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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2014 year, number 1

1.
TO THE JOURNAL READERS

A.A. Onuchin
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences

																								



2.
Forest Management and Forest Sector of Russia: Conditions and Ways for Transition to Intensive Model

N.A. Moiseev
Moscow State Forest University
1 Institutskaya str., 1, Mytischi, Moscow region, 141005 Russian Federation
Keywords: state forest management, forest sector of Russian economics, licensing and declaring order of forest use, long term lease of forest areas, wood tenders (auctions), forest planning, rental payments

Abstract >>
The causes for protracted crisis at the system of forest management and development of forest sector in Russia are discussed in the paper and recommendations for recovery from recession have been done based on transition from extensive to the intensive model of development.
																								



3.
Fundamentals for Organization of Sustainable Forest Use

V.A. Sokolov
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: sustainable forest use, forest resources, national forest policy, forest complex, forest management, allowable cut

Abstract >>
In order to organize sustainable forest use in Russia, suggestions and recommendations have been developed on the basis of the up-to-day paradigm of nature management and stability of progress. It is proposed to revise the method of calculating annual allowable cuts by introduction of economical allowable cut concept. The methods of ecological and economical accessibility of forest resources have been devised. The certain paths of reconstructing and developing forest inventory as well as direction for future research have been proposed.
																								



4.
Forest as Underground-Closed Dendrocenoecosystem

S.N. Sannikov, N.S. Sannikova
Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch
8 Marta str., 202, Ekaterinburg, 620144 Russian Federation
Keywords: forest, coniferous, biogeocenosis, microecosystem, competition of the tree stand, undergrowth, lower layer of the phytocenosis

Abstract >>
As a result of quantitative microecosystem analysis of structural and functional relationships between biogeocenosis components in coniferous forests, the leading role of stand-edificator's root competition factor has been identified in determining the undergrowth and lower layer plants growth, compared with its light competition. Considering the dominant role of a tree stand root competition in the formation of other forest biogeocenosis components, new definition of forest as underground-closed dendrocenoecosystem have been proposed.
																								



5.
Structuring of Forest Communities

S.K. Farber
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: structuring, classification, forest typology, forest inventory

Abstract >>
Structuring forest communities is considered as a pre-studying procedure. The paper defines the fundamental structuring terms and describes the theory behind it. Factors hampering forest typology development are discussed. The areas of forest typology promising regarding sustainable and multi-purposed forest management are outlined.
																								



6.
Woodland: Geographical and Forest Inventory Indications and Criteria

R.A. Ziganshin
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: woodland, South Baikal region, forest type, type of mixing, representativeness, indicators and criteria

Abstract >>
The definition of woodland is discussed. The structure and dynamics of forestland are considered on the example of the Tankhoisky forestry district in the South Baikal region.
																								



7.
Carbon Budget of Russian Forests

A.Z. Shvidenko1,2, D.G. Schepaschenko1,3
1 International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
Schlossplatz, 1, Laxenburg, A-2361 Austria
2 V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
3 Moscow State Forest University
1st Institutskaya str., 1, Mytischi, Moscow region, 141005 Russian Federation
Keywords: full verified carbon budget, Russian forest

Abstract >>
Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) of Russian forests for 2007–2009 is presented based on consistent application of applied systems analysis and modern information technologies. Use of landscape-ecosystem approach resulted in the NECB at 546±120 Tg C year1, or 6615 g C m2 year1. There is a substantial difference between the NECB of European and Asian parts, as well as the clear zonal gradients within these geographical regions. While the total carbon sink is high, large forest areas, particularly on permafrost, serve as a carbon source. The ratio between net primary production and soil heterotrophic respiration, together with natural and human-induced disturbances are major drivers of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the NECB of forest ecosystems. Using the Bayesian approach, mutual constraints of results that are obtained by independent methods enable to decrease uncertainties of the final result.
																								



8.
Differentiation of the Pinaceae Family Species in Forest Bog and Dry Land Ecosystems of Western Siberia

T.S. Sedelnikova
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinaceae, wetlands, drylands, chromosomes, mutations, differentiation

Abstract >>
Investigations of the processes of differentiation of five main forest-forming species of the Pinaceae family, growing in various types of wetlands and dry lands of Western Siberia, based on the analysis of population structure and morpho-physiological characteristics of the reproductive sphere, the number and morphology of chromosomes, features of nucleolar loci of chromosomes, chromosomal mutations, and abnormalities of mitosis are carried out. Divergence and isolation of wetland and dryland populations of Pinaceae species established on reproductive and cytogenetic traits are due to the different trends of natural selection in contrasting conditions of stands growth.
																								



9.
Plantation-Seeding Forest Plantations the New Method for Regeneration of Coniferous Forests at Large Clearings on Burned Lands

V.V. Tarakanov1, Yu.N. Il'ichev1, N.T. Bushkov2
1 West-Siberian Branch of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Novosibirsk, Post Box 45, 630082 Russian Federation
2 Joint Stock Company Altai Forest
Larichiha village, Altai territory, 658700 Russian Federation
Keywords: reforestation, cuttings, burnt lands, seed cultures, big grafting seedlings

Abstract >>
The new method of restoration of coniferous stands on large felling areas on burnt lands that lack seed trees is discussed. It involves limited planting of big grafted seedlings of quality wood, that have a high level of seed production, with the purpose of the subsequent natural sowing on these territories. Results of two-year-old research on approbation of the method on cuttings on large felling areas on burnt lands in conditions of the mid-Ob' river pine forests are stated. A good viability of seed cultures is noted. There is damage of the grafting pines by elk. Therefore there is a problem of protecting plantations against elk. For preservation of a high level of genetic variability of pine stands it is desirable to use in seed cultures the best trees from local plantings.
																								



10.
Impact of Forest Harvesting and Forest Regeneration on Runoff Dynamics at Watersheds of Central Siberia

A.A. Onuchin, T.A. Burenina, N.V. Ziryukina, S.K. Farber
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch
Academgorodok, 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russian Federation
Keywords: Angara river region, forest logging, forest regeneration, hydrological regime, river catchments, water balance, precipitation, evaporation, river flow

Abstract >>
In the paper disturbance of Angara river region forests were estimated and peculiarities of forest regeneration after logging and wild fires were analyzed. According to the landscape classification of the regional study, three groups of landscapes differencing on types of forest successions were developed. It was shown that water protective and water regulate functions of the Angara river region forests change under commercial forest harvesting. Comparisons of the inventory and hydrological data detected that hydrological consequences of commercial forest harvesting are dependent on climatic parameters and forest regeneration peculiarities. In the continental climate conditions, when forest regeneration is delayed, snow storms are more active, snow evaporation increases and runoff reduces. In the process of logging sites overgrown with secondary small-leaved forest, snow accumulation increases and runoff increases, exceeding the value of annual runoff at undisturbed watersheds.