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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2014 year, number 4

1.
PROBLEMS OF HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN ARCTIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES AS DEPICTED BY THE ENGLISH - AND GERMAN - LANGUAGE AUTHORS

D.A. Ananyev
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Arctic, Russian empire, indigenous peoples of the Far North, Western historiography

Abstract >>
At the turn of the XIX - XX centuries the foreign authors paid increasingly greater attention to Russia’s successes in the Arctic territories development. This topic was covered mostly by periodicals published in the United States, Great Britain and Germany - the leading naval powers of the time. The present article attempts at reviewing major works published by the English- and German-language researchers in order to reveal main trends in studying the history of the Russian Arctic development in the XIX - early XX centuries. Describing Russia’s activities in the Arctic (F.Schwatka, G.Melville, A. Hrdlicka) Western authors contributed to the overall picture of the imperial expansion and power of Russia. The first decades of the XX century were marked by the growing activities of European countries in the Arctic region raising a topical question of these territories’ legal status. One of the ways to claim the rights to these areas was to organize expeditions (described in the works by R. Bartlett, V. Stefansson, N.A. Transehe, H.Abel, W. Barr). The history of the Northern Sea Route exploration and development was studied by C. Crypton, T.Armstrong, W.E. Butler. In the 1990s - early 2000s the Arctic policy of the Russian empire in the pre-revolutionary period was analyzed by P. Horensma, J. McCannon, D. Dahlmann. Problems of relationships between the Russian population and aboriginal peoples of the Far North were discussed by A.Kappeler, Yu.Slezkine, D.Anderson. The contemporary research is focused on the negative aspects of the Russian “paternalist” policy and tends to reject the “russocentric” approach and to describe the history of indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North from their point of view.
																								



2.
ROADS OF LIFE IN THE JAWS OF COLD

V.A. Lamin, Ya.A. Kuznetsova
Institut jf Yistory of the Siberian Brangh of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090 Novosibirsk, Acad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: projects, development of the North, Russia, railway construction, concession policy

Abstract >>
The paper presents two opposing views on evaluation of economic potential of the North and prospects of its development shared by representatives of political elite, metropolitan and Siberian business communities in the late XIX - early XX centuries. This period of history was marked not only by fundamental internal transformations in the country, destruction of the Russian empire’s foundations and establishment of Soviet power, but also by a difficult foreign policy situation caused by the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Having analysed various ideas, initiatives, plans and undertakings in regard to the Russian Arctic development the authors showed that the government remained passive and estranged itself from the problems of Northern territories that could be explained not only by the lack of funds and resources along with harsh climatic conditions, but also by the short-sightedness of administrators and policy makers. Thoughout most of the XIX century the Russian North remained economically neglected. Mechanisms preventing its economic development acted throughout the entire territory of the country. Local administration being in the custody of the central government supported its policy and in every possible way interfered with the attempts and initiatives of the Siberian entrepreneurs and public figures who were ready to invest millions of roubles in the projects of transportation and economic development of the North. Great importance in these projects was given to developing the network of railway communications. Its lines were to be built to the Murmansk Coast - the future ocean port opening to Russia a gate to the transoceanic trade links. However, private funds were inscufficent for the large-scale development of the Northern territories. In the 1920s the estabishment of Soviet power and concentration of all financial resources of the country gave a real chance for implementation of projects of railroads and sea ports construction not only along the Murmansk Coast but in the Far East as well.
																								



3.
ON THE HISTORY OF STUDYING THE SAMOYEDIC PEOPLES OF THE NORTH-WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE XVIII CENTURY

A.Kh. Elert
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: the Second Kamchatka expedition, G.F. Müller, the Samoyedic Peoples of the North-Western Siberia, ethnography, linguistics

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes expeditionary materials of a member of the Second Kamchatka expedition (1733-1743) G.F. Müller characterizing the ethnic structure of the Samoyedic peoples of the North-Western Siberia as well as some specific features of their material and spiritual culture. For the first time in historiography the author introduces into scientific use facts from the previously unstudied G.F. Müller’s manuscripts written in German language and comprised of the scholar’s field book, draft materials and rough copies later used in his “Description of the Siberian peoples”. It is shown that these sources significantly contribute to the dictionaries compiled by G.F.Müller, especially in terms of ethnonymics of the Samoyedic peoples and their dialect clusters. It is proved that G.F.Müller (a century before M.A.Castren) was the first to determine that the Selkup language (“Ostyaks of Narym language”) belongs to the Samoyedic languages and not to the Finno-Ugric group. The author gives some unique data on ethnonymics of the peoples of Mangazeya uyezd revisiting the problem of autoethnonim of “tavgi” (Nganasans) and putting a question whether Yurak Samoyeds were a separate ethnos or just a dialect group of the Nenets. Wide array of data collected directly from the indigenous population of Mangazeya uyezd allowed the scientists to define the Yuraks as a separate ethnos speaking its own language. The paper considers G.F. Müller’s materials on the ethnography of Samoyedic peoples that are of great importance for researchers. Unlike many previous authors who had compared Samoyeds and Finno-Ugric peoples with wild animals G.F. Müller argued that their anthropological parameters were very close to these of Europeans, that they were notable for kindness of heart, inability to hurt someone deliberately, mercifulness and sentimentality. These and other arguments of G.F. Müller demonstrate that he not merely stood at the origins of ethnographic studies on Samoyedic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the North, but also showed goodwill, impartiality and eagerness to see the best human qualities in the nomads of the tundra.
																								



