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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2015 year, number 1

From the Editor–inChief

A. A. Onuchin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation

Forest Resources of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast: Problems and Prospects of Rational Use

S. M. Bebia
Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of Abkhazia, Gulia str., 22, Sukhum, 384900 Republic of Abkhazia
Keywords: forest condition, final felling, multifunctional value, stand structure, natural regeneration, productivity growth, selective forest management, refugium, relics, Caucasian Black See Coast

Abstract >>
More than 70 % of the Caucasian Black Sea Coast (CBSC) forests grow in mountainous conditions of the Colchis phytogeographical province and perform primary environmental functions. In these forests for a long period of time excessively intense logging has been in practice, which caused serious damage to their health. The main issues of forestry here are the introduction of effective methods of harvesting, using rational technology in logging operations, restoring native forest types at past logging sites, increasing the productivity and sustainability of forests on the bioecological biogeocenotical level, and preserving the riparian-protective role of forests. In the article, the author analyzes the results of many years of research in forests of the CBSC, that consider the question of condition of forests, peculiarity the multifunctional values and priority direction forestry in them. The author also considers the basic conformity of structure and composition of forest stands, and presents evidence about the natural renewal of logging sites in fir and beech forests. It has been established that high intensity selective logging more than 50 % canopy cover and bringing the stand after logging 0.5 and below leads to degradation of forests, except for the possibility of natural regeneration felling areas for over 70 years. The study substantiates the effectiveness of selective forms of forest management in the uneven-aged stands and the importance of a multi-purpose and sustainable use of forest resources. The study emphasizes the need for a rational technology of logging operations and silvicultural demands strict compliance with the development of cutting areas and suggests ways to improve the productivity of forests, using introduced valuable tree species. For example, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. in the plantings of forest monocultures on the Abkhazian Research Forest Experimental Station (Ochamchira) at age of 50 years forms a valuable timber of 1750 m3/ha, Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng in the same crop forms 1478 m3/ha, Liquidambar styraciflua L. 1000 m3/ha, Liriodendron tulipifera L. forms 852 m3/ha. The most productive local tree species Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach of 50 year age forms a tree stand with timber stock of 350 m3/ha. It is noted that the negative impact on the state of forests and forestry in the region has a significant impact on management of forest resources, as well as global climate change of the planet, and example of which is desiccation of fir forests as a result of climate warming. For efficient use of forest resources, an environmentally and socio-economically sound development strategy for the forest industry in the region must be developed.

Forests and Open Woodlands of Alpine–Taiga Landscapes of the Bureya Mountains (Diversity, Structure, and Dynamics)

S. V. Osipov1,2
1The Pacific Institute of Geography, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Radio str., 7, Vladivostok, 690041 Russian Federation
2Far Eastern Federal University, Sukhanova str., 8, Vladivostok, 690950 Russian Federation
Keywords: vegetation, classification, life form, ecological succession, forest-forming process, altitudinal zonality, Bureya Mountains, Russian Far East

Abstract >>
Many of classic questions of vegetation and forest sciences do not lose their relevance because they are basic knowledge for solving a large number of scientific and practical tasks. The aims of this paper are to describe the coenotic diversity, structure, catastrophic and successional changes of forests and open woodlands in alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains, and to consider some of the approaches that are promising for solving such problems. The analysis of some important characteristics of forest and open woodland vegetation is executed. It is shown that the peculiarities of woodland vegetation are not always reflected in the classification schemes. Contrasting approaches to the classification of woodland vegetation are considered. The main diversity of forest and woodland communities, micro-, meso - and macrocomplexes of alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains is revealed. The main forest forming species of trees are the Ajan spruce (Picea ajanensis) and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi). The ecological-phytocoenological classification of forest and woodland vegetation is developed. A concept of the life form of vegetation is used as a common basis for the classification of vegetation of different structural types. The concept is considered as the multidimensional and multilevel characteristic of vegetation, which consists of at least three components: structural, dynamic and ecological-phytocoenotic types of vegetation. The scheme of vegetation cover zonality of alpine-taiga landscapes of the Bureya Mountains is revised on the basis of concepts of the zonal vegetation and the zonal habitats. Forest and open woodland vegetation form three subbelts: subalpine larch and spruce open woodlands, subalpine spruce and larch forests, taiga spruce and larch forests. The main disturbance factor in vegetation cover of the territory under consideration is fires. Main pyrogenic catastrophic changes and post-fire demutation successions are revealed. Geobotanical mapping of 4500 km2 of alpine-taiga territory was made. The zonality, general diversity and spatial ratio of vegetation classes, location on relief (landscape) and dynamic series of vegetation are represented on the map of the contemporary vegetation cover at 1:200000 scale.

