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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2012 year, number 3

Vegetation Dynamics of Taiga and Alpine Landscapes in the Upper Part of the Bureya River Basin (the Far Eastern Sector of Asia)

S. V. Osipov
Pacific Geographical Institute DVO RAS
Keywords: vegetation dynmics, ecological successions, pyrogenic, mountain, taiga, alpine
Pages: 325-335

Abstract >>
Vegetational changes, namely pyrogenic, lithogenic, floodplain, Aeolian, and waterlogging, are briefly characterized. Fire events are among the basic ecological factors determining the differentiation of plant cover and vegetation diversity over the territory under consideration.

Evaluation of Specific Activity of Artifical and Natural Radionuclides in the Sink of Aerosol Matter into Forest Ecosystems

M. P. Tentyukov
Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center of UrB RAS
Keywords: atmospheric radioactivity, radionuclides, dry deposition, aerosol, radioecological monitoring, forest ecosystems, coniferous tree stand, passive sampling
Pages: 337-344

Abstract >>
New procedure was proposed for the investigation of atmospheric radioactivity in the surface air layer through evaluation of specific activity of artificial and natural radionuclides in aerosol sink. Dry deposition of aerosol particles was described. Collection of aerosol is carried out using a passive sampler in which chemically inert fibrous and powdered materials are used as sorption substrate. Analysis of experimental results characterizing the features of radionuclide distribution in aerosol sink during their introduction into coniferous tree stand is presented.

Threshold Environmental Concentrations of Cations Determining the Boundaries of Survival of Filamentous Algae Spirogyra sp. in Fresh Water Reservoirs

V. I. Martemyanov, A. S. Mavrin
I. D. Papanin Institute of Biology of Internal Waters RAS
Keywords: range, Spirogyra sp., sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium
Pages: 345-350

Abstract >>
Threshold concentrations of elements in fresh water necessary for the survival of Spirogira sp. were determined.
The concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium in the algae was maintained at a level of (84,3 0,8), (23,9 0,5), (3,5 0,2), (8,5 0,2) mmol/kg of dry mass, respectively, and water (92,5 0,21) %. It was shown that the threshold concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium in water, determining the boundaries of the range of Spirogyra sp. in fresh water reservoirs are equal to 0,003-0,007, 0,002-0,003, 0,0017-0,0022, 0,0012-0,0018 mmol/l, respectively. A decrease in water mineralization was accompanied by a substantial increase in the gradient of cation concentration between the algae and the environment, thus enhancing the load on the systems maintaining water-salt metabolism. It was shown on the basis of comparative analysis that Spirogyra sp., being the primary link of the trophic chain, possesses a more efficient ability to extract ions from water in comparison with freshwater animals.

Data on the Flora of Algae Bacillariophytha of Shira Lake (Russia, Khakasia)

E. G. Makeeva1, Y. V. Naumenko2
1 State Wildlife Preservation "Khakasskiy"
2 Central Siberian Botanical Garden SB RAS,
Keywords: Bacillariophyta, salt lake Shira, Khakasia
Pages: 351-359

Abstract >>
This article deals with the results of the study of diatom algae of lake Shira. The list of found algae contains 95 species (including subspecific taxa - 126). Brief ecological and geographical anlysis of the algal flora is made.

Diatom Algae from Some Waterbodies of the North-Eastern West Siberia. Communication 2. Pennatophyceae

S. I. Genkal1, L. A. Shur2, M. I. Yarushina3
1 I. D. Papanin Institute of Biology of Internal Waters RAS
2 Institute of Computationl Modelling SB RAS
3 Institute of Ecology of Plants and Animals, Ural Branch of the RAS
Keywords: West Siberia, phytoplankton, Bacillariophyta, Penntophyceae
Pages: 361-374

Abstract >>
In the studied waterbodies of the north-east of Western Siberia, Bacillariophytas dominte in the flora of planktonic organisms by species abundance. Among them, class Penntophyceae is distinguished by the highest species richness. The first electro-microscopic studies of pinnate diatom algae allowed obtaining complete data on the species composition of Penntophyceae at the modern level. 213 taxa from 53 genera including 98 new for the region, 56 new and rare for the flora of Russia and forms identified only to the genus have been found. The taxonomy of the genera Nitzchia, Stauroneis, Pinnularia, Navicula s.s. is the most rich.

Phytoplankton of Lake Solyonoe (Omsk) as a Promising Source of Bioresources

O. P. Bazhenova, O. A. Konovalova
P. A. Stolypin Omsk State Agricultural University,
Keywords: phytoplankton, biomass, mineralization, dominating complex, spirulina, bioresource
Pages: 375-382

Abstract >>
Mass vegetation of cyanobacteriae Spirulina fusiformis Woronich. was discovered during the examination of shallow lake Solyonoe situated at the territory of Omsk. Large resources of the raw biomass of spirulina in summer make it possible to use the lake as a source of valuable biological raw material.

