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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2005 year, number 6

1.
Ecologically pure engine fuels on the basis of natural gas

A. YA. ROZOVSKII
Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

Å-mail: rozovsk@ips.ac.ru
Pages: 701-712

Abstract >>
Properties of and methods to obtain dimethyl ether (DME), a new power supply with the enhanced ecological properties, have been considered. With the use of advanced achievements (reforming of natural gas, based on the experience in creation of rocket technologies, direct synthesis of DME from synthesis gas), one might expect that dimethyl ether will appear competitive as compared to traditional combustibles. In the same manner as methanol, DME can be readily processed to high-grade petrol; however, unlike methanol synthesis, synthesis of DME is only slightly sensitive to the composition of synthesis gas (i.e. to the nature of raw material), which makes it possible to consider the processing diagram "carbon-containing raw material ® synthesis gas ® DME ® petrol" as a versatile scheme to yield synthetic engine fuels. Possible use of steam reforming of methanol to yield pure hydrogen for fuel cells has been discussed. Modern catalysts and decontamination methods are already capable to provide methanol processing to pure hydrogen with the productivity that is theoretically acceptable to arrange the appropriate devices onboard a vehicle. Macrokinetic regime of the reaction is of significant importance for a complete decontamination from CO during selective oxidation.
																				  																		



2.
Removal of Nitrogen Oxides from Off-Gases of Diesel Engines: the Problems and the Prospects to Solve Them

V. A. SADYKOV1, T. G. KUZNETSOVA1, R. V. BUNINA1, G. M. ALIKINA1, L. CH. BATUEV1, V. A. SOBYANIN1, V. A. KIRILLOV1, V. P. DORONIN2 , V. A. MATYSHAK3, A. YA. ROZOVSKII4, V. F. TRETJAKOV4, T. N. BURDEYNAYA4, V. V. LUNIN5 AND JU. ROSS6
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: sadykov@catalysis.nsk.su

2Institute of Hydrocarbons Processing, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Neftezavodskaya 54, Omsk 644040 (Russia)

3Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 117977 (Russia)

4Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

5Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Leninskiye Gory, Moscow GSP-2, 119992 (Russia)

6University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland)
Pages: 713-724

Abstract >>
Possible application of new technologies to remove nitrogen oxides from off-gases of diesel engines has been considered that is based on the use of steady-state and non-steady catalytic processes to reduce nitrogen oxides by diesel fuel or by the products of its selective conversion into synthesis gas or olefines in compact generators. It has been found that the use of synthesis gas, mixed with the main fuel for petrol or diesel engines, makes it possible to drastically abate emissions of hazardous components and to enhance the efficiency of the engines, in particular, when ultralean mixtures are used. A viability has been revealed to apply complex oxidic systems with high mobility of oxygen as catalysts of the oxidation processes for soot particles with nitrogen oxides involved that facilitate the removal of both types of noxious admixtures.
																				  																		



3.
Salvaging of Waste Automobile Tires with the Use of Thermal Solvolysis

E. I. ANDREYKOV1, I. S. AMOSOVA1, N. A. GRINAVICH2 and O. N. CHUPAKHIN1
1Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Akademicheskaya/S. Kovalevskoy 20/22, Yekaterinburg 620219 (Russia)

E-mail: cc@ios.uran.ru

2Ural State Forestry Engineering University,
Sibirskiy Trakt 37, Yekaterinburg 620100 (Russia)
Pages: 725-729

Abstract >>
Main regularities of thermal solvolysis of comminuted rubber in organic solvents and variations of its application to salvage waste tires have been considered. The advantages of the technology to process tires with the use of heavy petroleum residue as a solvent have been disclosed.
																				  																		



4.
Glass-Fibre Catalysts to Clear Diesel Engine Exhausts

D. A. ARENDARSKIY, A. N. ZAGORUYKO AND B. S. BAL¢ZHINIMAEV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: dimar@catalysis.nsk.su
Pages: 731-735