4.
ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL UNITS AND ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF OF THE NORTHERN AREAS OF ASIATIC RUSSIA IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

M.V. Shilovskiy
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Arctic, Yakut oblast, governor, ispravnik, district, uyezd

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the ultimate administrative-territoral division of the Arctic territories in the Northeastern part of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX - early XX century, that resulted in creation of the Kamchatka Oblast in 1909. The situation on the Chukotka penincula is considered in terms of integration of the Chukchi population under the Russian patriality by establishment of Anadyr District in 1888 and Chukotsky District in 1909. The author also studies projects of administrative reorganization of Northern territories, in particular, by means of uniting the Kamchatka and Yakutsk Oblasts into a new general-governorship centered in Yakutsk. Another issue under consideration is the administrative system in the territorial units of the Arctic Zone of Asiatic Russia, first of all in the Yakutsk Oblast. The author pays attention to the administrative staff (Yakutsk governors, district and uyezd police officers - “ispravniks”); states that the key position of the Yakutsk civil governor was held by the officials who had previoisly served in siberia for a long time, demonstrating initiative and ability to make their own decisions. Among such governors one should mention Yu.I. Stubendorf, V.N. Skripitsin, I.I. Kraft. The policy of “indigenization” of the administrative staff (aimed at engagement of the native-born Siberians) had some positive effects. Northern territories were always under control of the West-Siberian (before 1882) and East-Siberian (Irkutsk) governors-generals who regularly made inspection visits.
																								



5.
THE ROLE OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FIRM «KOKOVIN AND BASOV» IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH-EAST OF SIBERIA IN THE EARLY XX CENTURY

L.M. Dameshek, M.D. Kushnareva
Irkutsk state University, Russia, 664003, Irkutsk, Karl Marx str.,1
Keywords: north-eastern Siberia, large firms, Ayan department, the fur trade, the tea trade, the counterman, trading business, land development, trucking industry, development of gold

Abstract >>
Based on the previously unstudied sources the article attempts to identify specifics of development of remote areas in the north-eastern Siberia by representatives of large firms. The authors analyze the merchant correspondence of V. I. Fefelov, the authorized representative of the trading house «Kokovin and Basov», coming to conclusion that in the harsh conditions of the North the clerk managed to organize, in a very short period of time, an uninterrupted supply of tea and other goods from the ports of the Sea of Okhotsk to the central regions of the Yakutsk region, Chukotka and Kamchatka. Fefelov organized overland transportation through its own transport company. Appointing such an experienced salesman as V.I. Fefelov to serve in the Department of Ayan provided the firm «Kokovin and Basov» an opportunity to develop in a very short time gold deposits, as well as to acquire new resources for timber trade. V.I. Fefelov played a considerable role in arranging the trading business. Besides that, at the beginning of the XX century, he created à detailed map of Aldomà and the territory adjacent to the Bay of Ayan. The authors show the dynamics of development of commercial affairs conducted by the Ayan department of the firm «Kokovin and Basov». It is noted that within the period of 1908-1910, the turnover of trading business at Ayan department grew, both in tea trade and in furs. Moreover, in order to attract fishermen, V. I. Fefelov introduced a system of credit for cash instead of barter. The authors concluded that the development of commodity-money relations in the North-Eastern Siberia resulted not only in the expansion of areas of large firms’ trade operations, but also in the strengthening of their economic positions at strategic locations on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. Agent activities of trustees of large firms included trading in goods, developing the northern territories, and gold and timber resources. At the same time, trading business infrastructure was formed and new means of communication were developed.
																								



6.
PARTICIPATION OF WEST-SIBERIAN ADMINISTRATORS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF NORTHERN TERRITORIES IN THE XIX CENTURY

N.P. Matkhanova
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Northern areas of West Siberia, Arctic, XIX century, Beryozovskiy district, indigenous population, administration, officials, G.Kh.Gasford, V.A.Artsimovich, G.A.Kolpakovskiy

Abstract >>
The article considers the role played by certain West-Siberian administrators in the XIX century, both military and civilian, in implementation of the policy aimed at development of the Northern territories under their jurisdiction. It is noted that they demonstrated mostly passive or indifferent attitudes towards the North, greed for gain, toadied to their bosses for promotion. However some of these administrators adhered to the ideas of paternalism and modernization. The author addresses concerns brought up by the governors and governors-general of Western Siberia: low level of economic development, sparsity, poverty, ignorance and diseases of population, difficulties in collecting the yasak (fur tribute). They proposed their own solutions foreseeing the improvement of means of communication, Christianization and enlightenment, development of fishing industry, regulation of the relationships between the indigenous population (“inorodtsy”) and the Russian fishery managers, revision of personnel policy and improvement of the system of administration. The author deals with several specific proposals: participation of V.A. Artsimovich in the attempt to implement the project of V.N. Latkin and M.K. Sidorkin on the construction of the Ob-Pechora Canal and participation of N.G. Kaznakov in investigating the possibility of a sea route to Siberia; D.n. Bantysh-Kamenskiy’s decision to send doctors to the Northern territories; G.Kh.Gasford’s quest for a compromise in the controversies between the Russians and the natives. Special attention is paid to the appointment of G.A. Kolpakovskiy, head of the military district, to the Beryozovskiy district and his activity. The author notes the significance of geopolitical situation and the government’s choice between the policy of preserving the special system of “inorodtsy” administration or its unification with the general imperial administration. It is emphasized that personal qualities of administrators affected the intensity and range of their participation in the Northern territories development.
																								



