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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2013 year, number 4

Forecast of Possible Changes of Vegetation Zone Boundaries in European Russia and West Siberia in Connection with Global Warming

Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory-1
Keywords: vegetation zonality, global warming, climatic indexes, forecast, mathematic-cartographical model

Abstract >>
Connections between the vegetation zone boundaries and some climatic indexes are discussed. Possible changes of the boundaries of vegetation subzones at the territory of European Russia and West Siberia are predicted within the framework of one of the scenarios of global warming. The revealed regularities allow us to propose a mathematic-cartographical model of vegetation zonality for the period of 20462065.

Natural Hybridization and the Problems of Systematics of Birch in Northern Asia

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Betula, birch, intraspecific variation, natural hybridization

Abstract >>
The present situation in the systematics of such a widespread genus as birch (Betula L.) involves complications. The attempts to study a large number of the species of this genus, described in Siberia and in the Russian Far East, strike on an insurmountable obstacle – impossibility to detect them for the second time, or, relying on the described characters, to find the species identical to the type samples. Very high variability of all the characters is typical for these species. In the southern regions of West Siberia, this relates to Betula pendula and B. microphylla, while in East Siberia and in the northern regions of Russian Far East this relates to Betula pendula (=B. platyphylla) and B. lanata. Intense and widespread hybridization exists between these species; in this connection, studies of this species over the whole territory of Northern Asia began. The studies were carried out for more than 40 years. By present, many works in periodical issues and several monographs have been published on the basis of the results obtained in numerous expeditions. In the present paper, the role of natural hybridization in plant systematics is demonstrated for Siberian birch species as example, and the necessity to have a distinct notion of hybridization processes over large territories that include the ranges of contacting species is stressed. It is a hopeless matter to solve the problems of systematics studying only small local populations.

Biomass-density relationship varies with water use efficiency across an aridity gradient

1College of Life Sciences, CN-310058 Hangzhou, PR Chin
2Zhejiang University, CN-310058 Hangzhou, PR Chin
Keywords: scaling exponent, plant morphological traits, foliar stable carbon isotope

Abstract >>
Accumulating evidence has shown that the scaling exponent (α) of the aboveground biomass-density relationship is not a constant value. Debate continues over what determines the variation in α. By measuring foliar stable carbon isotope, plant morphological traits and α along an aridity gradient from eastern to Western China, we confirmed that the variation in α was accounted for by changes in plant morphological traits which are adaptive strategies for enhancing water use efficiency during drought stress. This information can be crucial for understanding and predicting community and ecosystem processes.

Ecological Features of the Leaf Structure and Plastid Apparatus in Far Eastern Araliaceae Species

Institute of Biology and Soil Science FEB RAS, 690022, Vladivostok, Stoletiya Street, 159
Keywords: Russian Far East, Araliaceae, life form, adaptation, mesophyll structure, quantitative leaf anatomy

Abstract >>
The leaf mesostructure of several Araliaceae species has been investigated in the plants growing in the Russian Far East. Araliaceae species reveal variability in quantitative traits of the leaf, which is dependent on the ecological conditions of their habitats and life forms. Comparative description of their adaptive capacity in relation to the light and water regimes is given.

Spatial Heterogeneity of the Species Composition of a Clavarioid Fungis Complex in the Eurasian Arctic

Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UrB RAS, 620144, Ekaterinburg, 8 Marta str., 202
Keywords: Arctic, adaptation, biogeography, diversity, distribution, clavarioid fungi, macroecology, structure, tundra, extremal localities

Abstract >>
Large-scale studies of the mycocomplex of Eurasian Arctic were carried out, with the model group of macromycetes clavarioid fungi as an example. The species composition was revealed in all longitudinal sectors and latitudinal subzones; its comparative analysis was carries out. It was established that the clavarioid life form is best adapted to the extremal psychrophilic conditions of Arctic among other groups of aphyllophorous fungi. It is demonstrated that ocean-side sectors are most rich, while the continental ones are essentially scanty. The distribution of the species composition of fungi agrees with the similar distribution for flowering plants, especially for hemicryptophytes. The annual amount of precipitation appears as the leading climatic factor. The established differences allow one to subdivide the Eurasian Arctic into four mycogeographic regions: Atlantic (European), Siberian, Chukotka (Bering) region, and the High Arctic.

Ecological Features of Polypores in the Forest-Steppe Zone of West Siberia

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: polypores, ecology of fungi, substrate specialization, forest-steppe, West Siberia

Abstract >>
Polypore fungi in the forest-steppe zone of West Siberia were studied, their ecological features were revealed. The xylobiont complex is represented by 128 polyporoid species, among them 120 species develop on the basic forest-forming woody plants. The distribution of polypores species over the breeds of substrate-forming plants was studied, the features of species distribution, their relations on living trees and on dead wood were analyzed, as well as the features of species distribution over topical niches.