Ecological Conditions for the Formation of Mycobiota of Wild-Growing Pollen Plants

G. P. Chekryga, T. T. Kuznetsova
State Scientific Institution Siberian Research and Designing Technological Institute of Processing Agricultural Production, SB of Russian Agricultural Academy
Keywords: vegetative, generative organs, pollen grains, polliniferous plants, phyllosphere, mycobiota, micromycetes
Pages: 383-388

Abstract >>
Complexes of microscopic fungi of seven polliniferous species at an apiary in the Zalesovo District of the Altay Territory were studied during two years with different weather conditions. A comparative analysis of fungal cenoses of vegetative, generative organs and pollent grains of plants was carried out.

Selenium Status of Omsk Region

N. A. Golubkina1, A. V. Sindereva2, O. A. Zaiko2, G. Alfthan3
1 Institute of Nutrition RAMS
2 Omsk State Agrarian University
3 Nationl Institute for Health nd Welfare
Keywords: Omsk region, selenium status, deficiency, correction
Pages: 389-396

Abstract >>
The human selenium status in 32 districts of Omsk region was determined, serum selenium being in the range 73-116 g/L. An indirect correlation was found between serum selenium concentrations and whole mortality, malignncy from lung cancer, ovarian cancer and rectal cancer. Significant differences in selenium accumulation coefficient in plants were shown to depend on the type of soil. Methods of the human selenium status optimization are discussed.

Individual Variability of the Composition of Volatile Emissions of Needles of Pinus sylvestris in opulations in Khakasiya and Tuva

I. V. Tikhonova, A. A. Aniskina, L. V. Mukhortova, S. R. Loskutov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris, terpenoid composition, individual variability
Pages: 397-405

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of qualitative composition and relative concentrations of readily volatile compounds of needles in two natural pine populations situated in the forest-steppe zone in the south of Middle Siberia are presented. The number of components distinguished is 89. Anlysis of intra- and interpopulation variability of 31 terpenoids (of mono- and sesquiterpene fractions) was carried out. The spatial structure of the dispersion of signs was anlyzed. Reliable interpopulation differences in the concentrations of the majority of compounds were marked. It was established that worsening of growth conditions inside populations causes an increase in the mass concentration of light-weight monoterpene compounds, especially α-pinene, a decrease in the qualitative diversity of the components of volatile oils. Groups of terpenoids with relative content connected to different extents with interpopulation differences and diversity of conditions for tree growth inside populations were distinguished.

Influence of Atmospheric Pollution on the Morphological Parameters of the Assimilation Apparatus of Pine and Spruce in the Basin of the Northern Dvina

S. N. Tarkhanov, S. Y. Biryukov
Institute of Ecological Problems in the North UrB RAS,
Keywords: air pollution, pine, spruce, pine needles, damage, morphometric parameters
Pages: 407-414

Abstract >>
The dynmics of damage and litter of the needles of pine Pinus sylvestris (L.) and spruce Picea obovata Ledeb.  P. abies (L.) Karst. in the basin of the Northern Dvina under atmospheric pollution was studied. Correlations of morphometric parameters of the assimilation apparatus with the distance to the source of emissions and concentrations of pollutants in the air, snow, soil, and heavy metals in needles were revealed.

Chemical Composition of Pine Needles under the Conditions of Aerial Technogenic Pollution by the Syktyvkar Timber Industry Complex

N. V. Torlopova, E. A. Robakidze
Institute of Biology Komi Scientific Centre UrB RAS
Keywords: aerotechnogenic pollution, chemical monitoring, pine needles, chemical elements
Pages: 415-422

Abstract >>
The influence of PC "Mondi Syktyvkar Timber Industry Complex" on the chemical composition of pine needles was studied. Comparative anlysis of the mineral composition of pine needles showed that the age dynamics of the concentrations of the majority of elements under investigation for the background region and for the zone affected by emissions have common trends. The total content of chemical elements in bilberry pine forests did not differ over the needle age or over the distance from the pollution source. Examination carried out in 2007 revealed that the total concentration of elements in the one-year needles of pine is higher than that in the needles of older ages. During the period of studies, a decrease in pine needle mineralization was observed under the conditions of pollution in comparison with the background territory. Under the aerotechnogenic emissions of nitrogen and sulfur oxides, carbon compounds, their accumulation in pine needles was not detected (except for the impacted region at 1.3 km).