Abstract >>
Results of laboratory and pilot studies of glass-fibre catalysts for the processes to clear off-gases of diesel engines from emissions of noxious substances have been presented. It has been demonstrated that these catalysts provide a high oxidation degree for CO and hydrocarbons as well as reduction of nitrogen oxides in the off-gases of real diesel engines.
																				  																		



5.
Chemical Design of Binary TWC Catalysts for Conversion of NOx, CO and Hydrocarbons

A. M. BOLSHAKOV1, L. D. BOLSHAKOVA1, YU. N. SHCHEGOLKOV2, N. A. MAKAROV3 and O. V. SERGEEVA1
1Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

E-mail: bolsh@igic.ras.ru

2Central Research Geological Prospecting Institute of Non-Ferrous and Noble Metals (TsNIGRI),
Varshavskoye Shosse 129b, Moscow 117545 (Russia)

3Central Scientific Research Automobile and Automotive Engines Institute (NAMI),
Ul. Avtomotornaya 2, Moscow 125438 (Russia)
Pages: 737-742

Abstract >>
It has been found that thermal decomposition of binary complexes of composition [Co(NH3)5Cl][M*Cl4] (M*= Pt è Pd) and [M(NH3)x][M*Cly] (M= Cu, Ni) that have been obtained for the first time can be used to produce binary catalysts with uniform distribution of active components. The procedure of the controlled formation of multipurpose zones on the surface of Pt-Ni/g-Al2O3 and Pd-Co/g-Al2O3 catalysts has been developed, which significantly increases their activity. As a consequence of the study into the conversion of gas mixture on these catalysts, the possibility for segregative interaction of NO and CO has been found. It has been demonstrated that a non-additive increase in catalytic activity of binary catalysts is caused by oxygen depassivation of Pt and Pd centres owing to spillover of oxygen that is formed during NO decomposition. The mechanism of the spillover of oxygen has been suggested, the sense of which consists in the realization of a new reaction path of slightly bonded states of adsorbates.
																				  																		



6.
The Use of the Effect of Synergism to Increase the Activity of Catalysts in deNOx Process

T. N. BURDEYNAYA1, V. F. TRETJAKOV1, V. A. MATYSHAK2, yu. P. ZAKORCHEVNAYA1, A. G. ZAKIROVA1, M. N. BAKHTIYAROV1 and V. N. KORCHAK2
1Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

E-mail: tretjakov@ips.ac.ru

2Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 117334 (Russia)
Pages: 743-749

Abstract >>
Formulations of original catalytic compositions have been developed to clear gas emissions of highway transport on the basis of catalysts that are free of precious metals: NTK-10-1, STK, and Ni-Cr oxidic catalyst, the use of which was not made in these processes previously. High activity of the developed catalytic compositions is caused by the effect of synergism that has been discovered and studied for the first time with mechanical mixtures of commercial catalysts. The investigation of the mechanism of the reaction of selective NOx reduction by propane over individual industrial catalysts has demonstrated that the effect of synergism that can be observed with their binary mechanical mixtures is caused by oxidizing activation of propane that proceeds on the surface of STK and Ni-Cr oxidic catalysts with the formation of more efficient reducing agents, namely, propylene and hydrogen respectively. Owing to the interphase diffusion, the last-mentioned fall on the surface of the NTK-10-1 catalyst through the gas phase, and the catalyst activates NOx.
																				  																		



7.
Block Catalysts Synthesized by Burning Method for Exhaust Gases Neutralization

U. F. ZAVJALOVA1, V. F. TRETJAKOV1, T. N. BURDEYNAYA1 AND P. G. TSYRULNIKOV2
1Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

E-mail: zavjalova@ips.ac.ru

2Institute of Hydrocarbons Processing, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Neftezàvodskàya 54, Omsk 644040 (Russia)
Pages: 751-754

