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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2009 year, number 1

Microelement Composition of Salivoliths

L. V. Belskaya, O. A. Golovanova, N. A. Palchik
Keywords: salivoliths, X-ray fluorescence analysis, microelement composition, regional ecology
Pages: 1-6

Abstract >>
Microelement composition of the collection of salivolith samples taken from patients living in Novosibirsk, Vladivostok and Omsk was examined. Analysis of the microelement composition of the samples showed that the elements under determination are distributed extremely non-uniformly over the groups of salivoliths from patients living in different regions. Thus, salivoliths from the Vladivostok collection are characterized by higher content of selenium, iodine, vanadium, chromium and manganese but indium and cadmium occur in them more rarely than in the samples from Novosibirsk and Omsk. The salivoliths from the Omsk collection contain larger amounts of titanium, copper and zirconium than the samples from Novosibirsk and Vladivostok do, while some samples contain almost zero amounts of selenium and iodine, which is due to the specific features of the region.

Catalytic Dechlorination of Aromatic Chlorides Using Fly Ash under Mild Conditions

Abdul Ghaffar, Masaaki Tabata
Keywords: dechlorination, fly ash, organic solvents, metals, temperautre
Pages: 7-14

Abstract >>
An efficient dechlorination method for p-nitrochlorobenzene, p-chloroanisole and 1-chloronaphthalene on municipal waste incinerator fly ash in presence of reducing agents with water/alcohol mixtures was developed. Dechlorination reactions showed higher activity in water/isopropanol mixture at temperature <100 oC. Metal contents of fly ash (copper and lead) played a vital role to enhance dechlorination at low temperature <100 oC. Moreover, the fly ash also provided the surface to accomplish reduction and substitution reactions by adsorbing the chlorinated aromatic compounds, hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. The mechanism of dechlorination was envisaged.

Lipid Status and Fatty Acid Spectrum of Black Baikalian Grayling Thymallus arcticus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874

O. Y. Glyzina, E. V. Dzyuba, N. A. Latyshev, V. V. Smirnov, G. A. Fedorova, A. V. Glyzin, T. N. Basharina
Keywords: fatty acids, black Baikalian grayling Thymallus arcticus baicalensis, muscles, liver, lipids
Pages: 15-20

Abstract >>
Concentrations of different classes of lipids and fatty acids in muscles and liver of black Baikalian grayling Thymallus arcticus baicalensis Dybowski, 1874 were determined for the first time. Neutral lipids (triglycerides) were detected to prevail in all the investigated tissues, while phospholipid content of red muscles is two times lower than that of white muscles. The composition of fatty acids of total lipids for all the organs is dominated by polyunsaturated (44.58-53.7 %) and saturated (19.06-30.94 %) acids. Polyunsaturated ones are mainly represented by the 22:6n-3 and 20:5n-3 acids; their total fraction was 19.5-39.1 %. The ratio of fatty acids of the n-3/n-6 series depends on tissue kind and varies within the range 2.19-4.02. In the lipids of white muscles, the fraction of polyunsaturated fatty acids is higher due to docosahexaenoic acid. For the reason of total fattiness and the balanced ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the n-3/n-6 series in the muscle tissues, black Baikalian grayling may be used as a high-quality raw material for developing dietary and specialized food products and biologically active additives.

Low-Temperature Oxidation of Hydrogen with the Systems Based on Copper Oxide

N. P. Kirik, E. V. Rabchevsky, A. G. Anshits
Pages: 21-27

Abstract >>
Results described in the work were obtained in the investigation of the activity of oxide materials prepared by depositing copper oxide on aluminium oxides with developed surface (5-26 % CuO/Оі-Al2O3 and 28 % CuO/Оё-Al2O3), towards hydrogen absorption at a temperature within the range 25-90 оC and hydrogen pressure 40 torr. It was demonstrated that the samples with the high copper oxide content are characterized by satisfactory specific rate of hydrogen oxidation and may be used as the absorbers of hydrogen released during radiolysis, during the transportation of mixed radioactive wastes in tight vessels.
hydrogen, low-temperature oxidation, solid oxidants, copper-containing oxide systems

Effect of additional purification of drinking water by ozonation and incomplete freezing

L. F. Koroleva, N. V. Cherednichenko, D. V. Kiseleva, M. G. Pervova
Keywords: purification methods, drinking water, treatment with ozone, freezing, analysis, mass spectrometry, gas-liquid chromatography, chlorinated organics, microelements
Pages: 29-34

