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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2014 year, number 4

1.
The Flow of Heavy Metals (Ni and Cu) in the Catchment Area of a Subarctic Lake

V. A. DAUVALTER, N. A. KASHULIN
Institute of North Industrial Ecology Problems of the Kola Scientific Center, RAS, 184209, Apatity, Akademgorodok, 14a
Keywords: flow, balance, accumulation, heavy metals, lake, sediments

Abstract >>
A methodological approach to estimation of flow, balance and accumulation of heavy metals in a lake in the conditions of long-term air pollution was considered. On the example of the Chunozero Lake, the estimation of accumulation of heavy metals in sediments for more than 70-years period of activity of the mountain-metallurgical enterprise (Severonickel company) and Lapland State Biospheric Reserve was carried out. It was determined, that thickness of the polluted sediments on a greater part of lake water area averages 2 cm, and average sedimentation rate for last 20 years equals 1 mm/year. The metals accumulated in lake sediments can represent danger of pollution of water column in the future, especially in the case of development of lake eutrophication. Due to the nature of substances flow in Chunozero, running type of water masses movement and an elongated form of the lake, sediments accumulate only about 3 % of the heavy metals entering the catchment area, in contrast to the largest lake in the Murmansk Region - Imandra, where the accumulation of heavy metals reaches 55 %, mainly due to their entering with the wastewater and also because of low velocity of water flow.



2.
The Effect of Weather Variability on the Spatial and Seasonal Dynamics of Dissolved and Suspended Nutrients in the Water of the Meromictic Lake Shira

E. S. ZADEREEV1,2, A. P. TOLOMEEV1, A. V. DROBOTOV1, A. A. KOLMAKOVA1
1Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodniy ave., 79
Keywords: meromictic lake, climate variability, stratification, seston, nutrients stoichiometry

Abstract >>
During the period from 2007 to 2011 we carried out seasonal measurements of the depth of the thermocline and redox zone, and also of dissolved and particulate pelagic seston carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in saline meromictic Lake Shira (South Siberia). The study was done to evaluate the relationship between the variability of air temperature and values of these parameters. We observed positive correlations between air temperature in the preceding year and the depth of the redox-zone in winter, average air temperature in April and the depth of the thermocline in summer. The total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratio in the mixolimnion for almost all depths and seasons exceeded the Redfield ratio of 16:1. We observed the deficiency of seston both in nitrogen and in phosphorus during different seasons and at different depths. The amount of seston in the mixolimnion in summer almost doubled the amount of seston in the mixolimnion in winter and positively correlated with the depth of the thermocline. Throughout the year seston in the monimolimnion was relatively rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. The amount of seston in the monimolimnion differed between years and positively correlated with the preceding years air temperature and the size of this zone.



3.
The Contribution of Different Groups of Autotrophs to the Primary Production of Mountain Lake Oiskoe

E. A. IVANOVA1,2, O. V. ANISHCHENKO1,2, L. A. GLUSHCHENKO1, N. A. GAEVSKY1, V. I. KOLMAKOV1,2
1Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
2Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: primary productivity, phytoplankton, phytoperiphyton, macrophytes, fluorescence, chlorophyll, lake Oiskoe

Abstract >>
Productivity characteristics of phytoplankton, phytoperiphyton and 5 species of the macrophytes in the mountain oligotrophic Oiskoe lake (Ergaky Mountain Range, West Sayan) were studied. High primary productivity was noted for phytoperiphyton and macrophytes communities. Photosynthetic parameters of the macrophytes leaves were compared with PAM-fluorimetry.



4.
Experimental Estimation of the Possibility to use Submersed Macrophytes for Biotesting of Bottom Sediments of the Yenisei River

T. A. ZOTINA, E. A. TROFIMOVA, A. Ya. BOLSUNOVSKY, O. V. ANISHENKO
Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: bottom sediments, Elodea canadensis, Myriophyllum spicatum, bottom sediments, toxicity, artificial radionuclides, heavy metals, nutrients

Abstract >>
Laboratory testing of bottom sediments (BS) of the Yenisei River with different concentrations of artificial radionuclides, heavy metals and nutrients (N, P), carried out using aquatic plants Elodea andensis and Myriophyllum spicatum , revealed higher sensitivity of root growth endpoints to BS quality as compared to shoot growth endpoints. We obtained the following data: shoot length (9 %) < root length (11 %) < root number (15 %) for M. spicatum and shoot length (22 %) < root length (42 %) < root number (44 %) for E. canadensis . Endpoints of E. candensis differed significantly among most of the samples of BS, unlike M. spicatum . Reverse correlation of shoot length growth and concentration of artificial radionuclides, 137Cs and total (natural and artificial) activity concentration in the samples of BS was revealed for E. candensis ( r 2= -0.90–0.95, p < 0.05). As endpoints of E. candensis were more sensitive to the quality of BS than endpoints of M. spicatum , the former can be considered as a species more perspective for biotesting of BS.



