control. Field application of the instrument in rockburst-hazardous conditions is described and its capacity of efficient express-estimation of deformation processes running in the periphery of a rock mass is illustrated.
																								



23.
Measuring Equipment and Test Bench to Control Evolution of Acoustic-Deformation and Heat Fields Induced in Solids under Fracture by Fluids

V. N. OPARIN1,2, V. I. VOSTRIKOV1, O. M. USOL’TSEVA1, P. A. TSOI1,3, V. N. SEMENOV1
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, ul. Pirogova 20, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
3Novosibirsk State Technical University, pr. K. Marksa 20, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
Keywords: физическая модель, лабораторный эксперимент, деформация, флюидоразрыв, акустическая эмиссия, спекл-метод, стенд, эволюция напряженно-деформированного состояния, физические поля, взаимосвязь, physical model, laboratory experiment, deformation, fluid-induced fracture, acoustic emission, speckle-method, test bench, stress-strain state evolution, physical fields, interrelationship

Abstract >>
The authors have developed a procedure and a test bench for studying evolution of various nature physical fields in modeling geomedium fracture by fluids. The test bench performs synchronous recording of macro- and micro-deformation, heat and acoustic emission induced in physical models of geomedium under loading to discontinuity. The experimental procedure has been trialed. The analysis of the synchronized test data allows a conclusion on the existence of time-space relationship between different nature physical fields induced during failure of solids.
																								



24.
Equipment for Microseismic Monitoring of Geodynamic Processes in Underground Hard Mineral Mining

S. V. SERDYUKOV1, A. V. AZAROV1, P. A. DERGACH2, A. A. DUCHKOV2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: микросейсмический мониторинг геодинамических процессов, система сбора данных, массив горных пород, скважинный сейсмический прибор, microseismic monitoring, geodynamic processes, data acquisition system, rock mass, downhole seismic equipment

Abstract >>
The article describes engineering decisions on equipment for acquisition of data on microseismicity, that improve information content of microseismic monitoring of geodynamic processes in underground hard mineral mining.