Abstract >>
It is shown using mass spectrometry and gas-liquid chromatography that drinking water entering water pipelines contains a number of dangerous impurity microelements and chlorinated organics with concentrations close to MPC (except iron and manganese). It was established that the treatment of drinking water with ozone followed by filtering through a coal filter (household device "Ozonid-rodnik") and freezing at -18 оC under home conditions provide efficient additional purification. Purified water does not contain carcinogenic chlorinated organics, while the concentrations of dangerous microelements (As, Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb, Se, V, Sb, Hg) decreases by a factor of 1.5-4.5, Fe, Mn, Al by a factor of 2-15.

Composition of coal from northern deposits of the Lena coal basin, evaluation of the possibility of processing into liquid fuel

P. N. Kuznetsov, S. M. Kolesnikova, L. I. Kuznetsova, S. S. Okhlopkov, A. F. Safronov
Keywords: coal, composition, rare earth elements, processing, liquid fuel, petrol
Pages: 35-41

Abstract >>
Composition of coal from the new northern deposits of the Lena Basin and its reactivity in the processes of thermal dissolution and hydrogenation were investigated. It was established that the content of rare earth elements in the coal under investigation in some cases is 5-10 times higher than the industrially significant indices. The results of thermochemical transformation of coal into liquid substances are presented. Qualitative relations between the transformation degree during thermal dissolution and the data on the technical analysis of carbon - hydrogen concentration and the yield of volatiles - were determined. The suitability of the coal from the Lena Coal Basin for obtaining liquid fuel by means of the catalytic hydrogenation is substantiated. The reasonableness of complex processing of coal with the separation of rare earth concentrate is stated.

Investigation of the efficiency of water purification from sulphates by means of incomplete freezing

N. L. Lavrik, V. V. Boriskin, K. L. Danilov, V. A. Brednev
Keywords: water purification, freezing - melting procedure, absorption spectra, aqueous solutions of metal sulphates
Pages: 43-50

Abstract >>
Efficiency of water purification kpur from metal sulphates (MnSO4 в‹… 5H2O, FeSO4 в‹… 7H2O, CuSO4 в‹… 5H2O and VSO4 в‹… 5H2O) is investigated as the dependence on the fraction of frozen aqueous solution (g) and freezing temperature T. The following kinds of dependencies were established: 1) a monotonous decrease in kpur; 2) a monotonous increase in kpur; 3) an increase in kpur with an increase in the fraction of frozen solution to g > 0.3-0.4 followed by a decrease at g > 0.4 (non-monotonous dependence). The influence of reasons preventing high kpur is discussed. These reasons include the impossibility to separate the drops of liquid solution containing impurities from the surface of ice, due to the sampling method (adhesion factor) and freezing of the impurities into the interdendritic cavities on the surface of the freezing front (dendritic factor).

Investigation of the state of water in Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr after the ecological catastrophe of the 1930-es by means of physicochemical modelling

S. I. Mazukhina, V. A. Masloboev, K. V. Chudnenko, V. A. Bychinsky, S. S. Sandimirov
Keywords: petroleum, hydrocarbons, atmosphere, natural water, computer modelling
Pages: 51-59

Abstract >>
On the basis of the data of hydrochemical analysis carried out during the years 1938-1939, changes in the composition of water in Lake Bolshoy Vudyavr under the action of waste water from the mining industry is investigated. The complete geochemical composition of natural water is reconstructed using thermodynamic methods; the ecological state of Lake B. Vudyavr is evaluated. The results are of practical and methodic significance for predicting long-term anthropogenic impacts on the water systems of the Subarctic territory.

Humic substances of brown coal from the Sergeevskoye deposit

L. P. Noskova
Keywords: humic acids, fulvo acids, brown coal, extraction, functional composition
Pages: 61-65

Abstract >>
Chemical composition of humic substances from brown coal of the Sergeevskoye deposit is studied by means of elemental analysis, IR and 13С NMR spectroscopy. A comparative analysis of the fragment composition of coal fractions is carried out. It is shown that extraction of humic acids is accompanied by oxidation-reduction transformations. The data on the polyfunctional composition and potential of physiological activity of humic substances provide evidence of the possibility to use coal from Sergeevskoye as a source of humic fertilizers.