On the Regularities of the Structure of Pathogenic Micromycete Complexes of the Leaves of Woody Plants n the Urban Ecosystems of Siberia

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: pathogenic micromycetes, woody plants, pathogenic complexes, urban ecosystem

Abstract >>
Results of the studies of pathogenic micromycetes developing on the leaves of woody plants in the urban ecosystems of the southern part of the West Siberian region are presented. The number of pathogenic species revealed was 101. The existence of common regularities in the structure of micromycete complexes for five Siberian cities and for different gardening objects was established.

Spatial variation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in two vegetatiob types in gurbantonggut desert

Z. Y. SHI1,2, D. H. LIU1, F. Y. WANG1,3
1Henn University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henn 471003, Chin;
2State Key Agriculture Institute of Soil Science Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, Chin
3Peking University, Beijing 100094, Chin
Keywords: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal biovolume, Desert, soil properties, spatial distribution

Abstract >>
Geostatistical techniques were used to assess the spatial patterns of spores densities and biovolume of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soils from two contrasting vegetation communities: an Ephedra distachya -ephemeral plant vegetation community and an Eremurus anisopteris vegetation community. Also evaluated was the relationship between the spatial distribution of spore densities and biovolume of AMF and soil properties. Spatial dependence of spore densities and biovolume of AMF were exhibited further by kriged maps. The results showed spore density and biovolume indicated strong spatial autocorrelation and a patchy distribution within both sites. However, the patch size of genera and biovolume of AMF differed between the two communities. The correlation between distribution of spore and biovolume of AMF and distribution of soil parameters was expressed by Spearman rank-correlations coefficients. These results suggest that spore or biovolume distribution of AMF was affected significantly by some soil properties.

Regularities of the Recovery of Natural Populations of Herbaceous Perennials in the Spruce Forests of the Carpathian Mountains

Institute of Carpathian Ecology NAS of Ukraine, 79026, Ukraine, Lvov, Kozelnitskaya str., 4
Keywords: population, subpopulation locus, vitality, vital state, viability, ontogenesis

Abstract >>
The regularities of the typical stages of self-recovery (regeneration) of the subpopulation structure of Soldanella hungarica Simonk. after rigid local destructions were generalized relying on the results of multi-year (1974–2011) monitoring on permanent test grounds of the Institute of Carpathian Ecology, NAS of Ukraine, situated near the upper boundary of spruce forest in the Carpathian mountains. It was revealed that under the experimental conditions the point impacts of this kind do not cause general destabilization of population processes. However, they initiate behavioral reactions aimed at the mobilization of population reserve of S. hungarica at closely located territories. Unequal roles of individual and group effects in this phenomenon were revealed. The conclusion concerning the determining importance of the vitality composition for the results of the local regeneration of S. hungarica population was made. It was stated that self-recovery of the structure of S. hungarica on experimental grounds is a long-standing process requiring several ten years.

Evaluation of the State of Hedysarum theinum Krasnob. (Fabaceae) Populations in the Altay

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Hedysarum theinum, cenopopulations, population and organismic parameters, strategy

Abstract >>
Evaluation of state of 22 cenopopulations of Hedysarum theinum situated in the sub-alpine and alpine vegetation belts in Kazakhstan and the Republic of Altay was made according to the set of traits. It was revealed that the most favorable conditions for this species are those of the sub-alpine belt (12 CP), where the sums of scores for organism and population features vary from high to medium values. The pessimal state, which is characterized by the smallest values of the majority of parameters of the species, was revealed in the alpine vegetation belt at the altitude of about 2000 m above the sea level in the Rudniy Altay (Kazakhstan) and in scrub communities at the joint of the alpine and subalpine belts at the edge of the range of H. theinum in Russian Altay. The reactive-tolerant type of the population strategy of H. theinum was revealed.

On Ecology and Biology of Althaea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) t the Northern Boundary of the Range (Republic of Bashkortostan)

Botanical Garden Institute, Ufa Scientific Center, RAS, 450080, Ufa, Mendeleev str., 195, build. 3
Keywords: rare species, the Red Book of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Althaea officinalis L, cenopopulation, demographic structure, vitality, existence optimum

Abstract >>
Results of the studies of 20 natural cenopopulations (CP) of the rare species Althaea officinalis the Republic of Bashkortostan, growing at the northern boundary of the range, are reported. The demographic structure, morphometric parameters and the vital state of individuals were studied, the optimal conditions of existence were determined. The majority of the studied cenopopulations A. officinalis are distinguished by the low density (1–4 individuals/m2) and incomplete ontogenetic spectrum. The vitality type of the cenopopulations of A. officinalis changes from prosperous to depressive. The ecological and phytocenotic optimua do not coincide for the majority of CP. The optimal growing conditions for A. officinalis occur in reed near-bank communities, along the periphery of Phragmites australis stand. Worsening of the vital state of A. officinalis CP is observed in the communities perturbed by depasturage.

