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2010 year, number 5

Inverted Pendulum Control with Allowance for Energy Dissipation

Y. N. Zolotukhin, A. A. Nesterov
Keywords: inverted pendulum, moving suspension point, position control, suspension point velocity control, energy dissipation
Pages: 3-10

Abstract >>
The behavior of an inverted pendulum hinged on the wheel axis is studied. An algorithm is proposed for solving both the problem of pendulum stabilization in a given position relative to the vertical and the problem of controlling the velocity of the platform on which the pendulum is located under conditions of energy dissipation. Recommendations on choosing control system parameters are given, and the time of transitional processes is estimated.

Overcoming Nondifferentiability in Optimization Synthesis of Automatic Control Systems

A. A. Voevoda, A. V. Chekhonadskikh
Keywords: automatic control system, reduced-order controller, minimization of nondifferentiable ravine function, graduation of the root set of polynomial, convex hull
Pages: 11-17

Abstract >>
We solve the problem of minimizing the ravine non-differentiable function defining the quality of the pole location in the synthesis of automatic control systems with reduced-order controllers. The relationship between the objective functions of the location of the polynomial roots and their derivatives is studied. The possibility of conversion from the non-differentiable characteristic of the location of the polynomial roots to a smooth characteristic of its derivative.

Optoelectronic System for Mobile Robot Navigation

O. Y. Sergiyenko
Keywords: laser positioning system, passive optical scanning, spatial coordinate measurement, optical signal processing, mobile robot navigation
Pages: 18-35

Abstract >>
In densely populated cities or indoor environments, limited accessibility to satellites and severe multipath effects significantly decrease the accuracy and reliability of satellite-based positioning systems. To meet the needs of "seamless navigation" in these challenging environments, an advanced terrestrial positioning system is under development. A new principle of mobile robot navigation capable of working in a complex unknown landscape (another planet or just on a cross-country terrain) is proposed. The optoelectrical method proposed has a good spatial domain resolution and immunity to multipath, as well as new optical means for "technical vision" realization. Two related problems are solved: creation of a technical vision system for recognition of images of an unfamiliar landscape and determination of the direction to the initial point of the movement trajectory of the mobile transport robot. Issues of principle design and also of functioning and interaction of system units and elements are described. A mathematical apparatus for processing digital information inside the system and for determining the distances and angle measurements in the system proposed is developed. Some important parameters are analytically determined: expected accuracy, functioning speed, range of action, power issues, etc.

Search for Man-Made Objects with the Use of Their Structural Features

S. M. Borzov, E. S. Nezhevenko, O. I. Potaturkin
Keywords: remote sensing of the Earth, spatial features, structure of images, search for objects
Pages: 36-42

Abstract >>
The most essential constraints of conventional technologies of processing multispectral data of remote sensing of the Earth in solving the problem of searching for man-made objects are analyzed. Several methods using structural features of images of man-made objects are modeled and studied. The efficiency of approaches based on classification of fragments with the use of the Harris detectors is demonstrated.

Clustering Algorithm for Texture Data from Remote Sensing

V. S. Sidorova
Keywords: remote sensing, cluster analysis, multidimensional histogram, texture
Pages: 43-52

Abstract >>
A histogram-based clustering algorithm is proposed that takes into account features of the collection of image texture statistics. The algorithm allows the addition of the false clusters occurring on the boundaries of objects with different textures, thus significantly reducing their number. The clusters are analyzed by estimating their separability in the multidimensional vector space of features and the image context. The application of the algorithm to the automated recognition of types of land cover from aerial photographs of forest landscapes is considered. A comparison of cluster maps and schematic map of ground survey shows their good agreement.

Choosing the Composition of Multivariate Relationships in the Nonlinear Regression Problem

D. K. Tyumikov
Keywords: nonlinear regression, multivariate models, variance ratios, additive and multiplicative composition
Pages: 53-61

Abstract >>
An approach to choosing the composition of a multivariate nonlinear relationship based on pair functions is considered. The approach is based on an analysis of the elements of decomposition of a multiple variance ratio (MVR) into pair variance ratios (PVRs), variance-correlation ratios of coupling effects (VCRCE), and variance ratios of interaction effects (VRIE). It is shown that if such a decomposition contains only PVDR, an additive composition of pair nonlinear functions is recommended. In a decomposition dominated by VRIE, a multiplicative combination is proposed. In a mixed set of variance ratios, mixed combinations are preferred. VCRCE participate in the selection of dominant variables. The identity of the models is determined by MVR. An example illustrating the various combinations of multivariate relationships is given, and variance ratios are analyzed.