7.
STATE POLICY AND PRIVATE INITIATIVE IN COLONIZATION OF THE NORTH-EAST OF RUSSIA IN THE LATE XVIII - FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

E.V. Komleva
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: the North-East of Russia, economic and socio-cultural development, government policy, private capital

Abstract >>
The article considers main directions of governmental policy aimed at the development of the North-Eastern territories of Russia and their incorporation into the economic and social life of the state in the late XVIII - first half of the XIX century. The author studies cooperation between the government and private individuals in this sphere; analyzes solutions for such problems as settlement of the North-East regions, construction of transport networks, providing food for population, policy towards the indigenous peoples. It is concluded that during the period under investigation there was no long-term state strategy for the development of North-East areas of the Empire; any measures taken by the government were implemented within the plans of general development of Siberia. The paper focuses on colonization of key strategic regions in the North - Kamchatka and Okhotsk coast. Projects on colonization of the remote Northern territories proposed by the officials or merchants proved that both civil servants and private entrepreneurs clearly realized that the majority of problems connected with colonization of Northern territories could not be solved without the state’s active participation. Special attention is paid to the largest project implemented during this period of history - the Russian-American company’s activities. However there had been no considerable accomplishments by the middle of the XIX century - largely due to the lack of systematic efforts aimed at colonization of North-Eastern areas.
																								



8.
CONSUMERS SOCIETY OF THE VILLAGE OF KHE IN THE NORTHERN OB REGION: MEMBERSHIP AND ORGANIZATION OF TRADE IN THE EARLY 1920S

A.A. Nikolaev
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: consumer society of the village of Khe, consumers’ co-operation, cooperative unions of Siberia, trade, Northern Sea route

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes historical experience of consumers co-operatives in the sphere of organization of trade and provision of food and manufactured goods to the population of the North. The author draws attention to one of the most important prerequisites for cooperative societies’ formation in hard to reach regions - and namely, activities of cooperative unions located in the southern agricultural areas of Siberia where they created their own networks and used the river and sea transportation routes. In August-September, 1919 a large union of consumer co-operative societies (Zakupsbyt) organized exchange of commodities between Siberia and Western Europe via the Ob river and the Northern Sea Route. The consumers society of the village of Khe was formed in the Obdorskiy district of the Tobolsk Okrug of the Ural Oblast in February 1920, on the initiative of the local population leading a settled or nomadic life in the basin of the Gulf of Ob. Specifics of commercial and economic activities of the society was determined by the natural and geographical factors and national composition of population, its lifestyle and needs. The area of its operations covered the villages within the jurisdiction of Soviets of the Khe and Taz settlements and the nomadic population in the tundra of Yamal and Lower Ob regions. This area included 20 rich fisheries while the tundra abounded in fur-bearing animals. Consumer cooperative reached out to a significant share of adult population. By July 1 st, 1925 it had 257 members-shareholders, most of them belonged to the small numbered peoples of the North - the Samoyeds and Zyryans (222 people or 86.4%) who practiced rain-deer herding, trapping and fishing and led a nomadic life in tundra. In the consumer cooperative all managerial functions were performed by representatives (15 out of 33 people) of the Russian settled population. The society spent considerable sums on cultural work among the masses that was a reliable indicator of successful economic activities. Despite the difficult economic situation during the first years of NEP and the district’s geographic remoteness the society proved to be quite viable and complied with principles of cooperative organization.
																								



9.
SPECIFIC FEATURES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE ARCTIC IN THE 1920S-1980S

A.I. Timoshenko
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Arctic, models of state administration, administrative-territorial system, mobilization solutions, mineral resources

Abstract >>
The article considers problems connected with development and implementation of the models of state administration in the Arctic during the Soviet period; analyzes basic principles of regulation of the socioeconomic and political processes in the Arctic territories. Since the public administration in the Soviet Arctic and its specific features remain understudied by historians, the present paper is mainly restricted to the statement of this question. The author attempts at determining the main factors and priorities of the Soviet state policy in the Northern regions of the country. This work led to a conclusion that problems of Soviet state administration can be considered, on the one hand, within the framework of methodological and conceptual approach postulating the existence of the world circumpolar civilization; on the other hand - in the context of dynamics of the Russian state’s development. It is stated that practically all vital processes in the Arctic were largely affected by changes in the state strategy aimed, first of all, at the Northern territories’ incorporation into the national economic complex of the USSR. In so doing the state used mostly the methods and mechanism of mobilization that proved to be most efficient in accomplishing the stated goals. It is noted that the mobilization model of administration in the Soviet Arctic remained practically to the end of the Soviet period. The specific forms and methods varied, while the basic goals set from the Center of state administration were invariable. As a result the Soviet models of state administration in the Arctic reflected the need to use the mineral and other resources of the region, both to meet the country’s domestic needs and to strengthen its positions on the international stage.
																								



