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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2002 year, number 3

1.
Classification of Soils of Technogenous Landscapes

V. M. KURACHEV, V. A. ANDROKHANOV

Abstract >>
A profile-genetic classification of soils of technogenous landscapes is proposed. Its hierarchical structure has been worked out. Diagnostic features of types, subtypes, genera and species of soils are shown.
																								



2.
On the Diversity of Cryoaridical Soil Landscapes of Barguzin Depression of Transbaikaliya

N. B. BADMAEV, A. V. KORSUNOV, M. A. KULIKOV, N. K. BADMAEVA

Abstract >>
A quantitative estimation of connections in the soil - climate system at regional-ecological, and soil - environment system at topoecological levels is carried out. The ecological niches of formation and functioning of soils of cryoaridical landscapes of Transbaikalia are established.
																								



3.
Compressibility of Khakassian Chernozems

S. P. KULIZHSKY

Abstract >>
Inner properties of Khakassia chernozems have been elucidated. Indicators of compressibility and inflection points have been found, and the relations between these parameters have been statistically justified.
																								



4.
Pyrogenesis and Postpyrogenic Changes of Peculiarities and Composition of Cryomorphic Soils

A. P. CHEVYCHELOV

Abstract >>
The concept of pyrogenesis as a subfactor of automorphic humid mountain taiga pedogenesis in continental sectors of the cryomorphic area of Eurasia is defined. The general peculiarities of weathering and zonal pedogenesis have been recorded in the areas of active pyrogenesis. On the example of cryomorphic soddy-calcareous soil, the quantitative and qualitative changes of its profile form, attributes and composition were revealed within 7 years after a strong ground fire. It has been quantitatively determined that the decrease by 21 cm (100 %) of the fine-earth layer thickness of the soil profile during the postfire period is connected with the burning-out of organic matter of the surface organic horizons at 5.4 cm (or 26 %), the surface destruction of soil fine-earth layer at 5.8 cm (28 %), and with the temperatural subsidence of the fine-earth layer which amounts to 9.8 cm ( 46 % of the general total contribution of factors). At that, according to our data, the maximum temperatural subsidence of fine-earth layer of cryomorphic soils of heavy granulometric composition with icy permafrost can make up 20-30 % of the maximum postfire thickness of their seasonally thawed layer. The average annual depth of the destruction of soil fine-earth layer from the surface of this soil was 0.8 cm according to our data, which is comparable with other authors' data.
																								



5.
Diffusion of Zonal Soil-Vegetation Complexes on the Border of Subtaiga and Southern Taiga Subzones of West Siberia

A. M. PEREGON, S. V. VASILYEV

Abstract >>
On the materials of field studies using the data of remote probing in the southern outskirts of the Great Vasyugan swamp, analysis of spatial distribution of zonal soil-vegetation complexes has been carried out. Materials of the authors' own studies are compared with the literature data on the zonal geographical division of the West Siberian Plain.  The results obtained allow specifying the scheme of subzonal soil-geobotanic division within the limits of the taiga zone of West Siberia.
																								



6.
Heavy Metals in Urban Soils

V. B. ILYIN

Abstract >>
On the example of industrial cities of West Siberia, the peculiarities of technogenous polluytion of the soil cover by heavy metals are considered. The main of them are mosaicism and polymetallicity, wherein local priority contaminants may be chemical elements poorly studied in pedology and agrochemistry.  Th lack of information about the regional and local background amount of these elements in the objects of natural milieu, the absence of hygienic standards of their content in the soil and vegetable products, which is usual in such cases, do not let estimate more completely and correctly the ecological situation in the territory under study. The hygienical standards for the soils in this country do not take into account fully their buffer capacity with respect to heavy metals and ignore the protective capacity of plants, due to which it is possible to grow hygienically pure potatoes and vegetables also on "dangerously contaminated soils".
																								



7.
Carbon Loss from Arable Soils of West Siberia as a Result of Soil-Destroying Processes

A. A. TANASIENKO, A. F. PUTILIN

Abstract >>
More than 6 million hectares of arable lands (mainly chernozems) in West Siberia suffer from erosion and deflation.  In soils affected by soil-destroying processes 4.5-6.5 t/ha fine earth is alienated annually. The differences in the type of soil-destroying processes,humus content and granulometric composition of chernozems influence the magnitude of carbon loss (150-450 kg/ha annually).
																								