On Flavonoids of Bistoria vivipara (L.) Delarbre in Relation to their Ecological Role

Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbre, insolation, flavonoids, flavonols, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, Siberia

Abstract >>
Results of the studies of the flavonoid content and structure of Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbre from the natural habitats of Siberia are discussed. The plants growing under the conditions of enhanced insolation at the altitude of 1500 m above the sea level and higher accumulate a significant amount of flavonoids, even the conditions of superfluous humidity, low temperature of air and soil in a high-mountain tundra zone do not counteract their biosynthesis. The flavonoid content in the plants of shaded habitats is lower. It is quite probable that these pigments play a role of filters protecting plant tissues from the unwholesome influence of ultraviolet radiation, and the altitude of locality above the sea level is one of the leading ecological factors. Adaptation of plants to the UV radiation occurs due to the shielding compounds of the epidermal cells. Flavonol aglycones in the plants collected at the territory of the Altay were studied for the first time by means of HPLC. Three aglycons have been detected: myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol. The major aglycone of B. vivipara is quercetin (to 5,8 % in flowers, 6,8 % in leaves).

Effect of Growing Conditions on the Composition of Lipids and Fatty Acids in Dwarf and Tall Forms of Siberian Apple (Malus baccata L.)

1Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry SB RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 132
2Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya str., 101
Keywords: Siberian apple (Malus baccata L. Borkh), dwarfism, water supply, lipids, fatty acids

Abstract >>
Results of the comparative analysis of lipid and fatty acid composition of the roots, leaves and fruit of the dwarf and tall forms of Siberian apple growing under the conditions of different water supply are described. It was discovered that adaptation to decreased water supply in different ecological forms of apple within the same species involves biochemical changes in the amount and quality of total lipids and phospholipids. Noticeable differences in the chemical composition of the two forms of apple were demonstrated in the level of unsaturation of fatty acids and phospholipids. The most significant differences in the fatty acid composition were detected between the root tissues of the two apple forms. It is assumed that these differences are caused by differences in water supply, which can be one of the reasons of the formation of the dwarf status of Siberian apple; possible participation of the lipid pool in this process is also assimed.

The Influence of Abiotic Factors on the Composition f Fatty Acids in Ulva intestinalis

Institute of Ecology of the Volga Pool Russian Academy of Sciences, 445003, Tolyatti, Komzin str., 10
Keywords: Ulva intestinalis, small rivers, abiotic factors of environment, fatty acids

Abstract >>
The composition of the fatty acids of green algae Ulva intestinalis living in the small rivers of the pool of the lake Elton was investigated. It is established that the basic fatty acids are acids with a long chain of 16 and 18 carbon atoms. The variability of the structure of fatty acids of lipids of U. instenstinalis depending on the factors of environment - level of mineralization, temperature, saturation by oxygen, acidity of environment - was investigated. It was revealed that unsaturation of fatty acids increases with an increase in water mineralization. Participation ω6 and ω3 desaturases in the adaptation of U. intestinalis to this factor is assumed.

Flowering and Pollination of Daylilies Native Species (Hemerocallis) in Botanical Garden-Institute FEB RAS

Botanical Garden-Institute FEB RAS, 690024, Vladivostok, Makovsky str., 142
Keywords: Hemerocallis, weather conditions, type of flowering, life of a flower, pollination, pollen viability, Primorsky Krai

Abstract >>
Flower opening time and duration of blooming, the time of the anther opening and the type of pollination of five species of Hemerocallis genus were studied under different weather conditions. We found that weather conditions do not affect the flowering of mesophytic species. Under adverse weather conditions, the xerophytic species start to bloom later, and their blossom time increases. The main type of pollination is xenogamy, which is combined with geytonogamy. The pollen collected in a sunny weather at 65 % air humidity is characterized by high viability.

Callus Formation of Ecgysteroid Species Silene L. (Caryophyllaceae Juss.) in Culture in vitro

1FSIS Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS, 630090, Novosibirsk, Zolotodolinskaya st., 101
2Siberian Botanical Garden of TSU, 634050, Tomsk, pr. Lenin, 36
Keywords: cell culture, Silene, ecdysteroids, growth index

Abstract >>
Continuously growing callus cultures of three species of Silene genus – S. linicola, S. aprica and S. frivaldszkyana were obtained. It was shown that the genotype and type of explant influence the processes of callus. The highest growth indexes had calluses from hypocotyl 10,1 ± 1,4, 11,6 3,4 and 7,4 1,1 ( S. linicola, S. aprica and S. frivaldszkyana respectively).