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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2002 year, number 2

1.
Influence of Lead (II) Cations and of Some Complexes of Biologically Active Substances of Plant Origin on the Activity and Stability of Plant Genome

V. V. SHAROIKO, G. V. NUREEVA, A. N. ZHURAVSKAYA, B. M. KERSCHENHOLTZ

Abstract >>
The influence of lead (II) cations and of biologically active substances from rhododendron and wormwood on the seeds of wheat Prilenskaya-19 as well as on the seeds of willow-herb collected from territories of natural and chemical-technogenous pollution by lead (II) compounds was studied in a laboratory experiment (physiological properties, activity of antioxidant systems, stability and differential activity of the genome, including those in reparation processes). For this, a comprehensive cytologic-biochemical method of estimating the activity of the genome of root meristem of shoots in translation, replication and reparation reactions was applied. The results obtained permit elucidating the mechanism of biochemical adaptation of wheat Prilenskaya-19 and of willow-herb to various Pb2+ concentrations and their influence on the survival of shoots. It is established that the increase in viability of shoots within the range of Pb2+ concentrations of 0.1-0.5 mM in the laborattory experiment and 5-10 mcM of ash in the subterranean organs of willow-herb (under natural conditions) is attained due to activation of antioxidant and/or DNA-repairing systems. It is demonstrated that a preliminary treatment of wheat seeds with willow-herb and rhododendron extracts exerts a protective action, activating additionally DNA-repairing and antioxidant systems. P. 127-136
																								



2.
Transformation of Biopolymers by Luminous Bacteria

G. A. VYDRYAKOVA, Ju. V. CHUGAEVA AND N. A. TYULKOVA

Abstract >>
Induction of alginate lyase, cellulase, chitinase and neuraminidase synthesis by the cultures of luminous bacteria from the IBSO Collection (Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk) has been investigated. For the first time neuraminidase production has been revealed in luminous bacteria of the species V.harveyi. The low level of neuraminidase (sialidase) synthesis is indicative of low pathogenicity of the cultures studied but does not rule out a possible contribution of neuraminidases to colonization by luminous bacteria of various organs in marine animals. It has been recorded that 25 % of the investigated cultures of V. harveyi from the IBSO Collection show alginate-lyase production, 85 % of the cultures synthesizing alginate lyases screened from the gastro-intestinal tract of marine animals and only 15 % isolated from sea water. Chitinase activity has been recorded for 28.5 % of the investigated P.leiognathi cultures and 18.2 % of the V. harveyi cultures. The level of chitinase activity shown by the cultures studied is in accordance with that shown by microorganisms under natural conditions, ranging between 0.02 and 2.4 units. The paper discusses the study of cellulolytic production of 65 IBSO Collection bacterial cultures of four species, belonging to different ecological groups is discussed in the paper. It has been shown that bacteria of the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium differ in  cellulase activity and in relative numbers of cultures with cellulase production. It has been revealed that free-living and associated luminous bacteria show enzymatic activities to a different degree. P.137-144
																								



3.
On the Sampling Method System for the Vegetation Cover Study

S. V. OSIPOV

Abstract >>
A sampling method intended for research of diversity of plant synusiae, communities and vegetation complexes, mapping of vegetation cover and reflecting different levels of vegetation pattern, choice of less labour-consuming methods is discussed. 2 types of gnoseological situation, 5 types of vegetation cover pattern and 4 types of field record form are distinguished.  Two components of the representativeness: typological and frequency have been noted. The regular gradient-method of plots arrangement is defined. P. 145-156
																								



4.
Biogeochemical Migration of Chalcophile Elements under the Conditions of a Deep-Fallow Swamp of West Siberia

T. T. EFREMOVA, S. P. EFREMOV, K. P. KUTSENOGII, V. F. PERESEDOV

Abstract >>
The leading factors of biogeochemical migration of Cu, Zn, In, Au, As and Ga in swamp ecosystems are local geomorphological and lithological properties of the territory, reduction-oxidation zonality of the peat deposits within both the oxidative and the reductant background, the quality of humus sorption barriers, biological absorption, and the carbonate equilibrium of swamp waters.  The enumerated factors influence differently the behavior of concrete elements.
																								