10.
CONTRIBUTION OF THE SIBERIAN SCIENTISTS TO THE STUDY OF ARCTIC’S PETROLEUM POTENTIAL IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XX CENTURY

N.A. Kupershtokh
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Arctic, hydrocarbon resources, Institute of geology and geophysics of Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute of geology of Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Program «Siberia», A.A. Trofimuk, N.V. Cherskiy, V.S. Surkov, A.E. Kontorovich, V.N. Saks, I.I. Nesterov

Abstract >>
At the present time the Russian Federation carries out the state complex program of studying and development of the Arctic’s resource base for the purpose of meeting Russia’s demand for hydrocarbon resources. The study of Arctic is becoming a topical issue in the light of many objectives. One of them is preparation of the National Atlas of the Arctic, which is to embrace all scientific knowledge about the region, including geological substantiation of the resource potential of its subsoil. Many academic organizations participated in the geological study of the Arctic zone. The article considers results of activities of the Siberian scientists working at the West Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, the Institute of geology and geophysics (Novosibirsk) and the Institute of geology (Yakutia) of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences. These researchers provided prognosis and rationale for exploration of the largest mineral deposits in the Arctic zone of Siberia, realization of projects on development of hydrocarbons in the Arctic. After establishment of academic institutes in Siberia the coordination of research activities related to hydrocarbons in the Arctic reached a new level. This large-scale research was conducted in the framework of the program «Siberia». Many leading scientists-geologists including Academicians A.A. Trofimuk, N.V. Cherskiy, V.S. Surkov, A.Å. Kontorovich and Corresponding Members V.N. Saks, I.I. Nesterov were among the program’s coordinators. Investigations carried out within the framework of «Siberia» increased the level of fundamental and applied research. The conclusions drawn by the Siberian scientists served as the basis for planning the oil and gas fields exploration in the region. For the first time the perspectives of the Siberian Arctic zone’s development were comprehensively studied and exploration of the nature resources was regarded in close connection with solving socio-economic and environmental problems. The overall contribution of the SB RAS institutes to organization of fundamental research in the Arctic zone of Russia, solving the problems of socio-economic development of the Polar regions and studying the Arctic geology, biology and ecology has been tremendous and still awaits comprehensive study.
																								



11.
THE THEME OF ADVOCACY OF THE ORTHODOXY IN THE WRITINGS OF THE AUTHORS FROM THE PATRIARCH’S CIRCLE OF THE SECOND HALF OF THE XVII CENTURY

T.V. Panich
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Orthodoxy, XVII century, the writers of the patriarch’s circle, anti-Latin polemics, publicistic manuscript writings

Abstract >>
The article discusses the literary heritage of the writers of the Patriarch’s circle, adherents of the Greek-Byzantine Orthodox tradition in the development of the Russian culture (Euthimius of Chudov, Athanasius of Kholmogory, Ignatius Rimsky-Korsakov, hierodeacon Damascene and others). The works of this group of authors are studied in regard to the theme of advocacy of the Orthodoxy. The theme became a topical issue and was responded to in the Graecophiles’ writings in the second half of XVII century, which was a reaction to the cultural and historical situation when the Church reforms, growing secularization, expansion of foreign religious denominations and influence of Western European culture resulted in significant changes in the life of the state, while the authority and dominance of the Orthodox church declined. In the Graecophiles’ opinion, all those changes posed a threat to the Orthodoxy. The research is based on a number of writings of these authors that have somehow touched upon the issue of advocacy of the Orthodoxy, its protection against the influence of the Western confessions. These writings include the anti-Latin book “The shield of Faith” (Schit very), devoted to the polemics between the Graecophile and the Latin supporters on when to apply the consecrated elements during a liturgy; the manuscript collection of writings associated with Petr Artem’ev and Grigorii Skabinskii; last wills and testaments of Patriarchs Joachim and Adrian, and of Metrophanes, the bishop of Voronezh; patriarch Adrian’s letter on publication of the book “The Shield of faith” (Schit very) and others. The author determines sources of the analyzed texts, reveals their relation to the tradition and to the book heritage of Old Russia (foreign books translated into Russian as well as the original Russian writings). The analysis of the literary heritage of the writers of the Patriarch’s circle shows that one of the main elements of their strategy was the idea of protecting the Orthodoxy against the influence of the Catholic and Protestant churches; they strived to support and to consolidate the influence of the Orthodox Church, to save the Orthodox traditions, its values and principles through their literary works.
																								



12.
UNKNOWN COMPOSITION OF THE SIBERIAN BELOKRINITSKIY WRITER G.A. STRAKHOV “JUSTIFICATION OF THE OLD-BELIEVERS HIERARCHY FROM PROPHET EZRA”

N.A. Starukhin
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: Old-believers, group of Belokrinitskie believers, eschatology, apologetics, polemic, the third Book of Prophet Ezdra

Abstract >>
The article introduces into scientific circulation the original essay written by the peasant writer G.A. Strakhovin the 1890s. It addresses eschatological views of the Belokrinitskiy apologist, their specificity. Analysis of eschatological issues allows to better represent the original manner of G. Strakhov, his historiosophical views and ideological origins as well as to better understand the inter-confessional polemic, literature and ideology of this consent in the second half of the XIX century. The author concludes that the Siberian writer’s work was influenced by his own experience of belonging to other confessions as well as by the literary heritage of some of the Belokrinitskie writers, particularly, an ordained monk Arseniy (Shvetsov). The latter’s works were met with a mixed reception by his coreligionists in a period under review and from time to time caused heated disputes which, supposedly, had definite consequences for Strakhov himself. The apologist expanded the range of traditional literary sources by adding secular writings and synodal editions what is considered a specific feature of his work. The new sources used by the writer were perceived somewhat differently among the Old-Believers. Actualization of the past with due regard to the contemporary developments was typical of Strakhov’s works (as of the Old-Believers’ literature in general). The writer correlated the Bible texts with the Russian reality infusing his writing with social and political topicality. The paper shows that Strakhov reckoned with the general situation in the Belokrinitskiy Consent that came about by the time of creating his work. That period of time was marked by the the metropolitan merchants’ growing influence over the “Austrians”. On the other hand, the government pressure on the leaders of the Belokrinitskie communities increased and they had to resort to the tactics of compromises which affected the ideology of the group.
																								