Regularities of Tree Stand Development in Suramens of the Mari El Republic Trans–Volga Region

Yu. P. Demakov1,2, A. V. Isaev2, A. A. Simanova1
1Volga State University of Technology, Ploschad Lenina, 3, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic, 424000 Russian Federation
2State Nature Reserve «Bolshaya Kokshaga, Voinov-Internatsionalistov Str., 26, Yoshkar-Ola, Mari El Republic, 424038 Russian Federation
Keywords: suramen, wood stand, species composition, quality class, canopy density, reserve, plant biomass, dynamics, mathematical models, composition optimization, Mari El Republic Trans-Volga region

Abstract >>
The paper provides the research results representing the dynamics of species composition and production of wood stands in suramens of Mari El Republic Trans-Volga region as mathematical models. It was determined that there are 15 tree species growing on this territory, however the composition of a particular forest stand includes no more than seven tree species. Almost all suramen hydrotopes, with the exception of the swampy ones, are dominated by birch trees, the share of which is especially high in wet suramens, which proves the significant transformation of the forest structure. With the growth of tree stands the species composition inevitably changes towards original formations: in new and wet suramens the tree stand transforms into spruce forest mixed with linden and oak, while in wet suramens the forest stand transforms into spruce forest mixed with birch trees, and in swampy areas — into sticky alder forest. The greatest maximum plant biomass in new suramens is by pine trees, which are followed by spruce and oak trees. Aspen and birch trees are outsiders in this respect. In wet suramens the greatest plant biomass is produced by spruce trees while the least, by sticky alder trees. In terms of annual plant biomass increment the highest is by aspen trees in all types of suramens excluding the swampy ones. In complex plantations in terms of species composition with the growth of forest stand, there are distinct variations of the total tree bole biomass. This occurs due to gradual elimination of some species and their replacement with others. Forest stands in surames of Mari El Republic Trans-Volga region do not use their production capacity to the fullest. There are still reserves to be used. In new and wet suramens the birch and aspen may be replaced by conifers and in some cases even by oak. However, the final decision as on replacement should be taken based on economic calculations and ecological limitations. The paper also stresses that special attention of foresters should be paid on establishing the wood stands when the trees are still young.

Morphogenetic Litter Types of Bog Spruce Forests

T. T. Efremova, A. F. Avrova, S. P. Efremov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: bog spruce forests, morphoecological types of moss litter, typodiagnostic subhorizons, Kuznetsk Alatau

Abstract >>
For the first time the representation of moss litter morphogenetic structure of valley–riverside and streamside spruce forests was determined for the wetland intermountain area of Kuznetsk Alatau. In general, the litter of (green moss)hypnum spruce forest can be characterized as medium thickness (917 cm) with high storage of organic matter (7799 t/ha), which differs in neutral environmental conditions pH 6.87.0 and high percentage of ash 1128 %. Formation litter types were identified, which depend on the content of mineral inclusions in organogenic substrate and the degree of its drainage. The differentiation of litter subhorizons was performed, visual diagnostic indicators of fermentative layers were characterized, and additional (indexes) to indicate their specificity were developed. Peat and peatyfermentative, humifiedfermentative and (black mold humus)-fermentative layers were selected. Peat and peatyfermentative layers are characterized by content of platy peat macroaggregates of coarse vegetable composition, the presence of abundant fungal mycelium and soil animals are the primary decomposers — myriopoda, gastropoda mollusks. Humifiedfermentative layers are identified by including the newly formed amorphous humus-like substances, nuttygranular structural parts of humus nature and soil animals’ humificators enchytraeids and earthworms. (Black mold humus)-fermentative layers are diagnosed by indicators with similar humifiedfermentative, but differ from them in clayhumus composition of nutty-granular blue-grey parts. The nomenclature and classification of moss litter were developed on the basis of their diagnostic characteristics of fermentative layers peat, peaty, reduced peaty, (black mold humus)peaty, reduced (black mold humus)peaty. Using the method of discriminant analysis, we revealed that the physicalchemical properties, mainly percentage of ash and decomposition degree of plant substrate, objectively characterizes the uniqueness of moss litter types, their horizons and fermentation layers. These results confirm the feasibility of using morphogenetic structure of litter for the purposes of classification, reflecting the rate of substances turnover, parcel structure and production potential of forest peat soils. The obtained materials are important for the prediction of the transformation of Kuznetsk Alatau forest wetland depressions in connection with global and local climate fluctuations.

Anatomical Features of the Scots Pine Stem Phloem after Forest Fire

V. V. Stasova1, O. N. Zubareva2, G. A. Ivanova1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorogok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Siberian State Technological University, Prospect Mira, 82, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 Russian Federation
Keywords: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), forest fires, phloem, ray and axial parenchyma, resin ducts, lignin, callosa, the Lower Angara river region, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Central Siberia

