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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2013 year, number 4

1.
Atmospheric bistatic communication channels with scattering. Part 1. Methods of investigation

V.V. Belov, M.V. Tarasenkov, V.N. Abramochkin, V.V. Ivanov, A.V. Fedosov, V.O. Troitskii, D.V. Shiyanov
Keywords: optical communication, Monte Carlo method, impulse transfer characteristic, bistatic schemes

Abstract >>
Methods of theoretical and experimental investigation of bistatic optical communication schemes are discussed in the present article. A laboratory model of optoelectronic communication system has been developed for experimental investigation. As a source of signals, radiation of copper vapor laser at a wavelength of 510 nm is used. Test demonstration experiments have been carried out in the outdoor atmosphere through atmospheric channels with a reflecting surface and dense nonstationary aerosol-molecular formation. To perform theoretical investigations, software has been developed intended for numerical statistical estimation of the energy and transfer characteristics of the bistatic atmospheric communication channels by the Monte Carlo method.
																								



2.
The effect of a frontal zone on atmospheric transparency for high-energy laser beams

V.A. Pogodaev
Keywords: laser radiation, propagation, atmospheric cold front

Abstract >>
Atmospheric transmission for high-power laser pulse radiation under the conditions of passing through a region of measurements of atmospheric cold front is analyzed. It is noted that for the forecast estimations of such radiation transmission it is necessary to record an aerosol component including submicrometer fraction directly before start of radiation.
																								



3.
Spectrochemical peculiarities of certain brisant explosives in vapor state

Sh.Sh. Nabiev, D.B. Stavrovskii, L.A. Palkina, V.L. Zbarskii, N.V. Yudin, E.N. Golubeva, V.L. Vaks, E.G. Domracheva, E.A. Sobakinskaya, M.B. Chernyaeva
Keywords: explosives, TNT, RDX, and PETN molecules, IR-absorption spectra, vibrational frequencies, subTHz- and mass-spectra, absorption coefficient, cross-section, volatile components, methods of quantum chemistry

Abstract >>
IR-absorption spectra of TNT, RDX and PETN molecules in a vapor state have been analyzed over a wide range of frequencies (3500–500 cm1) and temperatures (293383 K) with assignment of the observed bands. Modern methods of quantum chemistry were employed for determination of equilibrium geometrical configurations of explosive molecules and calculation of fundamental vibrational frequencies. Magnitudes of cross-sections and absorption coefficients have been estimated for the most intensive bands in IR-spectra of TNT, RDX, and PETN in a vapor state. With a view of improvement of the physicochemical processes occurring during heating and evaporation of TNT, RDX, and PETN, as well as determination and identification of their characteristic volatile components, subTHz- and mass-spectra of these explosives have been studied.
																								



4.
Fluorescence of dissolved organic matters of Far-East seas under multifrequence excitation

P.A. Saluk, I.M. Doroshenkov, K.S. Kluger, O.A. Bukin, V.A. Krikun, A.Yu. Maior
Keywords: excitation emission matrix, dissolved organic matter

Abstract >>
The spatial distribution analysis of parameters characterized fluorescence of dissolved organic matters (DOM) of various types in seawater are presented. Samples were taken in the Japan (East) Sea and in the Sea of Okhotsk in the areas of different nutrient status and in the areas influenced by rivers and/or anthropogenic activity. The measurements were carried out by hyperspectral multiwavelength fluorometer Varian Cary Eclipse immediately after sampling. Spectral ranges of measurements were 230500 nm for excitation radiation and 240750 nm for emission radiation. The relationships between fluorescence intensities at different excitation and emission wavelengths were analyzed. The signals of phytoplankton-like, protein-like, humic-like, and anthropogenic fluorescence were identified. The correlation analysis was carried out, explanation of possible DOM origins was done, and the spectral ranges impacted by each fluorescence type were determined.
																								



5.
Diurnal behavior of the aerosol optical depth of the atmosphere in some regions of Asian part of Russia

D.M. Kabanov, S.A. Beresnev, S.Yu. Gorda, G.I. Kornienko, S.V. Nikolashkin, S.M. Sakerin, M.A. Tashchilin
Keywords: diurnal behavior, aerosol optical depth, columnar water vapor

Abstract >>
The paper presents the approach to isolation of the regular component of daily behavior of the aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor of the atmosphere. The average diurnal dynamics of these parameters in Tomsk is compared with that in suburb background area, as well as in other regions: Yekaterinburg, Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Ussurijsk. General features of the dynamics are observed in the regions of Tomsk, Yekaterinburg, and Irkutsk. Some individual peculiarities caused by local factors are characteristic of Yakutsk and Ussurijsk. The parameters of approximation of the average diurnal behavior of AOD of the atmosphere are presented for Tomsk, Yekaterinburg, and Irkutsk.
																								



6.
The results of statistical processing of data on the chemical composition of surface water from South Baikal rivers

V.E. Pavlov, L.M. Sorokovikova, I.V. Tomberg, I.V. Khvostov
Keywords: ionic composition, surface waters, Lake Baikal, correlation analysis, statistical modeling

Abstract >>
The ionic composition of water from four South Baikal tributaries (Utulik, Solzan, Khara-Murin, and Snejnaya Rivers) during the main hydrological phases in 2001–2010 was studied. The concentrations of the major ions: 3, Cl, SO42, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ were determined. Water chemical composition dynamics and results of a comparative correlation analysis are showing. The geochemical model for southern tributaries of Lake Baikal is proposed.
																								