13.
“THE POWER AND FREEDOM TO ALL PEOPLE”: THE HISTORY OF THE ILLEGAL YOUTH ORGANIZATION IN THE LATE 1920S: BASED ON INVESTIGATION DOCUMENTS

E.N. Savenko
State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SB RAS), Russia, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voshod str., 15
Keywords: youth, protests, illegal organizations, clandestine printing, leaflets

Abstract >>
The purpose of the article based on the previously unknown sources is to study the history of a clandestine student organization that existed in Omsk under the name of the Russian National Party Rights. Investigation materials stored in the archives of the Federal Security Service in the Omsk region allow us to clarify the views existing in the historical literature on personal composition, organizational structure and purposes of the association. Documents show that young people focused on the democratic traditions of revolutionary populism in creating an underground organization. The article presents fragments from proclamations published in the underground press giving the idea of Siberian students’ protest moods at the end of the 1920s. The keynote of the youth protest was dissatisfaction with the ideological and political monopoly of the Communist party. The rejection of Soviet reality and resistance to the dictates increased in proportion to the strengthening of authoritarian tendencies in the government policy. Slogans of illegal proclamations issued by the youth were accordingly transformed. Initially appeals focused on the need for consolidation of the student youth in order to resist the dictates of the Komsomol minority. Over time, the main slogan of the leaflets turned into the call for armed struggle against the dictatorship of the Communist party and for the establishment of a free People’s Republic. The protest activities of the illegal student groups, whose members were natives of villages, reached a peak in 1929 in connection with the beginning of the state repressive policy in the village. Based on the investigation materials the author comes to conclusion that youth protest actions were spontaneous and of local significance. However, the security organs, relying on a thesis about the sharpening of the class struggle, used student protests for large-scale repressions against members of the politically unreliable social groups.
																								



14.
NATIONAL PRESS IN SIBERIA AND THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN HISTORY OF THE XX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES

I.V. Lizunova
State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SB RAS), Russia, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voshod str., 15
Keywords: national press, newspapers, magazines, periodicals, Siberia, the Far East, mediaspace

Abstract >>
The paper describes specific features of the national press in Siberia and the Russian Far East throughout the XX - the first decade of the XXI centuries; carries out a categorial analysis of the concept of «national press». The author considers in detail the process of formation of national periodicals among the peoples of Siberia, the Far East and the Far North, from the release of individual pages to publication of specialized newspapers and magazines in the indigenous languages of these peoples and within their traditional territories. The paper analyzes problems connected with the national periodical press, highlights the benefits of its creation. Since its inception, and at different stages of its history, the national press performed important social and cultural tasks. It served as a universal means of information and education for the indigenous population of Siberia and the Far East. The press was a catalyst for development of national script, education and national literature. Newspapers and magazines published in national languages contributed to preservation of ethnic traditions and identity, played certain role in cultural interaction of different ethnoses of Russia. The given statistical data on the output in the printed periodicals at the beginning of the XXI century testifies to the fact that the institution of national press has achieved a certain level of solvency and maturity; it also points out some growing problems connected with further expansion of the mediaspace of the country. The author analyzes different views on the state‘s role in development of national printed media, their influence on evolution of national cultures of various ethnoses. The paper considers the current stage of the national media development, determining whether it is a revival or take-off, crisis or collapse. The author advocates the need for greater independence of the national press; shows its significance for the cultural interaction of ethnoses living beyond the Ural; gives arguments for greater use of languages of the indigenous peoples of Siberia and the Far East in the press.
																								



15.
THE MÅN’S MONASTERY IN THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX LANDSCAPE OF TOBOLSK IN THE XVII CENTURY

I.M. Mankova
Institute of History and archaeology of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IHA UB RAS), Russia, 620990, Ekaterinburg, Kovalevskoi str., 16
Keywords: Tobolsk Znamenskii monastery, Russian Orthodox landscape, Siberian diocese, the development of Siberia in the XVII century

