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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2005 year, number 3

1.
Improvement of Sampling in Censuses of Insects in Siberian Fields

N. N. GORBUNOV, N. F. SHADRINA
Pages: 369-374

Abstract >>
Results of long-term censuses of insect pests and entomophages on various agricultural plants with the purpose of detecting the minimal route of sampling for an observer in application to plant protection are presented. The best route of censuses presupposes a marginal sampling scheme from two opposite or adjacent sides of field which permits reducing by several times the observer's labour expenditure when performing censuses of the numbers of pest insects in the field.
																								



2.
Spider Populations of Four Forest Ecosystems of the Bureya Upland (Russian Far East)

L. A. TRILIKAUSKAS, S. V. OSIPOV
Pages: 375-384

Abstract >>
In four forest ecosystems of the Bureya upland - a mountain taiga larch stand, a mountain-taiga spruce stand, a floodplain birch stand and a floodplain poplar stand - 146 spider species have been found. A description of vegetation and soils is given, a taxonomical list of spiders is presented and their distribution across ecosystems and biotopes within the ecosystems is indicated. The spider populations of the litter and of each vegetation storey are characterized.
																								



3.
A Comparative

A. A. KARTASHEVA
Pages: 385-391

Abstract >>
Variability of traptorial webs of Araneus marmoreus (Clerck, 1758) depending on biotopical conditions has been studied.. Measurements of webs were carried out in mature females by the method of standard webs. Quantitative parameters characterizing the structure of individual webs were treated by statistical methods.
It is found that biotopic conditions influence the structure of traptorial webs of A. marmoreus by changing the traptorial zone. The basic components of the traptorial web structure of A. marmoreus - the length of radii, dimensions of the traptorial zone, the number of traptorial threads and the sizes of the free zone - were revealed. The biotopical variability of the structure of traptorial web of A. marmoreus is manifested in the change of the degree of association and dominance of the basic structure-forming components of the web.
																								



4.
Patterns of Dynamics of the Italian Locust Calliptamus italicus L. Population in the South-East of the West Siberian Plain

M. G. SERGEEV, I. A. VANJKOVA
Pages: 393-400

Abstract >>
Peculiarities of the seasonal dynamics and of changes of the general condition of the Italian locust population in the south-east of the West Siberian plain throughout the XX century are characterized. It is demonstrated that during the last outbreaks of mass reproduction of this species dominant were individuals transitional between typical gregarious and typical solitarious ones. For the first time a complicated "wave-like" picture of long-term spatial redistribution of maximal and minimal densities of the Italian locust is detected and sharp dynamic differences between neighbouring groups of its local populations are shown.
The found rules do not correspond to the traditional notions of unidirectional character of long-term changes in the species numbers within the limits of one physicogeographical region.
																								



5.
Spatiotemporal Structure and Organization of Syrphidocomplexes of the South Transural Region

V. S. SOROKINA
Pages: 401-415

Abstract >>
A comparison of faunas and populations of hover flies of ten biotope types of the South Transural region was carried out using various treatment methods. The maximal similarity was found between syrphidocomplexes of wet and mesophyte biotopes, less similar are communities of isolated forest stands, forests, gardens and steppified meadows. Spatiotemporal changes in their populations are described. The bonding and commonness force between the heterogeneity of communities and environment are estimated. A greater role of seasonal than spatial changes of population is found.
																								



6.
Peculiarities of Mapping and Detection of Spatiotypological Structure of Amphibian Population (on the Example of West Siberia)

Yu. S. RAVKIN, V. A. YUDKIN, V. V. PANOV, V. P. STARIKOV, L. G. VARTAPETOV, S. M. TSYBULIN, K. V. TOROPOV, V. N. KURANOVA, V. N. BLINOV, I. V. POKROVSKAYA, V. S. ZHUKOV. I. N. BOGOMOLOVA., T. K. BLINOVA, E. L. SHOR, S. A. SOLOVYEV, V. M. ANUFRIEV, G. M. TERTITSKY, E. V. BAKHINA, O. B. BORISОVICH
Pages: 427-433

Abstract >>
An increase by one and a half time of the volume of collected material and an averaging of the data at the level of groups of individuals of vegetation map have not resulted in any changes of the past ideas of the amphibian population structure of West Siberia, although they have made it possible to specify the notions due to a larger number of incidence of the smooth newt and lacustrine frog. This witnesses to the sufficiency of the available sample. The averaging across individual groups permits getting rid of local zero samples associated with rarity and irregularity of distribution of the majority of amphibian species, which is especially important in mapping the population of this class of vertebrate by the results of preliminary cluster analysis.
																								