5.
Cytogenetic Abnormalities of an Aquatic plant Elodea Canadensis in the Zone of Anthropogenic Contamination of the Yenisei River

M. Yu. MEDVEDEVA, A. Ya. BOLSUNOVSKY, T. A. ZOTINA
Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: Elodea andensis, artificial radionuclides, bottom sediments, chromosome aberrations, genotoxicity

Abstract >>
Chromosomal abnormalities in ana-telophase cells of apical root meristem of the aquatic plant lodea anadensis (elodea), sampled in 2011-2012 in the Yenisei River at a site with background level of contamination and at several sites on the stretch contaminated with artificial radionuclides, and with chemical pollutants from municipal and industrial discharges of the Krasnoyarsk city were studied. Lowest rate (5.2 %) of cells with chromosome abnormalities was registered at sampling site with background level of contamination upstream of the Krasnoyarsk, highest rate of cells with abnormalities (39.7 %) was registered in roots of elodea sampled in bottom sediments with highest concentration of 137Cs. Sum of rates of cells with cytogenetic abnormalities and rates of cells with different types of abnormalities positively correlated with total concentration of artificial and natural radionuclides, with concentration of artificial radionuclides and 137Cs in bottom sediments of the Yenisei River ( r 2 = 0.91–0.96, p < 0.0005 for sum of rates of cells with cytogenetic abnormalities; r 2 = 0.580.92, p < 0.05 for different types of abnormalities).



6.
Low Molecular Weight Metabolites of Aquatic Macrophytes, Growing on the Territory of Russia, and their Role in Hydroecosystems

E. A. KURASHOV1,2, J. V. KRYLOVA2, G. G. MITRUKOVA1, A. M. CHERNOVA3
1Institute of Limnology RAS, 196105, St. Petersburg, Sevastianova str., 9
2Saint-Petersburg State University, 199178, St. Petersburg, 10 Line, 33-35
3Papanin Institute for biology of inland waters RAS, 152742, Yaroslavl region., Nekouz district, twp. Borok
Keywords: macrophytes, low molecular weight volatile organic compounds, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, phytochemical composition

Abstract >>
The article deals with the study of low molecular weight volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of aquatic macrophytes growing on the territory of Russia in different environmental conditions and geographic regions. It was shown that the component composition of VOCs and their content depend on abiotic (geographical location of habitats and hydrological regime, light conditions) and biotic factors (season and vegetation phase, distribution in different vegetative organs). Special attention was paid to the functions of VOCs in aquatic ecosystems and the possibility of their use for the control of phytoplankton and algal “blooms” in inland waters.



7.
Nutrient Removal by Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. in the Constructed Wetland System

Lj. Nikolić, D. Dzigurski, B. Ljevnaić-Masić
University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 8 21 000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Keywords: nitrogen, nutrient removal, phosphorus, potassium

Abstract >>
Significant results are achieved with the use of semiaquatic vegetation for purification of municipal wastewater as well as other types of waste waters. The first constructed system for purification of municipal wastewater was made at the end of 1970s years in the United Kingdom, with semiaquatic plants playing the role of phytoremediation plants. In Serbia, municipal waste water purification based on constructed wetland system method was applied for the first time in the village of Gložan near Novi Sad and it was put in operation in 2004. The recipient of purified municipal wastewater has been the Danube River. Biological factors in this anthropogenic ecosystem are emergent plants, with dominance of the common reed. This emergent plant with its roles in phytofiltration and phytoaccumulation positively influences the quality of waters finally discharged into the Danube. The paper presents the results of nutrients (N, P, K), organic matter and total ash contents in dry matter of dominant plant species Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. in Gložan constructed wetland system in the period from 2004 to 2007.



8.
The Role of Microcystis Aeruginosas Passing Through the Digestive Tracts of Filter-Feeding Animals in Eutrophic Water Reservoirs (a Review)

V. I. KOLMAKOV1,2
1Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodny ave., 79
2Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
Keywords: Microcystis aeruginosa, viable gut passage, water bloom, planktivorous fish, daphnia, bivalves, eutrophic reservoir

Abstract >>
The analysis of literature devoted to the study of enhanced growth of colonies of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Kutz em. Elenk. after their passage through the digestive tracts of filter feeding aquatic animals (planktivorous fish, daphnia, bivalves) was done. The main proposed mechanisms of this effect and its role in the functioning of eutrophic reservoirs were discussed. The prospects and the need for further study of the effect of such enhanced growth were shown to develop a complete theory of aquatic ecosystems functioning.