Abstract >>
The aim of the article is to check the concept of “Russian orthodox landscape” against the historical record of the Tobolsk mån’s monastery in the XVII century. By “orthodox landscape” the author means a system of religious objects arranged on a certain area and forming its territorial integrity. The monastery with the Church of Saints Zosima and Savvaty of Solovki is believed to be built on the right bank of the river Irtysh in 1595/96. Change of location led to renaming the monastery - the Uspenskiy (since 1609/10), the Znamenskiy (since 1624). The author proves that it is erroneous to suppose that the men’s monastery was established in Tobolsk before 1595/96, and expresses doubts about the existence of the Zosimo-Savvatievsky monastery. These doubts are based on the fact that according to the documents of the first quarter of the XVII century the tradition of honoring Zosima and Savvaty is not traced in the churches’ names and iconostasis of the Uspenskii and the Znamenskii monasteries. It originated in the monastery only in the second quarter of the XVII century and was reflected in the fact that a side-chapel of the Znamenskaya church was dedicated to these saints. In the last quarter of the XVII century a chapel dedicated to the saints of Solovki appeared in the Kazanskaya church. In the authors’ opinion it was connected with creating a tale about the Znamenskiy priory as a predecessor of the Zosimo-Savvatievsky monastery. The monastic community faced the need to identify its historical roots when the monastery changed its status within the sacred space of Tobolsk. Previously it had been a resting place for the feeble veterans of the civil service and a place for exile of the disgraced monks. After the establishment of the Siberian diocese it began to play the role of an ecclesiastical centre closely connected with the Tobolsk archbishops. The important step in that process was the discovery of the miraculous icon Our Lady of Kazan in the Znamenskii monastery in 1661. According to the author’s hypothesis, the Tobolsk monastery rose from a hermitage which appeared near Tobolsk before 1609/10. It was a home to a few monks and, most likely, there was no church. In 1609/10, they moved to the Uspenskii monastery, which was built by the service people preparing a shelter for their old age.
																								



16.
NEW DOCUMENTS ON THE NAME OF UPPER CHULYM RIVER AND LOCATION OF THE KIZYL VOLOST’ IN THE XVII CENTURY

V. N. Dobzhansky
Kemerovo state University, Russia, 650043, Kemerovo-43, Krasnaia str., 6
Keywords: Achinsk Ostrog, Kisyl Volost’, Achinsk Volost’, Belyi Iyus River, Chulym River, Iyus

Abstract >>
In 1641, service class people from Tomsk, Tara, Tyumen, Tobolsk and Kuznetsk built Achinsk Ostrog under the direction of Ya. O. Tukhachevsky. It was constructed for collecting yasak tax and protecting upper Chulym yasak people from the Yenissei Kyrgyz people. From Tukhachevsky notes, it is known that Achinsk Ostrog was built on the Iyus River and the lake Syzyrim. For a long time, the Iyus River had been associated with the river Belyi Iyus. Therefore, the lake Syzyrim was supposed to be the modern lake Bilyo. K. N. Serbina located Achinsk Ostrog of 1641 at the confluence of Belyi and Chernyi Iyus on the map appended to the 2nd Volume of “The History of Siberia”. This location determined the positioning of the Russian-Kyrgys border of the middle XVII century by V. S. Sinyaev. D. Ya. Rezun agreed with Sinyaev’s suggestion in general, but he believed that the lake Syzyrim and Achinsk Ostrog location should have been searched near Belyi Iyus and the lakes Bilyo and Shira. However, all attempts to locate Achinsk Ostrog in the present-day river basin of Belyi Iyus yielded no result. In 1988, Elert published a historical and geographical description of Tomsk Uezd written by G. F. Müller in October 1734 clarifying which Iyus is mentioned in the documents. In his another work the Siberian historiographer located the lake Syzyrim as well. Based on the data presented by G.F. Müiller Elert concluded that Achinsk Ostrog of 1641 was located not on Belyi Iyus near the lake Bilyo, but on the modern Chulym. However this fact couldn’t explain that according to different documents, Achinsk Ostrog had been built either on Iyus or Belyi Iyus. In the Siberian Prikaz records of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts the author of the present article found a document which resolves this contradiction. In the XVII century the Yenisei Kyrgyz people used the name Belyi Iyus for the upper part of Chulym River up to the Meletsk Ostrog. This name was accepted by the Russian service class people who abbreviated it to Iyus. The precise location of Kysil Volost’ is also determined.
																								



17.
FORMATION OF THE COOPERATIVE ELITE IN RUSSIA IN THE LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

N.Yu. Pivovarov
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: The Russian Empire, cooperation, cooperative elite, social groups, professional corporation, social mobility

Abstract >>
The article reviews genesis and development of a cooperative elite in Russia. Formation of this elite was paralleled by the establishment and development of a cooperative movement in the Russian Empire. It started in the years of reforms of Alexander II. However, the underdeveloped cooperatives sector in Russia determined weakness of its elite. In the 1890s significant socioeconomic changes led to increase in the number of cooperative societies. Since that time cooperative elite had a real opportunity to implement its ideas in practice. The cooperative meeting in 1896 in Nizhny Novgorod and the First All-Russian cooperative Congress in Moscow in 1908 played an exceptional role in ideological and psychological consolidation of the elite. Thus up to 1917 the elite managed to take control over the key leverage of Russian cooperation. Representatives of the cooperative elite differed in their social origins, professions and political views. In terms of social background its majority consisted of the members of nobility, priesthood and petty bourgeoisie. Most of them held key positions, served as heads of departments and members of the boards of large cooperative unions. Some members combined service in cooperative societies with different government and public agricultural organizations. Others worked as journalists and publicists advocating ideas of cooperative movement. The cooperative elite members also included university lecturers, representatives of higher ranks of the Russian army and civil administration. Cooperation brought together people with different political views. Most of them expressed leftist political views. The number of socialists of various types increased in proportion to the growing opposition to the government and, in the broader sense, to the ruling regime. However the Russian cooperative elite lacked common ideology and understanding of further evolution. This was the main reason why it didn’t turn into a stable community.
																								