7.
Seasonal Time Course of Bird Population of the South Urals

V. D. ZAKHAROV
Pages: 435-449

Abstract >>
Results of year-round censuses of birds carried out in six forest habitats of the Ilmen reserve territory and in the adjacent territory from December 1985 to November 1986 are considered. On the basis of analysis of a chronologically ordered matrix of Jacqard-Naumov likeness coefficients, seven seasonal periods - of relative winter stabilization, late-winter migration and beginning of arrival, beginning of nesting on the background of mass arrival, nesting on the background of arrival and flights,  post-nesting migrations and beginning of flying away, autumn flying away and migration, pre-winter migrations - are distinguished. Analysis of the seasonal time course of the species richness and population density of birds is carried out. It is noted that an equilibrium type of dynamics dominates in the majority of the ornithocomplexes studied, and that the seasonal variability of bird communities of fir-spruce forests in most cases corresponds to immigration type. When comparing the seasonal change course of forest bird populations of the Middle and South Urals, it is found that the most borders of seasonal aspects of bird populations are close to each other, and most significant of them are identical in spring - in mid-April and in autumn - in mid-September.
																								



8.
Spatial Heterogeneity of the Summer Bird Population in the Central Altai

S. G. LIVANOV, E. N. BOCHKAREVA, K. V. TOROPOV, N. P. MALKOV, M. Yu. PALTSYN
Pages: 451-462

Abstract >>
Results of route censuses of birds in the territory of the Central Altai in summer periods of 1968-2001 are analyzed. Based on multifactorial analysis, hierarchical classifications of bird communities were drawn up which served as legends of population maps. Basic structure-forming factors of environment are found. It is demonstrated that typological hierarchy of variants of bird population in the Central Altai as compared to other provinces is the closest to the classification of ornithocomplexes of the Altai physicogeographical mountain region on the whole. It is noted that the provincial specificity of bird population increases as so does the locality altitude.
																								



9.
Seasonal Time Course of Ash Accumulator Bird Population of the South Baikal Region

D. V. KUZNETSOVA, V. O. SALOVAROV
Pages: 463-474

Abstract >>
Materials of year-round censuses of birds carried out in four ash dumps and adjacent territories are analyzed. Using classifications of ordered objects in different habitats, four to six seasonal aspects of bird population have been distinguished. The change of composition of dominant species, indicators of density and species richness of bird community in ash dumps and adjacent territories demonstrates a considerable significance of technogenous influence on ornithocomplexes in various seasonal periods. The observed differences are determined by the change in the character of use of these bird habitats and depend on the disturbance of natural regimes and their replacement by man made ones.
																								



10.
Time and Duration of Basic Seasonal Phenomena in the Annual Life Cycle of Passerines of the Subarctic on the Example of the Lower Ob Region

V. N. RYZHANOVSKY
Pages: 475-487

Abstract >>
On the basis of a long-term study of passerines of the Lower Ob region, data on the beginning and duration of arrival and flying away, reproduction periods, post-marital and post-juvenile ecdysis are presented. Factors influencing it are discussed.
																								



