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Philosophy of Sciences

2014 year, number 4

1.
Vernadsky and Chizhevsky on interaction of sciences

G. I. Lovetsky1,2, I. I. Komissarov1,2
1Kaluga Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Kaluga, Russia
2Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: synthesis of sciences, NBIC technologies, Vernadsky, Chizhevsky

Abstract >>
The paper shows that V. I. Vernadsky's and A. L. Chizhevsky's works of 1920–1930s reflected the tendency of modern science to permanent intensification of interaction between different fields of knowledge. In view of these scientists, cooperation between sciences dealing with animate and inanimate nature should take the form of synthesis which serves as a guideline for all human knowledge.
																								



2.
Two false dogmas related with Godel's second incompleteness theorem. I

A. V. Bessonov1,2
1Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Godel's incompleteness theorems, inadequacy of a provability predicate, unprovability predicate

Abstract >>
It is shown that Godel's proof of the second incompleteness theorem for formal arithmetic depends on a chosen provability predicate. We use an unprovability predicate to construct counterexamples to the second theorem and prove that in the generall case the conclusion of the second theorem is not true.
																								



3.
K. O. Apel: extrapolation of knowledge in the aspect of existentiality of discourse

M. V. Goncharenko
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: K. O. Apel, reveal of the form, understanding of the form, extrapolation of knowledge, existentiality of discourse

Abstract >>
The paper analyses K. O. Apel's approach to the problem of interrelation of the logic–ofscience language and the ordinary one in terms of Plato's metaphysics. We study whether the verification theory relates to Plato's metaphysics as to a concept caused the subject thinking logic or as to an eternal essences concept which permanently overcomes relativism. Basing on nonidentity of reveal of the form and its understanding, we suppose that extrapolation of knowledge is caused by the phenomenon of "existenzial" (M. Heidegger).
																								



4.
Transfinite sets: limits of knowledge

A. P. Kulaichev
Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: transfinite sets, ordinals, cardinals, countability

Abstract >>
The paper considers semantic problems of the study of infinite sets. It shows that there exist various ideas about substantial foundation, basic notions and the structure of infinite sets; these ideas result in various and contrary conclusions. So, in this field, due to limited capacities of the substance of the human mind there are certain limits of knowledge. Therefore different ideas, arguments and conclusions have a right to coexist equally, like Bohr principle of complementarity in physics.
																								



5.
How unconscious lie is possible?

A. Yu. Moiseyeva
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: lie, persuasion, belief, introspection, detection, theory of the psychic

Abstract >>
The paper analyses the conceptions of lie and fraud and outlines approaches to the theory of lie as a dyadic relation. A search for definition of the conceptions of «unconscious lie» and self–lie is undertaken. Also, we deal with the problems of persuasion semantics: what does it mean to be persuaded of something and how we may know it?
																								



6.
Philosophical and methodological analysis of basic foundations of multiverse concepts: the patchwork quilted multiverse and the inflation scenario

A. Yu. Storozhuk
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: cosmology, free parameter problem, patchwork quilted multiverse, new and chaotic inflation scenarios, philosophical analysis of foundation of cosmological theories

Abstract >>
The paper presents the philosophical and methodological analysis of basic principles of cosmological theories which postulate the existence of multiverses. We consider the basic theses of the patchwork quilted multiverse hypothesis, as well as the new and chaotic scenarios of the inflation model. We show that cosmologic theories spread to an area where direct empiric verification is impossible because of theoretical troubles which cannot be overcome within the old paradigm. The arising of the multiverse hypothesis was stimulated particularly by the free parameter problem. The new inflation scenario offers solution of some problems of the previous cosmology, such as the Big Bang, homogeneity and isotropy of space and time, the existence of large-scale structures and other problems, but it cannot be verified empirically. The main vector in the development of cosmology is oriented to more general theories. Ontology which is introduced hypothetically into such theories is also a generalization since the observed part of the Universe now is considered as a local part of the Multiverse.
																								



7.
I. R. Prigogines philosophy of instability gives rise to the illusion of instability of biosystems

S. A. Gudkova, L. B. Dzhumagalieva, V. M. Eskov, V. A. Karpin
Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia
Keywords: philosophy of instability, determinism, stochastics, chaos, theory of chaos and self-organization

Abstract >>
The speech of the Nobelist I.R. Prigogine initiated the development of the new section in philosophy, i.e. philosophy of instability. From the standpoint of the new theory of chaos and self-organization (TCS), the paper proves a specific feature of social and biological systems which displays in persistent chaotic dynamics of the state vector of such specific systems of the third type. We present a table showing the transition of science from determinism to stochastics and further to chaos of two types: chaos by I. Prigogine and TCS chaos. In TCS, instability (chaos) is typical for evolution of social systems too; it is possible to mark out three types of society: deterministic, stochastic and chaotic (self-organized) ones. The paper shows that dynamics of the evolution of societies and that of the development of science have common features (in the aspect of transition from certainty in determinism to complete uncertainty in TCS); also, it is typical to individual social development of each person.
																								



8.
An essential unity of the spiritual and the material in Galens theoretical and practical system. Part I

D. A. Balalykin
I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: history of science, history of medicine, ancient natural science, the spiritual and the physical, substantial unity, Galen

Abstract >>
By analyzing Galen’s «Quod animi mores corporis temperamenta sequantur» we study his views on the nature of human soul and the relation of the spiritual and the physical in a human body. The Roman physician thinks over a practical importance of one or another soul property for physical health. When reasoning, Galen rejects the opinion that an eternal soul stays in an inconstant body accidentally for it results in separation of spiritual and material essences which is inadmissible. He bases his analysis on the principles of the rational knowledge and intentionally limits his statements only to empirically proven facts. This work by Galen helps to grasp his theoretical and practical system.