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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2009 year, number 3

Distribution of Bacillus thuringiensis in the Complex of Spore-Forming Bacteria of Genus Bacillus in the Soil of Nut-Fruit Woods in Southern Kyrgyzstan

V. P. Khodyrev, Z. A. Teshebaeva, B. A. Toktoraliev, V. V. Glupov
Keywords: spore-forming bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, soil, nut-fruit woods, Kyrgyzstan
Pages: 329-335

Abstract >>
Three-year-long investigation of the microflora in the soil of nut-fruit woods in the south of Kyrgyzstan showed a wide distribution of spore-forming bacteria B. subtilis, B. cereus, B. idosus, B. megaterium. In the complex of these bacteria, spore-forming bacteria B. thuringiensis are widespread. The occurrence of spore-forming bacteria B. thuringiensis in mountainous forest black-brown soils reached 80 % of soil samples. Dominating subspecies were tohokuensis (H17), israelensis (H14), toguchini (H31). Abundance of B. thuringiensis was insignificant and accounted for only 4 % of spore-forming bacteria. The abundance B. thuringiensis in oozy biocenoses on the banks of water bodies at the territory of Sary-Chelek reserve reached 12.6-18.0 % of soil spore-forming bacteria. In this connection, it is possible to assume that B. thuringiensis not only are conserved in soils but also can reproduce.

Ecological Estimation by Means of Biotesting of the Quality of Water Objects in the Regions of Oil Extraction

S. S. Bednarzhevsky, E. S. Zakharikov, D. I. Kuznezov, R. M. Mamedov, N. S. Pushkarev, V. A. Sokolov, V. A. Suzdalzev, N. G. Shevchenko
Keywords: biotesting, ecological evaluation, water quality
Pages: 337-339

Abstract >>
Interrelations between the data on the ecological state of water objects and results of their biological testing with the use of test objects from different groups (Paramecium caudatum and Chlorella vulgaris) are investigated. Statistically significant dependences between the results of bioinformation and physicochemical methods of the analysis of a pollution degree of surface water in the regions of hydrocarbon raw materials extraction are revealed.

Estimation of the Quality of Animal Habitats on the Basis of Accounting the Track Activity and Remote Information

A. S. Zheltukhin, Y. G. Puzachenko, R. B. Sandlersky
Keywords: habitat, track activity, remote information, mustelids
Pages: 341-351

Abstract >>
A method of estimating the quality of habitats on the basis of field accounts with records of routes and the positions of tracks with the help of GPS, multi-channel survey Landsat, a three-dimensionl model of the relief and discriminant anlysis is demonstrated. For the analysis of the distribution of mink (American and European) as an example, we demonstrate the principles of choosing the optimal analysis method, revelation of environmental characteristics determining the distribution of the species, mapping, estimation of the quality of habitats and the probabilities to detect tracks. The outlooks and some problems of the implementation of the proposed approach are discussed.

About Counting the Number of Organisms with the Help of the Areal Method

V. L. Samokhvalov
Keywords: number, population density, occurrence, abundance
Pages: 353-357

Abstract >>
On the basis of the proposed model, the basic parameters of number obtained by the areal count method are bound. The model is built on the basis of the regular changes of occurrence and abundance with changes of the area of a test ground. The procedure is applicable to the conditions of aggregated disposition of the counted individuals over a region under investigation.

Parasite-Host Links of Gamasid Mites of Hirstionyssus Genus (Acari: Parasitiformes: Gamasina) in the South of the West Siberian Plain

N. P. Korallo
Keywords: gamasid mites, small mammals, parasite-host links, West Siberian
Pages: 359-364

Abstract >>
Data on the specific features of the parasite-host links of gamasid mites of the genus Hirstionyssus Fonseca with small mammals in the south of the West Siberian Plain are reported.

Spatial-Typological Organization of the Oribatid Mites Population of the North-Eastern Altay

N. V. Vladimirova, L. G. Grishina, E. V. Sleptsova
Keywords: oribatid mites, population, environmental factors, spatial-typological organization, North-Eastern Altay
Pages: 365-377

Abstract >>
Major features of the spatial nonuniformity of the oribatid mite population at the territory of North-Eastern Altay are revealed on the basis of the results of investigations carried out in 2002 and 2006. The dependence of changes in the population appearance on environmental factors is evaluated.