Abstract >>
The aim of this work was to study changes in anatomical structure of phloem tissue in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stems influenced by creeping forest fires of various rates. The experiments were carried out in the Lower Angara river region of the Angara provenance, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Central Siberia. The trees with green crowns and different fire damaged butts were chosen as models. Control (undamaged) trees were taken from stands adjacent to experimental plots. The changes of inner bark thickness, number of phloem annual layers between cambium and periderm and number of cells in conductive phloem were found in the stem side opposite to fire scars. The structure fluctuations of phloem tissue were detected: disturbances of sieve cell arrangement, phloem ray enlargements, resin canal overgrowth and formation of great resin ducts. The lignin accumulation was observed in inner bark and a large amount of callusing was detected between conductive and nonconductive phloem. Over the course of time, repairing of tissues occurred and the normal inner bark structure and chemistry (without lignin) were restored. The creeping fire of low intensity caused the maximal changes of phloem quantitative characteristics in trees with bark charring and these tendencies were stored after eight years. After creeping fire of high intensity the tendency for phloem thickening in trees with one fire scar and to thinning in strongly damaged trees were revealed. Also tendencies to decrease of the number of phloem annual layers, number of sieve cells in conductive phloem and ray frequency with increasing of stem injury degree were observed, besides axial parenchyma percentage trended to increase. Eight years after fire these tendencies were often not visible.

The Area of Forest Stand Identification and Required Quantity of Surveys in Tree Stands of Forest Elements

R. A. Ziganshin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: tree stand, forest stand, biogeocenosis, elementary association and terrain (tract), variation of forest inventory indices, norms for a quantity of surveys

Abstract >>
Often the authors of scientific papers, both young and older generations, do not indicate in their articles and books the accuracy and reliability of their investigation. Sometimes they naively believe that in forestry enough once-accepted standard for the required quantity of surveys, forgetting that mathematical statistics, as in all of mathematics, should be guided by the so-called «domain of existence» of this or that regularity of certain numerical ratios. In particular, in forest inventory, as well as in forest science it is required to identify the full area of tree stand or forest stands, biogeocoenoses, or forest type compartment (sub-compartment), because at different ages and with different stand density to achieve the same accuracy and a confidence interval will require a completely different area of identifying and unequal number of measurements of a tree inventory indices. Complete we consider the stand, where the whole range of a tree diameter distribution is represented and statistically reliable. Academician V. N. Sukachev recommended studying forest types following the necessary area of their identification. It is not correct, based on the part of tree stand or forest stand, to accurately identify and evaluate quantitative and qualitative indicators of the biogeocoenoses. The author, based on his wide and long-term forest survey experience of different tree stands and tree species, of different age and density, tried to bring together the results of the research to develop regulatory requirements dictated by different inventory signs’ variability in different cases. The greater the variability (variation) feature, the higher its entropy (uncertainty, disorder), and the greater the quantity of surveys (measurements) have to perform, to achieve the practical necessity of accuracy and reliability of the inventory work. The beginning of the article provides a rigorous and complete interpretation of tree stand and forest stand. Then the article compares the variation of forest inventory indices in sub-compartments for III category of forest planning and in landscape tracts, showing that the survey on natural base is much preferable by the achievable accuracy. In this article all of the standard indicators are summarized in 4 tables for convenient and practical use.

Soil Erosion and Agricultural Afforestation at the South of Central Siberia (To 55 Years of Foundation of Khakass Erosion-Preventive Station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch)

A. I. Lobanov1, V. K. Savostyanov2, A. V. Pimenov1
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Akademgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
2Research Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia, P.O. Box 709, Abakan, Khakass Republic, 655019 Russian Federation
Keywords: soil erosion, agricultural afforestation, forest shelter belts, the Khakass erosion preventive experimental station of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, the south of Central Siberia, Khakass Republic, the Republic of Tyva

Abstract >>
Results of fundamental and applied studies of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch and the Research Institute for Agrarian Problems of Khakassia, Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations of Russia in soil deflation control using management, also agrotechnological and agroafforestation measures, have been given in this scientific review. These activities were undertaken for 55 years. It was established that an average annual humus loss on arable lands in the south of Central Siberia made 1.6 t per 1 ha in the result of soil erosion. The system of usage and protection of soils subjected to erosion has been considered which covers the net of forest shelter belts, strip planting of agricultural crops, application of soil protective farming equipment and fertilizing. In the result of complex studies of soils prone to erosion the following activities were worked out: the way for fertility increase of sandy-loam soils by deep application of organic fertilizers; the way for growing the Siberian larch shelter forests; the way for growing the shelter stands using diagonally- wide meshed construction; the way for growing stands on slope pastures; the technology for growing the two-row shelter forests with a wide row- spacing; ways for growing stands for cattle-breeding purpose; ways for growing massive Scots pine stands; principles of choice of trees and bushes for shelter forests; the main standards for evaluation of linear steppe stands in the south of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Khakass Republic and the Republic of Tyva; concept for growing a new generation of shelter forests ect. Protective forest stands established in the south of Central Siberia in the area more than 50 thousand ha are shown to give a new environmental effect resulting in an increase of soil fertility and crop capacity. Studies of tactical and perspective levels have been shown in the paper, realization of which will promote solving the problems of research progress.

In Memory of Eugene Semenovich Petrenko (1930 – 2014)

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