Abstract >>
A novel synthetic approach had been worked out for block catalysts of compositions 0.1%Pd-2.9%CuO/g-Al2O3 and 0.1%Pd-2.9%CuCo2O4/g-Al2O3. Their catalytic properties had been investigated in neutralization reactions of toxic components of exhaust gases, i.e. CO oxidation, deep oxidation of hydrocarbons and NOx reduction by propane. It has been demonstrated that, due to higher specific surface area and dispersion of active components synthesized by burning method, the activity of these catalysts is significantly higher as compared to the samples yielded by a standard methods.
																				  																		



8.
Composition Optimization of a Metal-Fluoroplastic Antifriction Material on a Steel Substrate

v. n. kornopoltsev, n. v. kornopoltsev, d. m. mognonov and i. A. fArion
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sakhyanovoy 6, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)

E-mail: kompo@mail.ru
Pages: 755-762

Abstract >>
The creation principle and tribotechnical tests of a sheet metal-fluoroplastic material on a steel substrate are featured in the work. An optimal composition of its working layer and the procedure for doping the surface of an inversed steel pair have been selected. Tests have demonstrated that the developed material can outperform domestic commercial analogues. For instance, when the composition of new material layer is: 20_25vol. % copper alloys, 50_55%vol. % F-4 and vol. % Pb, pV factor for 1000 h continuous operation under dry friction conditions in contact with diffusion-borated steel 45 (admissible wear 200 mm) is as great as 2 MPa×1 m/s.
																								



9.
Improvement of the quality of paving

N. P. KRUTKO1, O. N. OPANASENKO1 AND A. V. MININ2
1Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, NAS of Belarus,
Ul. Surganova 9, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

E-mail: krutko@igic.bas-net.by

2Belavtodor, Department of Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Belarus,
Ul. Kalvariyskaya 29, Minsk 220073 (Belarus)
Pages: 763-773

Abstract >>
Colloid chemical properties of surface-active substances of different classes and bitumen are investigated, their interaction with the mineral material is studied. New materials and emulsion technologies for road coatings are proposed, which allow one to improve the quality and performance characteristics of roadway.
																				  																		



10.
Catalysts based on complex oxides with fluorite and perovskite structures for soot removal from the exhaust gas of diesel engines

T. G. KUZNETSOVA1, V. A. SADYKOV1, V. A. MATYSHAK2, L. CH. BATUEV1 AND V. A. ROGOV1
1Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: tgkuzn@catalysis.ru

2Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kosygina 4, Moscow 117977 (Russia)
Pages: 775-781

Abstract >>
Soot oxidation reactions are investigated in the mixture O2 + helium and O2 + NO2 + helium in the presence of substituted perovskites based on lanthanum manganite and modified fluorites based on solid solution Ce-Zr-O, including those promoted with a small amount of platinum. It was shown that the efficiency of soot oxidation is higher in the mixture containing nitrogen dioxide. It was established that the presence of weakly bound surface oxygen is necessary to initiate soot oxidation, while the developed process of soot oxidation requires the mobility of lattice oxygen.
																				  																		



11.
Scientific foundations and technological arrangement of the process of obtaining synthetic oligodecene oil for Automobile transport

P. E. MATKOVSKIY1, G. P. STARTSEVA1, V. YA. CHURKINA1, S. M. ALDOSHIN1, V. N. TROITSKIY1, V. I. SAVCHENKO1, R. G. KHANNANOV2, M. A. DEMIDOV2, V. G. SHAMSUTDINOV2, G. I. ILYASOV2, R. S. YARULLIN3, J. MIKHAILOVICH4 AND K. IOTANOVICH4
1Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Semenova 1, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russia)

E-mail: pem@icp.ac.ru

2Tatneft-Nizhnekamskneftekhim-Oil JSC,
P. O. Box 60, Nizhnekamsk 423574 (Russia)

3Tatneftekhiminvest-holding JSC,
Ul. Ershova 29, Kazan¢ 420045 (Russia)