8.
Elemental Chemical Composition of Soils of the South of West Siberia and Factors that Determine It

A. I. SYSO, V. B. ILYIN, A. S. CHEREVKO

Abstract >>
On the basis of studying the content and proportions. Spatial and profile distribution of trace elements in the soil cover of the south of West Siberia, the main factors determining the elemental chemical composition of soils are indicated.  It is demonstrated that  the trace element composition of soils depends on 1) geological peculiarities of the regions of formation of the initial material for the soil-forming rocks and the types of its transportation; 2) the patterns of distribution of sediments with respect to power, mineralogical and granular-metrical composition; 3) transformation of sediments during their accumulation and soil formation.
																								



9.
Carbon Dioxide and Methane in Soils ans Atmosphere of Swamp Ecosystems in West Siberia

A. V. NAUMOV

Abstract >>
Summarized data on emission of carbon dioxide and methane obtained according to the standardized method during studies of various types of swamp ecosystems in sub-zones of northern, middle and southern taiga are considered. Average estimates of carbon dioxide and methane content in the surface layer of the atmosphere and in swamp waters have been obtained.  The influence of natural ecological and techno-genus factors (conditions) on their time course and distribution in the direction of latitude-zonal climatic gradient is discussed. It is concluded that in the atmosphere there is a considerable proportion of mineral methane under the conditions of intense exploitation of petroleum and gas dew posits of West Siberia. The role of northern swamps in the global (planetary) cycle of carbon oxides is discussed. Important peculiarities and causes of degradation phenomena in northern swamp provinces resulting in formation of the so-called "rimpi" have been elucidated.
																								



10.
Soil Formation and Organisms (Paleo-ecological Aspects)

V. K. BAKHNOV

Abstract >>
An effort was made to explain possible involvement of soil formation in the evolution of organisms. It took place in a mediated manner, through changes of life conditions which proceeded in association with soil formation or directly through the soil as a habitat.
																								



11.
Microbial Transformation of Carbon in Boreal Forests of Siberia

N. D. SOROKIN, S. YU. EVGRAFOVA, I. D. GRODNITSKAYA, A. G. PROKUSHKIN

Abstract >>
Data on microbial transformation of carbon in some regions of Middle and East Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai), Central Evenkia, Lower and middle reaches of the Angara, and the West Sayan are presented. It has been established that the total productivity of bacteria and fungi of the upper humus horizon of the soils of biogeocenoses studied amounts to 1.4-4.0 mg/cm3 (1.2-3.8 t/ha in the 0-50 cm layer), or 0.3-1.5 % of the amount of humus. The calculated carbon of the microbial biomass of the soils studied varies from 0.65 to 2.0 mg/cm3 (0.7-1.3 t/ha in the 0-50 cm layer) or 0.4-1.7 % of the total carbon. At the average microbial biomass level in the soils under study of 2.5 t/ha (0.025 g/cm3), the amount of energy reaches 1375 kcal/m2. The annual amount of carbon dioxide supplied to the atmosphere from the forest soils of the regions under study due to the microbiota activity varies from 4.8 to 5.5 t/hs. In the litters of pine, cedar and deciduous forests during the vegetation season up to 0.8-2.2 t/ha (40-53 %) of vegetable remnants is decomposed, which amounts to 0.3-1.1 t/ha (40-70 %) in terms of cellulose.
																								



12.
Peculiarities of the Succession Process in the Microbial Complex of Alluvial Soil under the Change of Vegetation Type

A. A. DANILOVA

Abstract >>
During 18 years after sowing the natural vegetation in arable soil, the abundance of fungi increased by 40 % and amounted to 50-60 % of that under natural forest.  The abundace of microorganisms utilizing various nitrogen sources and oligotrophs decreased therein by 20-30 % and exceeded respective parameters under forest on the average by 30 %. The rate of change of the abundance of some or other group of microorganisms  during restoration of natural vegetation on arable soil was determined by its place in the trophical chain formed in the process of decomposition of vegetable litter.
																								