5.
Distribution of Biocenoses of Benthal Communities in Grounds of Deep-Water Krasnoyarsk Reservoir (by Multiannual Series, 1978-1997)

O. A. KUZNETSOVA, Z. G. GOLD

Abstract >>
Two stages are distinguished in the development of benthal invertebrate fauna of the deep-water Krasnoyarsk reservoir. The species structure of benthal biocenoses has been developed on gray silts, silty sands with plant remnants. The most unstable are cenoses of pebble and sand beds, in the highest degree in the upper reaches of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir. P. 165-172
																								



6.
Microbiological Composition of Fluvial Waters of the Upper and Middle Ob Basin

O. G. SAVICHEV, N. G. NALIVAIKO, N. A. TRIFONOVA

Abstract >>
New data on the bacterial flora of fluvial waters of the upper and middle Ob basin obtained in the course of comprehensive ecogeochemical studies in 1990-1998 are described. Some important peculiarities of microbiological composition of waters have been established: 1) in the quantitative composition of chemotrophic bacteria prevalent are microorganisms adapted to inhabiting a milieu with a lowered content of complicated organic compounds; 2) in fluvial waters, bacteria oxidizing hydrocarbons and phenols are ubiquitously spread; 3) among the rivers studied, conspicuous is the Tom, the biological composition of whose waters witnesses to the greatest anthropogenous load on aquatic ecosystems in the region under consideration. The anthropogenous influence is manifested in a short-term increase of various groups of microorganisms. In some cases, the increas in the numbers of bacteria is due to natural factors among which of great importance is the the enhancement of surface washing-off from the water taking areas during floods. P. 173-180
																								



7.
Mapping of Vegetation of Ecologically Hazardous Territories of the Baikal Region

A. P. SIZYKH, N. I. NOVITSKAYA

Abstract >>
Possibilities of cartographic method of studying the vegetation of ecologically hazardous territories of various nature in the Baikal region are considered. Development of cartographic models of conditions of genesis of plant communities for concrete types of ecological risks (evolutionary, dynamic, anthropogenous, and their combinations) will make it possible to obtain more objective information  about the modern state of phytocenoses in concrete territories. It is supposed that drawing up series of situational geobotanic maps will permit following up timely the tendencies in plants under the conditions of formation of some or other type of ecological risk. P. 181-184
																								



8.
Comparison of Time Course of Growth and Reproduction Activity of Siberian Cedar

D. A. SAVCHUK, V. N. VOROBYEV

Abstract >>
On the basis of retrospective methods of reconstruction of sexual reproduction and shoot and tree growth of Siberian cedar, a comparison of their time course has been made. It is demonstrated that reproduction chonologies, especially in branches of second order, are more sensitive to the influence of external factors than the growth branches are. They differ also in the coefficient of determination and in the autocorrelation function of first order. Differences in the structure of cyclicity and of the trend of chronological changes in the growth and reproduction processes have been found.
																								



9.
On Bioecology of Black Poplar in Protective Plantations

A. I. LOBANOV, P. B. YURASOV

Abstract >>
Some bioecological peculiarities of development of generative organs of transitional physiological form of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) in protective plantations in the south of West Siberia are considered. P. 191-198
																								



10.
Estimation of Hazard of Formation of Burned-Out Forests

S. K. FARBER

Abstract >>
The concept of "formation of burned-out forests" is introduced. A method of its estimation is proposed. A model of burned-out forest formation for light-coniferous forests of the Ust-Ilim industrial complex has been developed. The model ranks the plantations of forest taxation plots according to their fire resistance. P. 199-202
																								