Heavy Metals Content in the Thalli of Hypogymnia physodes Lichen: Sources of Heterogeneity

I. N. Mikhailova, I. A. Kshnyasev
Institute of Ecology of Plants and Animals Ural Branch of the RAS
Keywords: epiphytic lichens, populations, heterogeneity, accumulation of pollutants, lichen indication, industrial pollution, copper smelting plant, heavy metals, the Middle Urals
Pages: 423-428

Abstract >>
In the region of the Middle Urals copper smelting plant, in two contrast zones of atmospheric pollution we evaluated the dimensional and reproductive characteristics of the thalli of epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and determined the concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Cd, Zn, Pb) in them. The nonuniformity of populations both over the dimensional and reproductive characteristics and over metal content was demonstrated. The high heterogeneity of subpopulations growing on different photophytes was discovered. It is recommended to optimise data collection by taking the samples from a large number of trees (20-30) with smaller number of thalli (10-20) from one photophyte.

Features of the Distribution of Biomass of Epiphytic Lichens on Pinus sylvestris (Lower Angara Region)

N. M. Kovaleva, G. A. Ivanova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS
Keywords: Lower Angara region, Pinus sylvestris, biomass, epihytic lichens
Pages: 429-433

Abstract >>
Biomass of epiphytic lichens on Pinus sylvestris varies from 130 to 1090 g. The major biomass is comprised by the lichens of three genera: Bryoria (45 %), Hypogymnia (34 %) and Evernia (12 %). The majority of lichens are located on tree branches (96 %) in the zone of maximal development (at the height of 9-13.5 m) (66 %). The biomass of lichens on tree trunks is insignificant (4 %) and is concentrated by 70 % at the trunk bases.

Change of the Structure of Hydrological Cycle in Connection with the Age and Recovery Dynamics of Forest Ecosystems

T. A. Burenina, E. V. Fedotova, N. F. Ovchinnikova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS
Keywords: West Sayan, native dark coniferous forests, second growth stands, forest logging, remote sensing data, landscape-hydrogeological complexes, transpiration, water balance
Pages: 435-445

Abstract >>
Basing on the concept of the effect of landscape structure on the water regime of territory and on the space survey data for the basins of rivers on the northern macro-slope of West Sayan, the landscape hydrogeological classification of natural complexes was made and evaluation of their hydrogeological functions was carried out. At the background of general altitudinl belt regularities, local features of the distribution of water balance characteristics were revealed.

Use of Maximal Heights for the Construction of the Growth Class Scale

V. V. Kuz'michev, V. G. Russkov
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest SB RAS
Keywords: course of growth, height, moment of maximal apical growth rate, height of maximal apical growth rate, growth class scale, Mitscherlich function
Pages: 447-452

Abstract >>
Possibility to construct the growth class scale for Pinus sylvestris on the basis of the data on the course of growth of separate trunks with maximal height was analyzed. Two principles of the classification of tree stands over growth course are discussed: 1) over the parameters of Mitscherlich function - b1(upper limit), b2 (slope), b3(shape), 2) over the inflection of the curve of tree elongation (hm is the height at the moment of maximal apical growth rate, tm is the age of achievement of the maximal apical growth rate).

Analysis of Sexual Polymorphism of the Plant of Subclass Rosidae in Siberia

V. N. Godin
Moscow Pedagogical State University
Keywords: sexual differentiation, Rosidae, Siberia
Pages: 453-460

Abstract >>
Sexual systems and the associations with several ecological and life history attributes were examined for 977 native angiosperms of subclass Rosidae in Siberia. The majority of angiosperms in Siberia are hermaphrodites (87,7 %, N = 857). The most widespread forms of sexual differentiation are andromonoecy, gynodioecy and dioecy. The rarest forms of sexual differentiation are monoecy, trioecy and androdioecy. Seven of the 34 families are the richest in species with sexual differentiation: Aceraceae, Elaeagnceae, Haloragaceae, Rhamnceae, Disacaceae, Apiaceae, Geraniaceae.

Ecological Evolution of Ebracteates Section of Hydrophilic Genus Typha L.

A. N. Krasnova
I. D. Papanin Institute of Biology of Internal Waters RAS
Keywords: cological evolution, Tertiary period, Pleistocene, the Poltava flora, the Turgay flora, section Typha, section Engleria (Leonova) Tzvel., genus Typha L
Pages: 461-465

Abstract >>
Ecological evolution of the species of ebracteatae section of Typha L. genus since eozen is proposed. Typha and Engleria (Leonova) Tzvel. sections were formed in different geological periods and in different regions of Eurasia. The bloom of section Typha contacts the Poltava flora, while section Engleria was formed under the severe conditions of Arcto-Tertiary flora of East Siberia. A noticeable role in the ecological evolution of the sections was played by the West Siberian Sea.
Taxonomic variety and the sizes of areas of the investigated sections, with cold snps outlined in Pliocene, came to the end in Pleistocene with depletion and insularization. The tendency to convergence in the evolution of the sections of Typha genus was outlined in Holocene.