18.
DIFFUSION OF EUROPEAN INNOVATIONS: DEVELOPING AGRICULTURE IN THE ENTREPRENEURS FARMS OF WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

I.I. Krott
Omsk state pedagogical University, Russia, 644099, Omsk, Tukhachevskogo quay,14
Keywords: modernization, socio-cultural changes, commercialization of the local community, rural entrepreneurial households, diffusion of innovations, rationalization of agriculture, agricultural machines and implements, technological innovations, Western Siberia

Abstract >>
Based on the archival and published sources the article discusses the issues of innovations in agriculture in Western Siberia in late XIX - early XX centuries emphasizing activities of rural entrepreneurs who not merely borrowed but transformed knowledge and technology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the concept of “diffusionism” that characterizes historical process in terms of diffusion, contact, borrowing, transfer and interaction of cultures. The article concludes that the need for eradication of outdated patriarchal attitudes was objectively caused by economic and cultural «backwardness» of Russia compared to Western Europe as well as by modernization processes occurring at the regional level. «Commercialization» changed everyday life, consciousness and behavior of the rural society, that became increasingly involved into economic activity. The author concludes that in the Siberian region innovations infiltrated and spread in two projections - «downwards» and «from the center to the periphery». Rationalization of entrepreneurial agriculture was stipulated by the rural entrepreneurs’ farming experience and exposure to the ideas of advanced scientific thought. Local peasants actively concerned themselves with agrotechnology and modernization in the rural entrepreneurs’ arable farms; moreover, they even borrowed some of these innovations.
																								



19.
SOCIAL MOBILITY OF SIBERIAN PEASANTS: DISCOURSE OF THE 1920S

V.A. Ilyinikh
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: social mobility, peasantry, agricultural censuses, NEP, discussions on the class stratification in the village, leveling-out, Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the discussion on the social mobility of peasants that took place in Siberia in the 1920s. This issue was of high political relevance. Social transformations in the rural areas could be characterized only in connection with evaluation of the ruling party’s agrarian policy. In Siberia the discourse on this problem evolved in the context of the nationwide polemics. Judging from the available source base the majority of analysts defined the peasantry social structure on the basis of seeding groups, and since 1927 - on the basis of groups of peasant households formed according to the value of durable means of production. Social interpretation of these groups depended on political, scientific and theoretical principles of interpreters. Having analyzed the period of the late 1910s - early 1920s the majority of experts stated that the Siberian peasant household had been evened out at a lower wealth level. The discourse of the 1920s evolved in the context of a heightened political struggle. Adherents of the left opposition argued that NEP led to restoration of capitalist differentiation which acheieved in Siberia the “American” rate of growth. The right-wing Communists in fact denied any stratification in the NEP village. They were supported by the “neo-populists” who defined the vast majority of peasant homesteads as poor. The Party’s majority leaders proposed the concept of leveling-out the village according to which the key figure in the NEP village was a “middle peasant”. Supporters of this idea believed that it was proved by the cluster censuses data obtained in 1927 and 1928 and processed by V.S.Nemchinov’s methods. These methods were more adequate; however conclusions drawn upon such data processing were also subjective. In the late 1920s any discussions on the peasant social mobility were stopped. The official opininon was considered to be the only true point of view.
																								



20.
SOCIAL MOBILITY IN RUSSIA DURING THE WARS, REVOLUTIONS, AND RADICAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE XX CENTURY: DISCOURSES AND RESEARCH RESULTS

V.I. Shishkin, A.I. Savin
Institute of History of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IH SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: social mobility, social channels and lifts, Russia, XX century, foreign historiography, domestic historiography

Abstract >>
This article analyzes the main trends and results of studies in social mobility in Russian society during the first half of the XX century in the national and foreign historiography. The founder of the theory of social mobility, P.A. Sorokin, formulated the basic idea that the multidirectional social mobility is a universal attribute of all social systems. Before Perestroika, social mobility as a subject of study was taboo in the Soviet Union, despite the fact that pace and results of social mobility in Russia had been unparalleled in world history. Western historians until the mid-1970s also ignored the subject of social mobility, because the dominance of the totalitarian model of Soviet society left no room for the analysis of social movements. A breakthrough scientific research on this topic was performed by the historians of the revisionist school in the United States, who paid particular attention to certain means of social mobility in the Soviet society which played an important role as a pillar of Stalinism. Besides, they actively studied a range of social, gender and ethnic groups with high mobility. However, in the recent years, influenced by the history-of-mentalities approach, Western researchers shifted to analysis of the identities mobility. Russian historians still remain outsiders in the study of social mobility in Russia. Nevertheless, there is a considerable amount of books and articles on mechanisms of social mobility that provided the downward trend of vertical mobility in the 1920s-1930s. As a result, the picture of social mobility was significantly deformed. This historiographic “skewness” is in need of serious adjustment through the identification and study of those social lifts that provided climbing up the social ladder in Russia in the first half of the XX century. Only an objective analysis of social mobility allows getting a realistic view of what was in fact a vector of social evolution of the country in the first half of the XX century.
																								