Myrmecotopical Transformation of Grass Structure in a Fragmented Forest Compartment

N. M. Bugrova, L. B. Pshenitsyna
Keywords: Formica polyctena Foerst.; transformation into meadow, synanthropization, coenotic groups of herbaceous plants, fragmented forest compartment
Pages: 379-385

Abstract >>
Ecological coenotic characterization of grass around the ant hills of Formica polyctena Foerst. situated within the boundaries of a fragmented forest compartment is presented. The composition of the myrmecotopical grass assembly is determined. Transformation into meadow and synanthropization of the grass cover at the territories adjacent to the nesting areas are revealed. A similarity between ant species F. aquilonia Yarr. and F. polycten in the transformation of the coenotic and morphological structure of grass at the territories adjacent to the nesting areas was noted.

Ants of the Chuiskaya Depression and the Basin of the Yustyd River in the South-East of the Altay

Z. A. Zhigulskaya
Keywords: ants, biotopical distribution, desert steppes, SE Altai, Chuiskaya depression
Pages: 387-393

Abstract >>
Ant faun of the Chuiskaya depression was determined to have 17 species; 4 of them inhabit the desert steppe, 8 - the near-water saline steppe, and 11 - the mountainside valley meadows and forests. Widespread in adjacent Mongolia and Tuva are 14 out of 17 registered species. This is an evidence of the high faunal community of these territories. The population pattern of ants is determined by two species with extremely low number (up to 0.01 nest/100 m2), Proformica mongolica Ruzsky and Cataglyphis aenescens Nylander; Formica subpilosa Ruzsky joins them in the hollows. Two zones of higher number were revealed in the vertical direction - on the southern slopes of the high-mountain desert steppes (basin of the Yustyd river) and alkaline biotopes of the Chuya river flood-lands.

Communities of Bumble Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Bombini) in Novosibirsk City and its Environs

A. M. Byvaltsev
Keywords: bumble bees, seasonl dynmics, diversity, abundance, new species of Novosibirsk region
Pages: 395-404

Abstract >>
Attention is given to the diversity and abundance of bumble bees in the city of Novosibirsk and its environs. The species list of Bombus Latr. and Psithyrus Lep. is given for the observation territory specifying their relative abundance. B. pseudobaicalensis Vogt, 1911, B. saltuarius (Skorikov, 1931), Ps. barbutellus (Kirby, 1802), Ps. norvegicus (Sparre-Schneider, 1918) and Ps. sylvestris (Lepeletier, 1832) are the first records for the Novosibirsk region. The seasonl dynmics of number and diversity of these insects are investigated.

Distribution of the Fish Rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877) in the Basin of the Irtysh River and Analysis of Possible Consequences for Nature and for Humans

A. N. Reshetnikov, E. A. Chibilev
Keywords: rotan, subrange, ntural focus, self-distribution, metapopulation structure
Pages: 405-411

Abstract >>
Since 1916 the fish rotan (Perccottus glenii Dybowski, 1877) had widely distributed in the North-West of Eurasia. Since 1973-1976 populations of rotan are detected in the basin of the Irtysh: at the territory of Chelyabinsk Region in lake Peschanoye (Mertvoye) in the basin of the Tobol river flowing into the Irtysh. In 1975 this fish was introduced in a pond in the city of Chelyabinsk. Additional information about uncontrolled translocations of rotan was obtained. These translocations led to the appearance of new populations of rotan. Analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of detection sites reveals a correlation between earlier findings and highway network, while later findings correlate with the river network. In 2006, we performed special inspection of isolated and flood-land water reservoirs (n = 77) within the boundaries of the Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Omsk and Tyumen Regions. Up to present, the expansion of this unwanted invader has spread over the major part of the Tobol river basin. The northern population in the floodplain of the Tobol was detected in the vicinity of the town of Tobolsk in the former riverbed with the coordinates 5802' northern latitude, 6810' eastern longitude. Rotan is also known from the basins of other tributaries of the Irtysh: Ishim and Om, as well as from upper Irtysh. Exit of expansion into the middle part of the Irtysh river is possible. Rotan expansion threatens the floodplain water bodies of middle Irtysh. This fish species is a carrier of diseases, it competes for food with other fish species, actively consumes young fish of commercial species, so it is necessary to take into account the data on its distribution in the tributaries of the Irtysh when analyzing the dynamics of fish populations of the Irtysh. Biology of rotan allows assuming that this fish would affect functioning of natural focuses of dangerous helminthosis of Opisthorchis felineus.

