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Philosophy of Sciences

2015 year, number 1

Gödel's subjective mathematics and self-evident truths

V.V. Tselishchev
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Godel, obvious truth, subjective mathematics, objective mathematics, incompleteness theorem, axiom

Abstract >>
The article discusses the relationship between subjective or human mathematics and objective mathematics, introduced by K. Gödel for the interpretation of his incompleteness theorems. It is shown the connection of this distinction with the concept of a mathematical certainty as epistemological characteristic of mathematical thinking. The connection between the concepts of mathematical determinacy and the notion of obvious truths of mathematics in the form of axioms is established. The difference between obvious truths of elementary arithmetic and of higher syntactic structures associated with the effect of coding is considered.

On origins of theory of infinite set in Bernard Bolzano’s writings

K.A. Gabrusenko
National Research Tomsk University, Tomsk
Keywords: infinite, set, set theory, Bolzano

Abstract >>
The article deals with the understanding of infinite sets by B. Bolzano. Author reconstructs the conceptual system of Bolzano’s theory of infinite, explains the scope of the theory, and the value of it’s main notions for further development of theory of infinite set.

The epistemological and ontological features of modern physical experiments

A.Yu. Storozhuk
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: experiment, epistemology, simulation, philosophy of scientific experimentation

Abstract >>
The growth of experimental technique complexity leads to appearance of new features influencing on early accepted epistemology standards. In particular, the grown of statistical significance, sequence of experimental investigations are linked by staged problems, the arising of new links between an investigator and nature are noted. The main idea of the paper is to blurry the epistemological standarts.

Unification: cosmology and high-energy physics

A.L. Simanov
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: methodology, cosmology, high-energy physics, the unification

Abstract >>
Are examined possibilities and problems of the unification of cosmology and high-energy physics within the framework of the program, developed by A.D. Sakharov.

Religious experience as an object of psychophysical research

D.V. Vinnik
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: religious experience, mystic experience, altered states of consciousness, quality states of consciousness, intentionality, neurotheology

Abstract >>
The paper analyses theoretical-cognitive limits which determine the possibility to reduce religious emotional experience to physical state of brain.

Analytics of emergententities in the context of the mind-body problem

K.G. Frolov
Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg
Keywords: philosophy of mind, emergentism, the mentality, explanatory gap, cognitive completeness

Abstract >>
By way of examples, the paper studies the nature and ontological status of emergent properties. It discusses whether an analogy between various physical emergent properties and consciousness as an emergent property of brain is reasonable. The question about correlation between emergent and resultant properties is raised. The phenomenon of culturally emergent entities is analyzed. Also, the paper presents a number of arguments in favor of nonremovability of an explanatory gap between the physical and the intentional.

Concepts of the emergence of ancient proto-science in modern historiography

B.V. Davydov
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow
Keywords: proto-science, rational methods, scientific knowledge, natural science, Ancient Greece of the 6-4th centuries B.C.

Abstract >>
The paper systematizes and analyzes principal trends in the study of the emergence of ancient proto-science. The author considers domestic and foreign sources and suggests five main hypotheses of how rational methods and theories of scientific knowledge appeared in Ancient Greece of the 6–4th centuries B.C. By analyzing these hypotheses in detail, he reveals two main assumptions about relation between a subject of study and considerable political activity of population in the history of Ancient Greece of the mentioned period. Dwelling at length on political and legal principles of polises, he projects his results onto medicine and acknowledges parallelism between political discourse and philosophical arguments in ancient society.