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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 1

Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

T. T. Efremova, A. F. Avrova, S. P. Efremov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: bog spruce forests, morphoecological types of moss litter, typodiagnostic subhorizons, Kuznetsk Alatau

Abstract

For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley–riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss)hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (917 cm) with high storage of organic matter (7799 t/ha), which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.87.0 and high percentage of ash 1128 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes) to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat and peatyfermentative, humifiedfermentative and (black mold humus)-fermentative layers were selected. Peat and peatyfermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers — myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humifiedfermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nuttygranular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus)-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humifiedfermentative, but differ from them in clayhumus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus)peaty, reduced (black mold humus)peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physicalchemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermentation layers. These results confirm the feasibility of using morphogenetic structure of litter for the purposes of classification, reflecting the rate of substances turnover, parcel structure and production potential of forest peat soils. The obtained materials are important for the prediction of the transformation of Kuznetsk Alatau forest wetland depressions in connection with global and local climate fluctuations.