7.
Particularities of applied use of integral scattering phase-function method for modeled and natural suspension of particles

P.V. Postnikova, N.V. Shepelevich
Keywords: integral light phase scattering function, suspended mineral particles, Mie computation, RayleighGansDebye approximation, spectrophotometry

Abstract >>
Particularities of structure formation of integral light scattering phase functions differing in sizes and refractive indices of particles which model terrigenous constituents of natural suspensions are shown. The problems of applied realization of integral scattering phase function method have been investigated in detail. Influences of components of measuring equipment and ways of their correction have been proposed. Numerical calculation are performed with Mie computation and RayleighGansDebye approximation.
																								



8.
Peculiarities of determining the aerosol microstructure parameters from measurements of the aerosol optical depth. Part I. Inverse problem solution technique

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Menshchikova
Keywords: aerosol microstructure, aerosol optical depth, inverse problem

Abstract >>
The integral distribution method for determining the aerosol microstructure from spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth is developed. A numerical algorithm for solving the inverse problem is presented. The software package based on this algorithm is described. The special feature of the algorithm is allowance for a low information content of the solution in the fine aerosol region. The integral cross section size distribution function is restored as output software package computation. The volume concentration and mean particle radius are calculated both for the total ensemble of particles and its submicron and coarse fractions using the restored size distribution function. The user interface of the software package is presented. The software package is easy-to-use when processing large arrays of experimental data and does not require specific knowledge from the user.
																								



9.
Peculiarities of determining the aerosol microstructure parameters from measurements of the aerosol optical depth. Part II. Results of inversion

V.V. Veretennikov, S.S. Menshchikova
Keywords: aerosol microstructure, aerosol optical depth, inverse problem

Abstract >>
Microstructure parameters of the atmospheric aerosol restored from spectral measurements of the aerosol optical depth are considered. The experiments are carried out in summer season in Tomsk. The results have been obtained using two algorithms for solving the inverse problem, basic one and its version presented in the first part of the paper. The integral distribution method is implemented in the basic algorithm. The modified algorithm possesses the advantages of the integral distribution method and enables one to increase the accuracy of the estimated contribution of the fine particles in the aerosol microstructure. The statistical data on restored parameters are presented. These data are obtained for the whole particle ensemble and for its submicron and coarse fractions. It was established that the modified algorithm allowed the volume concentration of the submicron aerosol to be taken into account additionally up to 47%. At the same time the solution correction in the fine fraction range results in the decrease of the mean radius of the submicron particles from 0.16 to 0.10 micrometers.
																								



10.
Spectral observations of the total ozone content variation in Obninsk and Tomsk in 2011 and 2012

G.A. Ivlev, B.D. Belan, V.M. Dorokhov, N.V. Tereb
Keywords: atmosphere, total ozone, spectrophotometer, polar vortex, anomaly

Abstract >>
The total ozone plays an important role in understanding the processes occurring in the atmosphere and climate changes. In the spring, between March and April 2011 in the city of Tomsk (56.5°N, 85.1E) reported anomalous ozone losses. In comparison with the long-term mean values ​​of ozone reduction the ozone losses reached 30–35%. Based on the analysis of measurements of a ground-based spectrophotometer Brewer MKIV S/N 049, satellite and balloon data of ozone sounding in Salekhard (66.5N, 66.7E), the analysis of the observed anomalously low values of the total ozone was given. Analysis of the temperature data of the lower stratosphere indicates that the observed negative anomaly of total ozone in MarchApril 2011 over the northern parts of Russia was connected with the movement of air masses with abnormally low values of ozone in the polar stratosphere, relocation and displacement of the polar vortex from the Arctic to midlatitudes in Western and Central Siberia.
																								



11.
Electromagnetic spectrum of light flow for estimation of anthropogenic pollution of vegetation on areas of oil-extraction complexes

L.I. Svarovskaya, I.G. Jashchenko, L.K. Altunina
Keywords: oil pollution, biocenosis, biodegradation, geoinformation technologies, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

Abstract >>
Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated based on GIS data of the satellite system ERDAS Imagine, ArcView, ArcGIS to assess pollution of vegetation cover in local rough swamp territories in oil fields under study. Spectral reflectance is a characteristic feature of vegetation and its condition. NDVI values were determined by the ratio of the difference in reflected light intensities in infrared and red regions. The values obtained were corroborated by physicochemical and microbiological analyses of the samples taken in polluted territories during 1999–2007.
																								



12.
Accounting for the humidity of expired air when retrieving gaseous biomarkers

O.Yu. Nikiforova, Yu.N. Ponomarev, A.I. Karapuzikov
Keywords: expired air, gas analysis, gaseous biomarker, water vapor

Abstract >>
In this work we use numerical simulation to estimate possible errors of the differential-absorption retrieval of concentrations of such gaseous biomarkers as 4, , NH3, N2O, 26, and H2S from the three-component gas mixture absorption spectra in the 2–4 mm spectral region. The gas mixture is supposed to simulate an expired air. The absorption spectra were calculated with a resolution of 2 cm1 using the HITRAN database. The impact of subtraction of the water vapor absorption from the simulated spectra on the error in retrieved concentrations of the gases-biomarkers was studied. The water vapor concentration in the mixture was determined from absorption at 3800 cm1.