Manifestations of Structural-Metabolic Adaptation During the Primary Compensatory Adaptive Reaction of Hepatocytes in Birds of Columba livia Species After Hyperthermia

E. I. Antonova
Keywords: liver, hepathocytes, hyperthermia, birds, chromatin, Krebs cycle, caspase-3
Pages: 413-422

Abstract >>
Cytophysiological compensations of the rapid response for short-term single ambient temperature rise in the birds of Columba livia species, according to the hypothesis of energy need, are realized in hepathocytes due to the development of the metabolic depression which is expressed as a decrease in the activity of the enzymes involved in Krebs cycle and their cytoplasmic forms. The activity of G-6-FDG increases, as the index of the adaptive metabolic plasticity, activation of the antioxidant system. The flow of metabolites is observed to switch from the aerobic route of glucose oxidation to the anaerobic one, the process of programmed cell death on the way of apoptosis is activated, the fraction of hepathocyte population at the G0 stage increases, while the fraction of hepathocytes at M stage of the cell cycle correspodns to the corresponding index in the intact individuals.

Features of the Use of Nesting Territory by Little Brown Crane in Yakutia

M. V. Vladimirtseva, I. P. Bysykatova, S. M. Sleptsov
Keywords: little brown crane, white crane, habitat, tolerance, brood, nesting pair, nesting territory
Pages: 423-427

Abstract >>
Results of the investigation of the number, time budget, and use of territory during the nesting period by little brown crane in Yakutia (at the western periphery of the habitat on the left bank of the Indigirka) for 1998-2007 are presented. The density of population of this species here is much lower than that in the north-east of Chukotka and in Alaska, which is depicted in the specific behavior of broods. During more than 10 years, the number of this crane species increased more than 20 times.

Nest Biology of Urban Populations of Birds Nesting in Hollows

B. D. Kuranov
Keywords: birds nesting in hollows, city, reproduction indices
Pages: 429-438

Abstract >>
Features of the nesting biology of four species of birds nesting in tree hollows are investigated under the conditions of a city: common starling (Sturnus vulgaris L)., great tit (Parus major L.), common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus L.) and pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca Pall). Under urban conditions, number of eggs in a nest of a redstart is significantly larger, while for great tit and pied flycatcher it is significantly smaller; differences between the populations of starling are unessential. Successfulness of reproduction for the birds nesting in tree hollows is significantly higher in a city and exceeds the reference value for all the species by 10-20 %. The number of baby birds per a reproduction attempt is also higher in the city for all the species. Starling population in the city exceeds the reference population in the successfulness of reproduction mainly due to a decrease in the fraction of neglected eggs. The leading reasons of an increase in the reproduction success of other species at the urban territory are weakened pressure of predators and a decrease in the fraction of neglected broods.

Summer Population of Birds in the Central Part of the Lena Plateau

N. N. Egorov, A. P. Isaev, A. G. Larionov
Keywords: Lena plateau, summer bird population, population density, species diversity, anthropogenic action
Pages: 439-447

Abstract >>
Originl data obtained in the routing accounts of birds in the central part of the Lena plateau, a region only scarcely investigated in the ornithological aspect, are presented. Characterization of the summer population of birds in different habitats at watersheds, in valleys and along riverbanks is given.

Ecologo-Geographical Distinctive Features of Vespertilio murinus (Linneus, 1758) Living on the Territory of West Siberia (for the Khanty-Mansy District and the Kurgan Region as Examples)

V. P. Starikov, K. A. Bernikov, A. A. Emelyanov
Keywords: Vespertilio murinus, ecology, geography, West Siberia, Kurgan Region, Khanty-Mansy District
Pages: 449-454

Abstract >>
The facts of Vespertilio murinus discovery in the forest and forest-steppe zone of West Siberia (on the territory of the Khanty-Mansy District and Kurgan region) are given. Arrival time is determined; place of living, reproduction peculiarities and other aspects of the species ecology are revealed.