9.
Identification of Interconnections Between the Chemical Composition of the Water in Novosibirsk Reservoirand the Characteristicsof Zooplankton

S. Ya. DVURECHENSKAYA, N. I. YERMOLAEVA
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Morskoy prospect, 2
Keywords: Novosibirsk Reservoir, water quality, hydrochemical parameters, zooplankton, hydrology

Abstract >>
The mutual influence of the chemical composition of the water and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of zooplankton were revealed on the basis of the analysis of long-term data gathered during hydrochemical and hydrobiological monitoring of Novosibirsk reservoir. The influence of hydrochemical factors on zooplankton was connected with the peculiarities of the hydrological regime of the reservoir. High correlation between number of zooplankton and pH-values, concentrations of nitrites, nitrates and BOD5-values were revealed. The reservoir can be divided into three principal parts differing by the level of influence of hydrological factors and intra-reservoir processes on hydrochemical and hydrobiological characteristics of the ecosystem. It was shown that in general the intra-reservoir processes improve water quality by many hydrochemical parameters.



10.
The Comparison of Fatty Acid Composition of Cladocerans and Copepods From Lakes of Different Climatic Zones

O. N. MAKHUTOVA1, M. I. GLADYSHEV1,2, N. N. SUSHCHIK1,2, O. P. DUBOVSKAYA1,2, Z. F. BUSEVA3, E. B. FEFILOVA4, V. P. SEMENCHENKO3, G. S. KALACHOVA1, O. N. KONONOVA4, M. A. BATURINA4
1Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodniy ave., 79
3Scientific and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus on Bioresources, 220072, Minsk, Akademicheskaya str., 27
4Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center of Ural Division of RAS, 167982, Syktyvkar, Kommunisticheskaya str. 28
Keywords: cladocerans, copepods, fatty acids, cold lakes, warm lakes

Abstract >>
We studied fatty acid (FA) contents and composition of cladocerans and copepods from warm and cold lakes. We found no significant differences in FA percent levels and FA per carbon contents among cladocerans from the warm lake and the cold lakes, as well as among copepods. Discriminant analysis showed that all cladocerans differed from copepods mainly by the content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Besides, the copepods compared to the cladocerans had significantly higher levels of C22 polyunsaturated FA. Thus, we concluded that cladocerans and copepods in all environments had comparatively invariant taxon-specific composition and content of long-chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA). According to HUFA content all studied copepods can be regarded as a valuable food for fish.



11.
Heterogeneity of Lipids and Fatty Acids of Fingerlings of the Atlantic Salmon Salmo Salar L. Different in Weight and Size

Z. A. NEFEDOVA, S. A. MURZINA, A. E. VESELOV, P. O. RIPATTI, N. N. NEMOVA
Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Centre RAS, 185910, Petrozavodsk, Pushkinskaya str., 11
Keywords: Atlantic salmon, liids, fatty acids, ontogenesis

Abstract >>
Lipid and fatty acid spectrum of the fingerlings of the Atlantic salmon distinguished by weight and size characteristics, and the degree of fatness was investigated. Heterogeneity of fatty acids in the studied groups of fingerlings was shown, indicating the differences in biochemical reactions, synthesis and modification of lipids and fatty acids due to phenotypic diversity. Peculiarities of the metabolic processes in the studied groups of salmon fingerlings were connected with the broad variety of nutrition and availability of food in the biotope.



12.
Component Elements of the Carbon Cycle in the Middle and Lower Yenisei River Ecosystem

A. P. TOLOMEEV1, O. V. ANISCHENKO1, E. S. KRAVCHUK1, O. V. KOLMAKOVA1,2, L. A. GLUSCHENKO2, O. N. MAHUTOVA1, A. A. KOLMAKOVA1, V. I. KOLMAKOV1,2, M. Yu. TRUSOVA1, N. N. SUSCHIK1,2, M. I. GLADISCHEV1,2
1Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, 660036, Krasnoyarsk, Akademgorodok
2Siberian Federal University, 660041, Krasnoyarsk, Svobodniy ave., 79
Keywords: Yenisei River, the carbon cycle, nutrients, primary production, respiration, phytoplankton, bacterioplankton

Abstract >>
Integrated studies of middle and lower Yenisei were performed in the summer of 2012. The studies included monitoring of the most important elements and ecological processes associated with the carbon cycle of the river ecosystem ( the study area was more than 1800 km). The measurements of production and decomposition processes showed inconsistency of the hypothesis of neutral tube, considering the river as a simple drain of carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to the ocean. The Yenisei River is not a pure heterotrophic ecosystem, it has a positive balance of photosynthesis and respiration (above Angara river and in the region of Bolshaya and Malaya Heta rivers). According to the study, the respiration rate of the plankton community of the river primarily depends on the water temperature and the content of inorganic phosphorus, the lack of which in many ecosystems limits the consumption of organic matter by bacterioplankton.