13.
Biological Indicators of Degradation and Self-Recovery of the Soil-Vegetation Cover of Tundras

V. D. VASILYEVSKAYA, V. Ya. GRIGORYEV

Abstract >>
Relationship between the characteristics of vegetation (above-ground and subterranean phytomass, above-ground biomass, species composition and projective cover) and soil properties (power of organogenic and root-inhabited layers, humus content of the 0-20 cm layer, the thickness of abiotic alluvium) has permitted developing biological indicators and criteria of quantitative estimation of resistance, degree of physical and general degradation, and time course of recovery of disturbed soil-vegetation cover of tundras. An analytical description of the process of vegetation and soil self-recovery is given which permits determining, by the accessible minimum of initial information, the duration of various degradation levels and of the total duration of recovery under different conditions of water regime.
																								



14.
Influence of Biocontrol Strains of Trichoderma asperellum, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescenceon the Biological Activity and Structure of Soil Microbiocenosis

Yu. A. LITOVKA, T. I. GROMOVYKH, V. M. GUKASIAN

Abstract >>
The influence of Trichoderma asperellum, Bacullus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescence strains promising for biocontrol of vascular mycosis of seedlings of coniferous plants, on the biological activity and structure of soil microbiocenosis of forest nursery soil was studied. It has been established that the use of antagonists decreases the total abundance of microflora only up to the moment of formation of the root zone, limiting the development of phytopathogenic fungi. Further on, the introduced biological agents change the structure of the microbiocenosis, contributing to the increase of abundance of sporeless bacteria and to limitation of the abundance of phytopathogens.
																								



15.
Study of the Degree of Toxicity of Soil, Littoral Vegetation and Water of the Lake Shira Using a Paramecium Biotest

V. E. SAZONOVA, V. B. KIRDEEVA, E. V. AFANASYEVE

Abstract >>
The studies of the degree of toxicity of the soil, vegetation and water of the lake Shira using Paramecium caudatum as the test object have demonstrated that on the whole the littoral vegetation is not toxic.  The littoral soils at the depth of 20 and 40 cm  have a toxicity index of IV and V, which witnesses to their critical condition. The slightest decrease of the toxicity index can lead to worsening of the soil and, possibly, to irreversible changes. The terst object used has detected the increase of degree of toxicity of water and plants in sites of anthropogenous loading (beach, boiler house).
																								



16.
Peculiarities of Microbiological Properties of Soils of Urbanized Territories

V. S. ARTAMONOVA

Abstract >>
Data on the reserves of viable micro-organisms in the snow cover, thawing waters and soils after snow melting are presented, and indicators of sanitary indicator bacteria Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli group are demonstrated. The participation of alien microorganisms in the increase of toxigenicity of urban soils is shown.
																								



17.
Biomass of Soil Microorganisms and Phosphorus Transformation in Soils of Subarctic Tundra Zone

N. B. NAUMOVA, R. P. MAKARIKOVA, L. Yu. DITZ

Abstract >>
The bio-mass of soil microorganisms and other biological characteristics of soils (respiratory and phosphatase activity) and the microbial component of soils (metabolic coefficient of the biomass and the kC factor) were studied in the soils of southern and northern subzones of subarctic tundra of Middle Siberia (the Taimyr peninsula). It has been found that the soil microorganisms biomass content, the respiratory activity of the soil and its phosphatase activity strongly vary within the limits of the zone under study, which reflects the special chaoticity of microecotopes of the tundra zone. Thus, the biomass content varied from 1 mg C/100 g (in the soil directly adjoining the permafrost layer in the lower part of the cryoturbation spot in the south of the zone) to 140 mg C/g (in the peated humic gley horizon under grass-moss tundra in the south of the zone). The obtained values of the microbial metabolic coefficient for tundra soils (0.1 to 5 mcg C-CO2 . mg-1 biomass C/hr) are within the limits of values established for soils of other bioclimatic zones. A study of behavior of the microbial component of tundra soils under laboratory conditions has demonstrated that as the temperature increases, the phosphorus immobilization by the microbial biomass bacomes more intense.