Selectivity for Tree Species as the Objects of Activity of Brown Bear in the Taiga Forests

S. V. Puchkovsky
Keywords: dendroactivity, reserve, selectivity, bear-affected tree
Pages: 455-465

Abstract >>
Data characterizing the dendroactivity of brown bear (Ursus arctos L.) were collected in the Yarsky District of Udmurtya, in the Pechora-Ilych (Republic of Komi) and the Sayan-Shusha state reserves. The tree stands at all the examined taiga grounds consist of hardwood and coniferous tree species. The fraction of hardwood species in local tree stands varied from 10 to 76 % (the average value being 35 %), conifers are represented by 4-5 species. Publications describing bear-affected trees (BT) in the amount of more than 50 species are also analyzed. On the basis of the original information, the data on the fractions of different tree species among the BT were compared with the fraction of the same species in local tree stands. Student statistics was used. It was concluded that the dendroactivity of brown bears is selective: the objects of activity become mainly coniferous trees, among them abies and spruce. These animals may also mark hardwood species but they do not do so if there is a choice.

Parental Care in Captive Red-Backed Vole Clethrionomys rutilus

V. S. Gromov
Keywords: Clethrionomys rutilus, social behavior, parental care, grooming, tactile stimulation
Pages: 467-473

Abstract >>
In ten pairs of the red-backed vole, C. rutilus, rearing their first litters, both direct and indirect parental activities were studied under laboratory conditions during the observation period (21 days from parturition) divided into 4 rearing stages: days 2-6, 7-11, 12-16 and 17-21, respectively. There were pronounced sex differences in total time spent in the nest as well as in time spent by adults alone in the nest. Besides, duration of pup grooming by females was much greater than that by males; rates of nest construction and manipulations with nest material were also found to be much greater for females than for males. The rate of paternl activities in five of ten pairs under study was revealed to be very low, and litters of these pairs actually received a maternal care only. Thus, there are different contributions from C. rutilus females and males into breeding, and this species can be considered as the one with almost exclusively maternal care. These findings are consistent with the published data concerning the use of space and social organization of the red-backed vole. Parental behaviour of C. rutilus is discussed in comparison with that of other arvicoline rodents.

Spatial-Typological Nonuniformity of the Communities of Small Mammals of West Siberia Flat and Mountainous Territories)

Y. S. Ravkin, I. N. Bogomolova, S. M. Tsybulin, V. V. Panov, S. S. Onischenko, V. B. Ilyashenko, L. G. Vartapetov, S. G. Babina, S. V. Chesnokova
Keywords: small mammals, communities, structure, mapping, West Siberia, Altay
Pages: 475-487

Abstract >>
Results of the analysis of spatial nonuniformity of the communities of small mammals at the West Siberian Plain and the Altay in comparison with the communities of mphibia, reptiles and birds are presented.

The Relationship Between the Behavioral Mode of Endangered Female Musk Deer and Reproduction Potential Next Year

Meng Xiu-xiang, Perkins Genevieve, Yang Qi-sen, Feng Zuo-jian, Feng Jinchao
Keywords: in captivity, alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus), dehavioral frequency, reproduction potential
Pages: 489-493

Abstract >>
This study was conducted at Xinglongshan Musk Deer Farm, Gansu Province, North West China between June 2004 and January 2005. Focal sampling and all occurrence surveying was used to record the behavior of 42 female captive alpine musk deer (Moschus sifanicus) in the lead up to the 2005 breeding season. The frequencies of 12 behavior categories were recorded and the behavioral patterns compared between successful breeding females (n = 28) and barren females (n = 14). Results indicated that, during non-mating season (August to October), females which were barren in the following season, demonstrated more affinitive and self-directed behavior as compared to successful breeding females. Tail pasting behaviour was expressed only by successful breeding females, and was observed only within the mating season (November to March). These findings have important implications in captive breeding programs and improving musk deer farming throughout China.

Gray Ukrainian attle and Its Closely Related Forms

A. V. Kushnir, V. I. Glazko
Keywords: selection, gene pool, breed, productivity, origin
Pages: 495-506

Abstract >>
Data of previously performed investigations on the origin of the gray Ukrainian cattle and relatives in European countries are considered. Literature data on the biodiversity of exterior, phenotypic and productive indices of ecotypes and breed groups of gray Ukrainian cattle under different ecological and geographical conditions are presented. The proper experimental data on the differentiation on a number of genetic-biochemical systems of different groups of gray Ukrainian cattle bred under different ecologic-geographic conditions are presented.
The analysis of the literature and experimental data shows that the level of average heterozygosis to a greater extend reflects the properties of ecological conditions of animal reproduction than their belonging to different breeds.