21.
RURAL SOCIUM OF RUSSIA: HISTORICAL RESOURCE

V.S. Shmakov
Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IFL SB RAS), Russia, 630090, Novosibirsk, Akad. Nikolaev str., 8
Keywords: modernization, transformation processes, methodology, rural socium, socioeconomic processes, adaptation strategies, traditions, innovations

Abstract >>
The article analyzes the effects of modernization on the changing socioeconomic living conditions of rural population. On the materials of sociological monitoring of the development of rural society the author has developed methods for studying behavioral reactions of the rural population; determined the main adaptation strategies under the conditions of socioeconomic transformations; revealed the three stages of transformational changes in the socioeconomic development of agricultural production. Analysis of the dynamics of development of Siberia’s agricultural regions shows that social and innovation processes have increasingly influenced the development of the Siberian village, life of different groups of rural population, the process of formation of new value orientations and new social standards. Institutional basis of socio-economic transformations in Siberian village was provided by the destruction of the whole system of social relations. Liberalization, expansion of social freedom, introduction of market relations, development of the new forms of property changed the entire way of life of the rural population, the entire system of social and economic life. These processes resulted in formation of a mixed agricultural economy, increase in labor productivity and GDP growth, development of a broad agricultural market. In the Russian rural society, on the level of mass orientations, the passive adaptation strategies are being rejected, since they have exhausted their resources and have not met the challenges of a changing socio-economic situation. They are not able to encourage the population to make full use of available resources and to implement the most successful adaptation strategies. In the context of reducing share of revenues from personal farms, due to the loss of their marketability, the rural population is forced to seek the new sources of survival.
																								



22.
CONCEPTUAL RESEARCH APPROACHES TO THE TERM ”DOCUMENT” AT THE PRESENT STAGE

V. A. Bondar
Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Russia, 620002, Ekaterinburg, Mira str., 19
Keywords: scientific discipline of documentation, term system, document, concept, definition, interpretation, approach, conception

																								



23.
CHARITY IN LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION IN WESTERN SIBERIA (Late XIX - Early XX Century)

Yu.V. Timofeeva
State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SB RAS), Russia, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voshod str., 15
Keywords: library, national library, charity, the scope of charity, forms of charity, metropolitan philanthropists, local philanthropists, financing, generosity, bequeathed capital, book-publishers, booksellers

Abstract >>
The article is aimed at revealing concrete-historical features of charitable activities in the sphere of library construction in Western Siberia in the late XIX - early XX century. The main objectives include analysis and generalization of the facts revealed by the author and other researchers of charity actions in the specified area; introduction of new sources revealing to the researchers new facts about the previously unknown examples of such activities as well as discovering new names of philanthropists who were active in the sphere of libraries. The author characterizes scale and forms of charity, identifies the names of metropolitan and local philanthropists, who provided material support for the creation and maintenance of libraries; determines their actual contribution to the development of the library network. Based on the analysis of archival and published sources, the author stated that the philanthropy became wide-spread in the region at the turn of XIX-XX centuries. The largest-scale charity was noted for the Tomsk province, mainly due to the activities of an outstanding Siberian educator, publisher and bookseller P.I. Makushin. He was a generous contributor to the creation of libraries and managed to attract metropolitan and local philanthropists to this very important activity. It became possible owing to the establishment of the Society of assistance to creation of rural free libraries and reading-rooms. Four dozens of village libraries were created with the capital left under the will of F.F. Pavlenkov. The well-stocked libraries were established with the money left by D.D. Poluboyarinov. N.M. Chukmaldin, A.I. Tekutiev, V.A. Gorokhov and many others helped to create one or more free libraries, assisting in book acquisition. Sources used by the author convincingly demonstrate that metropolitan and local philanthropists participated in library construction in Western Siberia. The author points to an interesting feature of the professional composition of major philanthropists - many of them were book publishers and booksellers.
																								



24.
PUBLISHING ACTIVITIES OF SOCIAL REVOLUTIONARIES IN PARIS IN 1919 - 1921 (As Exemplified by the Periodical «Pour la Russie»)

E. M. Lbova
State Public Scientific Technical Library of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SPSTL SB RAS), Russia, 630200, Novosibirsk, Voshod str., 15
Keywords: emigration, Russian Emigration, publishing activity, periodical, newspaper, information bulletin, Socialist Revolutionary Party, S.R

Abstract >>
Based on the archival materials the article reconstructs the history of Pour la Russie , a periodical published by the Socialist Revolutionaries; analyzes its editorial stuff, team of authors, cooperation with printing houses, distribution and pricing of the newspaper. Pour la Russie supervised by O. S. Minor, V. M. Zenzinov, V. I. Lebedev, E. A. Stalinskiy was the first edition published by the members of Socialist Revolutionary party in Paris after the October Revolution of 1917. This newspaper was designed for foreign readers and aimed at reviewing and analyzing the social and political situation in Russia from the editors’ point of view. However, it was much more popular among Russian emigrants which forced the editorial staff to issue Pour la Russie in two languages: French and Russian. Unfortunately, the conditions of economic instability hampered the implementation of this idea. Thus, the Russian-language version was never published while the French version since September 1920 became an information bulletin. Pour la Russie existed only for two years but the former staff successfully used this experience for editing and publishing the following issues: The Will of Russia and the Days . An attempt to reconstruct the history of Pour la Russie allowed to reveal typical problems the Russian emigrants faced in France after the October Revolution. The main problems were as follows: shortage of money, persistent increase in prices of expendable materials, and lack of demand among potential readers. Any of these factors could lead to transfer of the edition to another country of Europe or its shutdown. Analysis of the archival materials from the fond of editoral board of Pour la Russie helps to understand problems of development of the Russian emigrants’ publishing business in 1919-1921.