11.
Nitrogen Nutrition of Larch Stands on Permafrost Soils of Middle Siberia

S. G. PROKUSHKIN, A. P. ABAIMOV, A. S. PROKUSHKIN, L. N. KAVERZINA

Abstract >>
The studies are dedicated to estimation of trophical conditions in the forests of permafrost zone of Middle Siberia. In the root-abiding layer of larch stands, an insignificant amount of total nitrogen, with the maximum in stands with a powerful development of the soil cover and litter bedding has been found. However, the proportion of its accessible forms, especially in the soil, is very large. Therein, dominant among the accessible fractions are easily and moderately hydrolyseable ones, in which free amino acids are abundantly present. The mineral nitrogen content of permafrost soils, and especially in the mineral layer, is insignificant. Organogenic horizons of larch stands where the main reserves of absorbing roots are concentrated are the main source of nitrogen for plant communities of this region, and here competition for nitrition elements arise between them at certain succession stages. P. 203-212
																								



12.
Peculiarities of Diffusion and Existence of Wood-Destroying Fungi of the Order Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) in Nature

E. A. ZHUKOV

Abstract >>
Results of studies of wood-destroying fungi of the order Aphyllophorales (Basidiomycetes) in the territory of the Salair mountain range and Mountainous Shoria are presented. Peculiarities of diffusion and existence of these fungi in nature, and the problems and perspectives associated with their study are considered. P. 213-220
																								



13.
Ecology of Germination of Seeds of Rare and Disappearing Species of Siberian Flora

G. P. SEMENOVA

Abstract >>
Analysis of germination of seeds of 117 rare and disappearing species of Siberian flora at definite temperature conditions has permitted distinguishing three ecological groups: the thermophile group - the most numereous one (64 %) whose seeds can germinate at high positive temperatures 0f 18-30 oC; thermopsychrophile (intermediate) group of species (13 %) - a part of seeds germinate at high positive temperatures, and the major part can germinate after exposure to low positive temperatures (0-5 oC), and the third, psychrophile group (24 %) whose seeds germinate only at low positive temperatures or after an exposure to these. Characteristic of seeds of many species is a wide range of normal reaction to temperature and illumination conditions, which is determined by their origin and complicated history of genesis of Siberian flora. P. 221-236
																								



14.
Some Ecological Peculiarities of Linden

Yu. P. KHLONOV

Abstract >>
The pattern of distribution of linden across the areal has been studied. The causes contributing to survival of the root system and the degree of resistance to adverse environmental factors have been elucidated. P. 237-242
																								



15.
Connection with Inoculation of Rhizobium leguminosarum

L. E. MAKAROVA

Abstract >>
The dependence of the time of going through definite stages of nodulation process on the roots of pea plants infected by bacteria Rhizobium laguminosarum upon the surrounding temperature (optimal or lowered) and the substrate on which the plants had been grown (sand and aquatic medium) has been studied. It is demonstrated  that low temperature and the hydroculture conditions retard the nodulation process, especially the 1-st stage including the period from the moment of infection  to emergence of the first nodule germs. Therein, a more effective factor is the low temperature. It is established that under all the changes of germination conditions at all the nodulation stages studied,  changes in the content of "soluble" (extractable with ethyl acetatec and butanol) and "insoluble" (attached to cellular structures) phenolic compounds (PC) take place. However, the general rules in the changes of PC content for environmental conditions created by us and inhibiting the nodulation process have not been elucidated. P. 243-248
																								



16.
Ecological and Medical Phytodesign as a Method of Sanation of Children in Childhood Institutions

Yu. L. YAKIMOVA, N. A. RYCHKOVA, N. V. TSYBULIA

Abstract >>
The microbiological state of air in buildings of 22 childhood institutions of the Novosibirsk city and Novosibirsk region has been studied. The examined playing rooms were conventionally divided into 3 groups in which the microbial insemination was 1) within normal limits, 2) above normal limits by 2-3 times and 3) above normal limits by more than 3 times. The performed qualitative analysis of the proportion of conditionally pathogenic bacteria and facultative air microflora, and a bacteriological observation of insemination of childrens` nose and throat at kindergartens have demonstrated that the insemination of respiratory pathways correlated with that of the air of rooms. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative analysis of microbial insemination of the air, an assortment of tropical and subtropical plants wawith expressed phytoncide effect was selected. P.249-253