11.
Trace Element Composition of the Osteal Tissue of Tetraonidae and Strigiformes of the Urals

V. S. BEZEL, E. A. BELSKY, N. G. KURAMSHINA, L. N. MARTYNENKOVA
Pages: 489-496

Abstract >>
Accumulation of Pb, Ni, Cd, Mo, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr and Hg in the bone tissue of Tetraonidae (Tetrao urogallus, Lyrurus tetrix, Tetrastes bon
																								



12.
On Population Ecology of Little Stint in Jamal

V. K. RYABITSEV, N. S. ALEXEEVA, Yu. A. TYULKIN, V. V. TARASOV
Pages: 497-505

Abstract >>
In multi-annual stationary control sites in the tundra of the Jamal peninsula, demography and nesting ecology of little stint was studied with the help of colour banding. Data on the nesting density and its time course, fertility and nesting success, attachment to the territory are presented. Population strategy and population structure of the species, variability of the southern border of the areal, the causes of change of the nesting density are discussed.
																								



13.
Hematological Characteristics of Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca Pall.) Under the Conditions of Industrial Pollution507-514

N.V. LUGASKOVA, A.A. KARFIDOVA, E.A. BELSKY
Pages: 507-514

Abstract >>
In 2000-2001, the effect of discharges of the Middle-Ural copper-smelting plant (city of Reuda, Sverdlovsk oblast) on haematological indices of adult and young pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca Pall.) was studied. The toxic load index (heavy metals and sulphur dioxide) in the zone of maximal contamination exceeds 3.2-fold the background level. As the contamination is enhanced, a depression of respiratory function of blood- a decrease of haemoglobin concentration and an increase of that of immature erythrocytes - is observed. In local subpopulations of pied flycatcher in contaminated territories the percentage of anemic fledglings is increased. Activation of the immune system is expressed in a change of proportion of various forms of leucocytes. The changes of the leukocyte formula reflect the effects of both intoxication and of infection by parasites.
Affection of young birds by fly larvae is an important factor enhancing the toxic effects. Reactions of blood system to the toxic effects in adult individuals are expressed less than in young ones.
																								



14.
Peculiarities of Hibernation of Daurian Souslik (Spermophilus dauricus) in the South-East Transbaikal Region

K. G. BELYAEV
Pages: 515-521

Abstract >>
Results of observations of body mass changes of Daurian souslik of various age groups during the second half of hibernation are presented, peculiarities of the animals" behavior during hibernation , changes of body temperature depending on environmental conditions are described. The intensity of expenditure of fat reserves per day and the time of hibernation depending on air temperature changes are described.
																								



15.
Peculiarities of Feeding of Redbacked Voles (Clethrionomys glareolus, Shreber, 1780) Under the Conditions of Man-Made Habitat Pollution

S. V. MUKHACHEVA
Pages: 523-533

Abstract >>
On the example of redbacked vole living under the conditions of aerotechnogenous environment pollution with discharges of a copper-smelting plant (the Middle Urals), peculiarities of feeding of animals belonging to different subpopulation groups were studied. Concentrations of priority pollutants in feeding objects and daily supply (with food) of toxicants to the organism of voles of different sex, age and reproduction stahe are estimated. Association of the amount of daily consumed food and belonging to a certain sex-age group is demonstrated. It is shown that within one demographic group individuals from background sites consumed more food than voles from disturbed territories did. A seasonal specificity of concentration of heavy metals in animals" ration and considerable differences of their content in the food of redbacked voles of different gender and age are noted. It is established that as man-made pollution of habitat increases, so does the proportion of animals in the population of disturbed sites that consume feeding objects with an increased content of heavy metals.
																								



16.
Experimental Study of Mechanisms of Feeding Behavior of Coregonus peled (Gmelin) Larvae (Fries)

V. G. SKOPTSOV
Pages: 417-435

Abstract >>
In laboratory experiments, characteristics of feeding behavior of  Coregonus peled larvae (fries) were studied. The mean speed of swimming of feeding larvae increased proportionally to their size, amounted to 1.65 of the body length per second and depended on the dimensions of both feeding objects and of the larvae. The influence of physiological saturation in hungry larvae was manifested during the first 5 minutes of feeding .The values of potential (maximal) speed of prey consumption in various size groups of larvae are estimated. On the basis of feeding characteristics it is concluded that the minimal concentration of preys at which the peled larvae during the first days can completely ensure their feeding requirements is within the limits of 10