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Thermophysics and Aeromechanics

2014 year, number 1

20th anniversary of our journal

Editorial Board
Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Pages: 12

Abstract >>
Since 1997, the English version of the Journal “Thermophysics and Aeromechanics” has been disseminated in other countries by the International Academic Publishing Company "Nauka/Interperiodica, and since 2006 by the Corporation Springer Science + Business Media (including electronic version). Information about the English versions of all articles published in the journal T & A is placed in international databases SCOPUS (from 2006) and Web of Science (since 2008). The impact factor of our Journal is still low (IF ISI 2012 = 0.304), but we believe in its growth.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010016

Experimental study of mean and pulsation flow characteristics in the 2D/3D supersonic boundary layer behind flat roughness elements

A.V. Panina, A.D. Kosinov, Yu.G. Yermolaev, V.N. Gorev, and N.V. Semionov
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: laminar-turbulent transition, supersonic boundary layer, flat microroughness element, power spectra
Pages: 313

Abstract >>
For the first time, detailed experiments aimed at evaluation of the influence of flat microroughness elements (adhesive tape stickers attached to the streamlined surface) on the mean and pulsation flow characteristics in flat-plate and swept-wing boundary layers were carried out under comparable dimensional conditions. At Mach number = 2, the sticker shape was found to have almost no influence on the amplitude of mass-flow pulsations in the wake of sticker. The relative receptivity of 3D boundary layer to stationary disturbances was obtained to be approximately 1.5 times higher than the receptivity of 2D boundary layer. It was found that the presence of a sticker at the line of the source of controlled disturbance changes the pulsation spectra in 2D and 3D boundary layers in comparison with unperturbed flow. In the wake behind the center of a sticker, the flow can be most unstable.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010028

Extreme shockwave systems in problems of external supersonic aerodynamics

V.N. Uskov1 and M.V. Chernyshov2
1 Baltic State Technical University “Voenmekh”
St. Petersburg, Russia
2 Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University
St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: shockwave systems, supersonic flow, interaction of shocks and PrandtlMeyer waves
Pages: 1530

Abstract >>
The stationary shockwave systems (the sequences of shocks, isentropic expansion and compression waves), which arise at a planar supersonic flow of perfect inviscid gas around the bodies are investigated theoretically. The domains of the existence of shockwave systems under consideration are found analytically and numerically for the model problems of supersonic aerodynamics (the flow around a single plate, the plate with the frontal shield, polygonal profiles), the parameters of systems are determined, which provide the extrema of the force and thermal loadings as well as of the aerodynamic coefficients of streamlined bodies.
DOI: 10.1134/S086986431401003X

Numerical simulation of pulsation processes in hydraulic turbine based on 3D model of cavitating flow

L.V. Panov1, D.V. Chirkov1, S.G. Cherny1, and I.M. Pylev2
1 Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS
Novosibirsk, Russia
2 JSC “Power Machines”, LMZ branch
St. Petersburg, Russia
Keywords: numerical simulation, cavitation, hydro turbine, full load surge
Pages: 3143

Abstract >>
A new approach was proposed for simulation of unsteady cavitating flow in the flow passage of a hydraulic power plant. 1D hydro-acoustics equations are solved in the penstock domain. 3D equations of turbulent flow of isothermal compressible liquidvapor mixture are solved in the turbine domain. Cavitation is described by a transfer equation for liquid phase with a source term which is responsible for evaporation and condensation. The developed method was applied for simulation of pulsations in pressure, discharge, and total energy propagating along the flow conduit of the hydraulic power plant. Simulation results are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiment. The influence of key physical and numerical parameters like discharge, cavitation number, penstock length, time step, and vapor density on simulation results was studied.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010041

The use of scale models in ground tests reproducing heat transfer in space

N.P. Semena
Space Research Institute RAS
Moscow, Russia
Keywords: scale thermal modeling, heat transfer in space, thermodynamic similarity criteria, nodal mathematical model
Pages: 4555

Abstract >>
It is suggested to use the method of experimental investigation of temperature conditions at the spacecraft with application of their reduced thermal models based on the similarity criteria formulated under the assumption of the mathematical nodal model of the studied object. Usually thermal-vacuum experiments with full-size object have tight time constraints due to a significant cost. However, on the basis of result of this limited experiment we can specify the parameters of the scale model developed using the nodal mathematical model. This correction ensures the compliance between the results of full-size and scale experiments. After that the scale thermal experiment can supplement the full-scale experiment due to investigation of thermal conditions, which cannot be reproduced experimentally in the full-scale experiment because of the limited resources. The suggested method will significantly expand the possibility to get reliable experimental data about the temperature modes of space objects without a considerable increase in costs.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010053

Calculation of decay parameters for the wavy film flow at unsteady heat release

A.N. Chernyavskiy
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: hydrodynamics, wave formation, heat transfer, liquid films, numerical simulation
Pages: 5764

Abstract >>
The mathematical model for determination of boiling expectation time and total local evaporation in the falling wavy liquid films at unsteady heat release has been developed. Numerical simulation of the process of wave formation in the falling films of liquid nitrogen has been carried out. Dependence of boiling expectation time on heat flux density under the conditions of graduated heat load increase has been calculated. Satisfactory agreement between the results of numerical simulations and experimental data is shown.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010065

Free convection on an inclined plate with variable viscosity and thermal diffusivity

G. Palani1, J.D. Kirubavathi1, and Kwang Yong Kim2
1 Dr. Ambedkar Govt. Arts College
Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Inha University
Incheon, Republic of Korea
Keywords: inclined plate, variable viscosity, finite differences, Nusselt number
Pages: 6585