Interconnection between the composition of the products of liquid-phase ozonation and the structural fragments of coal of different genesis

S. A. Semenova, Y. F. Patrakov, M. V. Batina
Keywords: liquid-phase ozonation, humic coal, sapropelites, liptobiolites
Pages: 67-73

Abstract >>
Influence of the nature of fossil fuel on the yield and component composition of the products of ozonation in glacial acetic acid is studied. It is established that the basis of compounds soluble in the reaction medium is the low-molecular water-soluble compounds. Among water-soluble products of humic brown coal, prevailing compounds are benzene dicarboxylic acids and their alkyl derivatives. The products of ozonolytic destruction of liptobiolite and sapropelite coal are represented mainly by aliphatic carboxylic acids with chain length С210.

Electrochemical method of cyanide regeneration from acid thiocyanate solutions

V. K. Sovmen, V. N. Guskov, S. V. Drozdov, T. A. Kenova, V. L. Kornienko
Keywords: thiocyanate, cyanide, electrochemical oxidation
Pages: 75-79

Abstract >>
Cyanide regeneration by means of electrochemical oxidation of the acid solutions of thiocyanates is investigated. The effect of reagent concentrations, current density and method of process performance on the efficiency of thiocyanate oxidation and the mass yield of cyanide is studied with model and technological solutions.

Thermal transformation of cellulose in the presence of silicon-containing additives

O. S. Efimova, G. P. Khokhlova
Keywords: thermal transformation, cellulose, silicon dioxide, polycarbosilane
Pages: 81-87

Abstract >>
It is shown by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, mass spectrometry, IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy that the character of cellulose thermal transformation changes and the yield of carbon residue increases during cellulose heating in the presence of SiO2 and polycarbosilane within temperature range up to 900 оC. In the case of polycarbosilane addition, silicon is present in the cabon material in the form of organosilicon fragments with Si-C and Si-O-C bonds, as well as in the form of silicon oxycarbide. With the addition of SiО2, the major amount of silicon is conserved in the form of oxide; the amorphous modification within the composition gets transformed into cristobalite.

Comparison of the efficiency of oxidation of sulphureous compounds of the diesel fraction by various oxidants in a two-stage process of sulphur removal (a combination of oxidation and adsorption)

E. B. Krivtsov, A. K. Golovko
Keywords: diesel fuel, oxidative sulphur removal
Pages: 89-95

Abstract >>
Comparative analysis of the efficiency of oxidation of sulphureous compounds of diesel fraction by various oxidants (ozone, peroxides) in a two-stage process of sulphur removal (a combination of oxidation and adsorption) was carried out. The dependence of the oxidation degree of sulphurous compounds of the diesel fraction on the amount of the oxidant used and on the process conditions were investigated. The changes in the group composition of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, sulphureous compounds of the saturated and aromatic character under the oxidation of the sample followed by adsorption purification of the resulting products were analyzed.

High-Performance Technique on the Base of ICP-MS for Obtaining High-Resolution Records of Climate-Sensitive Elements in Bottom Sediments of Lake Hovsgol (Mongolia)

Tserentsegmid Oyunchimeg, E. P. Chebykin
Keywords: ICP-MS, Lake Hovsgol sediments, sequential extraction, paleoenvironmental change proxies
Pages: 97-110

Abstract >>
To obtain high-resolution records of elemental paleoenvironmental change proxies in the bottom sediments of Lake Hovsgol (Mongolia), a high-performance technique is proposed. It consists of extraction of sediment samples with 1 % HNO3 followed by multi-elemental ICP-MS measurements of extracts. In comparison with the complete decomposition of bulk samples, this method provides a maximal number (44) of climate-sensitive elemental signals (variation of contents of extractable elements along sediment core depth) and, at the same time, their maximal response to the global paleoclimate change. The highest sensitivity (variability >100 %) to climate change is characteristic for Сinorg, P, Ca, V, Ni, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, W and U, and the lowest one (25-30 %) - for As, Rb and Pb. On the basis of memory effect studies, an algorithm of ICP-MS measurement (VG PlasmaQuad II quadruple spectrometer) is proposed; this method does not require intermediate rinsing of spectrometer measuring path between core samples analysed subsequently. It allows increasing the output of serial analysis up to 200 samples per day.

Priorities and features of the development of the Baikal Region

G. I. Khanturgaeva, A. K. Tulokhonov
Pages: 111-113