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Philosophy of Sciences

2013 year, number 4

1.
Mind as a metaphysical problem of modern physics

V.A. Iakovlev
Keywords: mind, information, creativity, subjective, physics, reality, metaphysics

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes modern scientific cognitive programs. It gives proof of the hypothesis that the anthropic principle is universalized in modern physics and it is possible to re-interpret the category of mind as a key notion of the theory of information reality. The author suggests an information-synergetic model of mind based on the metaphysical principle of ontological reality of information, viz the principle of primacy of information to material and energetic (or physical) reality and that of meanings (or ideal one).
																								



2.
Nanotechnologies and their role in conception of reality in modern society

O.A. Otradnova
Keywords: modern (information) society, conception of reality, nanotechnologies, individual, mass consciousness

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the role of nanotechnologies in the modern information society and their significance for conception of reality in the ordinary mass consciousness. It analyzes the specific of the modern society which determines success in the development of nanotechnologies; it considers three philosophic approaches to conception of nanoreality and presents its theoretical model. Also, the paper shows how the theoretical model of nanoreality influences the ordinary mass consciousness by means of various forms of mass culture and identifies the role of nanotechnologies in transformation of an individual conception [interpretation] of modern reality.
																								



3.
On the ontology of problem-oriented languages and first-order theories

Yu.L. Yershov, K.F. Samokhvalov
Keywords: ontology, language, theory, logic

Abstract >>
Main ontological battles in the modern scientific literature are fought in relation to the question under which circumstances and how one may tell about the existence of anything (and in any sense) exactly. While and since this question is not clarified, all other ontological talks resemble a clock with a pendulum taken off: it works, and works fast, but does not show time. The object of the paper is to clarify the mentioned question in respect to first-order languages and theories oriented to setting and solving some rather general problems.
																								



4.
On divergence of information ontologies and conceptualizations of the external word

A.G. Marchuk, V.V. Tselishchev
Keywords: ontology, information, intuition, contradiction

Abstract >>
The paper deals with the problems of elimination of divergences between conceptualizations of the external world and those of information technologies. It shows that when constructing ontologies in the purpose of data mining and storage unnatural and ad hoc approaches are used which result in consequences contradicting intuition. The authors suggest methods how to eliminate this contradiction.
																								



5.
Logic and contrary instances

K.A. Pavlov
Keywords: modus ponens, communication, contrary instances, scope of formalization

Abstract >>
The paper considers some problems concerning the scope of applicability of formalisms in logic. If we take into account pragmatic and communicative aspects of logic, uncertainty in identification of its scope just increases, which is shown by the example of problems arising when modus ponens is used.
																								



6.
The epistemological role of the observability principle in physics

A.Yu. Storozhuk
Keywords: observability, methodology, empiricism, epistemology of science

Abstract >>
The purpose of the paper is to identify and analyze the significance and functions of the observability principle in physics. It is carried out in the context of the study of evolution of this principle in the history of physics from Galileo up to appearance of quantum mechanics, which makes possible to reveal the role of the observability principle in various periods of the development of physics. The author shows that the functions of the observability principle are illustrative, demonstrative, heuristic, psychological, interpretative, and methodological ones. But when quantum mechanics appeared, the role of the observability principle changed. So, it is necessary to review its content and sense.
																								



7.
Structural unity of the physical picture of the world

A.L. Simanov
Keywords: physics, methodology, the physical picture of the world, structure, functions

Abstract >>
The paper formulates the principle of the unity of the physical picture of the word (PPW) which is based on the system of methodological principles. The functions of the PPW are considered, those are the explanatory, heuristic and informative ones.
																								



8.
Modern cosmology in general physical and philosophical aspects

B.M. Moiseev
Keywords: physics, cosmology, philosophy, observation, interpretation, methodology

Abstract >>
The paper critically analyzes some fundamental principles of modern cosmology. It shows that cosmology bases on the subjective interpretation of astronomic observations. Cosmology is open to mathematical development, but does not allow of discussions on key issues related to physical fundamentals of a theory. This reduces the value of achievements attained in cosmology and makes the modern cosmology vulnerable in the methodological sense.
																								



9.
Automation of intellectual activity

V.I. Razumov, L.I. Ryzenko, V.P. Sizikov
Keywords: model, system, information, concept, computer, interface

Abstract >>
Basing on the theory of dynamic information systems (DIS) the authors set the way to atomize reasoning. They define leading operations on models of the DIS type (decodings, convolutions, mutations) and relations between concepts (primitives, derivatives, integrals, differentials), as well as between concepts and interpretations (developments and their centers, stickings, stratifications) that makes possible to build models of reasoning. The said way is realized in the software product "Cognitive assistant" which is a prototype of a researcher automated workplace. The computer interface and procedures of device handling are described (http://thoughtring.com).
																								



10.
Natural philosophy tradition in antique natural history and Alexandrian school in the 3d century. Part II

D.A. Balalykin, A.P. Shcheglov, N.P. Shok
Keywords: history of medicine, history of science, Alexandrian school, antique natural history, Galen, Dionysius of Alexandria (the Great), Asclepiades, Plato, Aristotle

Abstract >>
The paper deals with an urgent problem in the history of science, viz the mutual influence of natural philosophy and medicine in the 3d century. At the end of the 2nd and the beginning of the 3d century, an important turn came about in medicine: the theory was formed which began to predominate in this field all over the civilized space – Galen’s anatomic-physiological system. Also, the paper analyses in detail the special role of Alexandrian school in the development of natural science: it ensured synergy of antique philosophy and Christian theology.
																								



11.
The rhetorical theory of everything and nothing, or The colander of Shilov

A.S. Nilogov
Keywords: the rhetorical theory of number, Shilov, mathematics, pseudo-mathematics, number, infinity, prime number

Abstract >>
In the review of S.Ye. Shilov's book The rhetorical theory of number we expose the example of modern Russian pseudo-mathematics. Declaring scientific revolutionism of the rhetorical theory of number, its author ventures to discredit not only linguistics and philosophy, but also mathematics and physics. In its content, Shilov's book is an attempt to perform a philosophic analysis of the nature of number, but since the author is weak in mathematics he failed to draw adequate scientific conclusions.
																								



12.
M.A. Rozov on ideal theoretical objects [objects of a theory]

S.S. Rozova
Keywords: M.A. Rozov, object, theory, program, social relay

Abstract >>
For a long time, we have known that scientific theories are constructed for ideal objects. Usually, we explain it by complexity of the studied reality. But nobody associated the fact that in science appear objects which do not exist really with the effect of Bohrs complementarity. M.A. Rozov showed that ideal or idealized objects such as a material point are quite real social phenomena, viz social programs which emerged in scientists reflection spontaneously as realization of two complementary ways of setting forth conditions of theory application, i.e. when a theory is always applicable. However, there are no ideal objects in nature. A theory is always applied to real objects if a problem specification enables to identify them with ideal ones. There are an infinite number of such problems, so it is impossible to formulate a general rule of such an application. We need to act according to patterns. Conferring an ideal status on so called ideal objects is a consequence of indeducibility of their features [properties /characteristic / quality] from some material. Their features / properties are recorded [characteristic / quality is recorded] to social memory. Social relays transfer rules of the use of ideal objects from one scientist to another. These objects are phenomena of social reality.