Abstract >>
The present numerical analysis addresses free convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid along an inclined semi-infinite flat plate considering the variation of viscosity and thermal diffusivity with temperature. The governing equations are developed with the corresponding boundary conditions are transformed to non-dimensional form using the appropriate dimensionless quantities. Due to complexity in the transformed governing equations, analytical solution will fail to produce a solution. Hence, most efficient and unconditionally stable implicit finite difference method of CrankNicolson scheme has been used to solve the governing equations. Numerical results are obtained for different values of the viscosity, thermal conductivity, inclination angle, Grashof number, and Prandtl number. The overall investigation of the variation of velocity, temperature, shearing stress and Nusselt number are presented graphically. To examine the accuracy of the present approximate results, the present results are compared with the available results.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010077

Numerical investigation of incompressible fluid flow and heat transfer around a rotating circular cylinder

R. Bouakkaz1, K. Talbi1, Y. Khelil1, F. Salhi2, N. Belghar1, and M. Ouazizi1
1 University Constantine
1, Constantine, Algeria
2 University Mouloud Mammeri Tizi ouzou
Tizi ouzou, Algeria
Keywords: unsteady regime, rotating circular cylinder, rotation rate, Nusselt number, forced convection
Pages: 8797

Abstract >>
The heat transfer and air flow around an unconfined heated rotating circular cylinder is investigated numerically for varying rotation rates (α = 0–6) in the Reynolds number range of 20200. The numerical calculations are carried out by using a finite volume method based commercial computational fluid dynamics solver FLUENT. The successive changes in the flow pattern are studied as a function of the rotation rate. Suppression of vortex shedding occurs as the rotation rate increases (α > 2). A second kind of instability appears for higher rotation speed where a series of counter-clockwise vortices is shed in the upper shear layer. The rotation attenuates the secondary instability and increases the critical Reynolds number for the appearance of this instability. Besides, time-averaged (lift and drag coefficients and Nusselt number) results are obtained and compared with the literature data. A good agreement has been obtained for both the local and averaged values.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010089

Thermal expansion and phase changes of 16Kh12V2FTaR steel in temperature range from 20 to 1000 °C

Yu.M. Kozlovskii, S.V. Stankus, O.S. Yatsuk, A.Sh. Agazhanov, S.G. Komarov, and I.S. Anufriyev
Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS
Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: coefficient of thermal expansion, phase changes, 16Kh12V2FTaR steel, solid state, high temperatures
Pages: 99103

Abstract >>
The article presents the results of investigation of thermal expansion of 16Kh12V2FTaR steel in the temperature range 20–1000 º. Measurements were carried out by dilatometric method with the error (1.52)×10−7 K−1. The temperature dependences of thermal coefficient of linear expansion of steel have been obtained in ferrite-martensite and ferrite-perlite states, and reference tables have been calculated. Influence of samples cooling rate on martensite phase formation is shown.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010090

Control of spray spot in cold spray technology. Part 1. Gas dynamic aspects

V.N. Zaikovskii, S.V. Klinkov, V.F. Kosarev, B.M. Melamed, and G.V. Trubacheev
Khristianovich Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics SB RAS
Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: supersonic jet, separation zone, flow swirl, vortex system, gas dynamic cold spray
Pages: 105112

Abstract >>
This paper presents a study of supersonic jets formed by approaches that are new for cold spray technique: the main flow is swirled, the nozzles with permeable profiles and with exit slots on the supersonic section are engineered. The flow swirling achieved in the nozzle prechamber retains downstream to substrate surface. The system of vortices created within the permeable nozzles changes the shock wave features of the overexpanded jet and the geometry of the bow shock wave ahead of the substrate surface. These new features of flow may affect particle motion and particle-substrate interaction under the conditions of cold spray process; this offers tools for obtaining the necessary shape of a spray spot.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010107

Synthesis, heating, and melting of stoichiometric glass(CaSiO3•SiO2)

V.S. Engelsht1 and V.Zh. Muratalieva2
1 Institute of Physical and Technical Problems and Material Science NAS KR
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
2 Kyrgyz State Technical University
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: thermodynamic analysis, exothermic effect, glass, synthesis, heating, melting, temperature, enthalpy, heat of reaction, heat content
Pages: 113118

Abstract >>
Thermodynamic analysis (TERRA program) of synthesis, heating, and melting of stoichiometric glass CaSiO3•SiO2 has been carried out. Chemically pure substances silica and lime are subjected to exothermic reaction with further external heating and melting. Wollastonite is synthesized, the chemical reaction generates heat Qchr = −505.3 kJ/kg, and temperature increases = 820 K. When melt = 1812–1814 K, wollastonite melts, and a mixture of liquid wollastonite and condensed silica is formed. At melt = 19951997 K, silica melts, and stoichiometric glass (CaSiO3SiO2) is formed. Evolutions of temperature and melting of wollastonite and silica have been studied by detailed step-by-step thermodynamic calculation (Δ = 0.1 K).
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010119

Unsteady three-dimensional model of electric arc. Part 1. Mathematical model and testing results

R.M. Urusov and I.R. Urusova
Institute of Physical-Technical Problems and Materials Science NAS KR
Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan
Keywords: numerical modelling, unsteady three-dimensional mathematical model of the electric arc
Pages: 119132

Abstract >>
A non-stationary three-dimensional mathematical model of the electric arc of constant current in the approximation of a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium of plasma is presented. For the purpose of testing the model and computer code a computation of the isothermal laminar viscous fluid flow past a circular cylinder (the testing of the dynamic part of the system of equations) and a computation of the axisymmetric electric arc with a reduced anode attachment have been done. A fair agreement of numerical results with experimental data points overall to the correctness of the mathematical model and the numerical solution technique.
DOI: 10.1134/S0869864314010120