Use of the Function of Rival Similarity to Predict Quantitative Variables

V. V. Dyubanov
Keywords: prediction, nearest neighbors, function of rival similarity
Pages: 62-66

Abstract >>
A method of using the function of rival similarity (FRiS function) to solve the problem of predicting variables measured on strong (quantitative) scales is proposed. The FRiS-Pro prediction algorithm and the experience of its use in solving problems of predicting a target attribute, measured on the absolute scale (customer demand) at the international competition Data Mining Cup 2009

Method of Electronic Calibration of the Measurement Channels of Multichannel Analyzers of Atomic Emission Spectra

D. O. Selyunin, V. A. Labusov, D. V. Petrochenko, V. L. Miroshnichenko, O. A. Neklyudov, G. V. Rechkin
Keywords: spectroscopy, multielement solid-state detectors, photoresponse nonlinearity, Chebyshev polynomials
Pages: 67-76

Abstract >>
A method of electronic calibration of measurement channels of multichannel analyzers of atomic emission spectra is developed for reducing nonlinearity of the dependence of the photoresponse of each channel on input radiation intensity, which is provided by obtaining measurement channel characteristics, their approximation by Chebyshev polynomials, and subsequent application of the calculated polynomial coefficients for output signal correction. A specialized unit of electronic registration and corresponding software are developed for such calibration. It is experimentally demonstrated that the measurement signal nonlinearity can be substantially reduced by using the electronic calibration. In this case, the residual nonlinearity of the photoresponse dependence on the number of photons incident onto the photodiode during the exposure time is within 1%.

Improvement of Metrological Characteristics of Laser Image Generators with Circular Scanning

A. V. Kiryanov, V. P. Kiryanov
Keywords: laser image generators, raster scanning, differential interferometer, aerostatic spindle, instability factor
Pages: 77-93

Abstract >>
Possible ways of improving laser image generators based on the circular scanning principle are analyzed. The most important sources of errors induced by the system of radial displacements and by the rotation unit are studied. Principles of decreasing the main components of instability of operation of image generators with circular scanning are described. Owing to the use of some principles, the prototype of such a generator can be put onto the second place in the worldwide rating of systems used by various companies to form structures providing high-accuracy measurements of angles (scales, limbs, rasters, etc.).

Field Absolute Ballistic Laser Gravimeter

I. A. Bunin, E. N. Kalish, D. A. Nosov, M. G. Smirnov, Y. F. Stus'
Keywords: ballistic laser gravimeter, optical length standard, multiple readings, field conditions
Pages: 90-102

Abstract >>
This paper describes an absolute ballistic laser gravimeter of a new generation developed at the Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The device is intended for use under field conditions and has small dimensions and weight. The light source in the gravimeter interferometer is an optical standard with a wavelength λ = 532 nm consisting of a traveling-wave Nd :YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling and with a stabilization system for the saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine. The instrumental standard error in measuring the absolute gravity by the gravimeter does not exceed ±5 · 108 m/s2 (or 5 μGal).

Interference Photolithography with the Use of Resists on the Basis of Chalcogenide Glassy Semiconductors

V. A. Dan'ko, I. Z. Indutnyi, V. I. Min'ko, P. E. Shepelyavyi
Keywords: interference lithography, inorganic chalcogenide photoresist, immersion, etching, periodic structure
Pages: 103-112

Abstract >>
The use of chalcogenide glassy semiconductors as an inorganic vacuum photoresist to obtain periodic relief structures on substrates of various compositions is investigated. It is shown that a chalcogenide resist can be successfully used in combination with interference lithography (including the immersion one) to form one- and two-dimensional submicron-size periodic structures with a spatial frequency of 300 to 8000 mm1. Technological processes of obtaining relief structures and lithographic masks with submicron sizes of elements on semiconductor, dielectric and metal substrates are developed, and their possible applications are described.

Measurement of Noncircularity of Cylinders Freely Rolling on Directing Supports or a Smooth Surface

P. P. Belousov, P. Y. Belousov, O. P. Belousova
Keywords: laser Doppler anemometry, velocity measurement, noncircularity measurement, measurement of geometric parameters of circular bodies
Pages: 113-123

Abstract >>
A new optical method of measuring noncircularity of cylinders is experimentally justified. The method is based on measuring the horizontal projection of velocity of a rolling circular body and calculating the maximum deviation of the local radius periodically repeated in the course of motion. Results measured by the proposed method are compared with direct measurements by a micrometer. The new method allows estimating tolerances of noncircularity in the case of defects of cylinder generatrices and the maximum variations of the radius in the case of guideline noncircularity. The noncircularity measurement error (~1 µm) is experimentally verified.

Multithreaded Model of a Win32 Based Intelligent Linear Sensor for Email Monitoring

K. I. Budnikov, I. F. Klistorin, A. V. Kurochkin
Keywords: information security, network traffic monitoring, spam
Pages: 124-131

Abstract >>
Simulation of an intelligent linear sensor for email monitoring based on theWin32 platform in the Windows XP environment is considered. The sensor emulation software of the device reads packets from a communication line, parses them, extracts email information, and sends it to a control unit. The features and limitations of the Win32 platform for designing devices of this type when using a multithreading mechanism in the emulation program are studied

Processing of Experimental Data Using Discretization of Their Domains

V. Y. Pivkin, I. V. Pivkina
Keywords: experimental data, functional relationship, discretization, simulation, a series of experiments
Pages: 132-135

Abstract >>
A method for processing observation data based on their discretization and graphical analysis is proposed. The purpose of the processing is to determine and model the functional relationship between the inputs and output of an experimental object. The case of a series of experiments is considered.