4NIS - Rafineriya Nefti Novi Sad,
Put Sajkaskog odreda, 4, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia)
Pages: 783-787

Abstract >>
A new catalytic system for obtaining synthetic oligodecene oil for motor transport is developed. The system includes metal aluminium with particle size 4-40 mm, alkyl aluminium halide (in particular, (C2H5)1.5AlCl1.5), organic halogenated compound (in particular, tert-butyl chloride (CH3)3CCl). It was shown that the application of this system in combination with a tubular-slit reactor of oligomerization allows one to solve a set of the main problems connected with obtaining oligodecene oil. Thus obtained results were confirmed using pilot installations and were implemented in the project of the Nizhnekamsk plant of synthetic oil.
																				  																		



12.
Selective Methanation of Carbon Monoxide to Purify Hydrogen for Fuel Elements

T. P. MINYUKOVA, I. SH. ITENBERG, M. P. DEMESHKINA, N. E. SHTERZER AND T. M. YURIEVA
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: min@catalysis.ru
Pages: 789-792

Abstract >>
The possibility of fine purification of hydrogen from CO by means of preferable hydrogenation of carbon(I) monoxide into methane till the residual CO content of 1000 ppm is investigated. In order to develop a compact device intended for hydrogen preparation for fuel elements, an efficient nickel-containing catalyst was proposed that provides the required purification degree (not more than 1000 ppm CO at the outlet), selectivity (not less than 70 % of methane is formed from CO) and the level of activity (contact time is not more than 6000 h-1).
																				  																		



13.
Polyolefin composites for tribotechnical application in friction units of automobiles

A. A. OKHLOPKOVA1, P. N. PETROVA1, S. A. SLEPTSOVA2 AND O. V. GOGOLEVA1
1Institute of Non-Metallic Materials, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Avtodorozhnaya 20, Yakutsk 677007 (Russia)

E-mail: aitalina@inbox.ru

2Ammosov Yakutsk State University,
Ul. Belinskogo 58, Yakutsk 677000 (Russia)
Pages: 793-799

Abstract >>
The results of investigation aimed at the development of new wear-resistant polymeric composite materials for friction units on the basis of polytetrafluoroethylene and super-high molecular polyethylene modified by nanometer-sized inorganic compounds are reported. It is shown that their use in crystallizing polymers has a positive effect on the changes in material characteristics and helps one to intensify structural processes in polymers during crystallization.
																				  																		



14.
Efficiency of Alternative Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

A. I. SOROKIN AND G. K. MIRZOEV
AVTOVAZ JSC,
Yuzhnoye Shosse 36, Togliatti 445633 (Russia)

E-mail: mabl@dd.vaz.tlt.ru, dtn@dd.vaz.tlt.ru
Pages: 801-804

Abstract >>
Experimental work was carried out which allowed us to analyze the ways of solving the problems of simultaneous decrease in the consumption of conventional fuel, emission of toxic and greenhouse gases within a short time. It was shown that upgrading of internal combustion engines (ICE) operating with the conventional fuel makes it possible to meet the requirement 140 g/km CO2; the use of alternative kinds of fuel broadens the possibility to decrease CO2 emission and increase performance index; ICE performance with a thinned homogeneous mixture allows a substantial increase in performance index. Investigation of the operation process in ICE showed the possibility of its performance with a thin homogeneous mixtures; the performance index increases under the rated conditions from 23 to 32-34 % as a mean. It was established that power installations operating with hydrogen are able to provide zero CO2 emission. A concept of the transition to hydrogen as a fuel in the most efficient manner is formulated.
																				  																		



15.
Petrol production from virgin fractions of oil and gas condensates with the use of Zeoforming process

V. G. STEPANOV AND K. G. IONE
Zeosit, Scientific and Engineering Centre of the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: stepanovvg@batman.sm.nsc.ru
Pages: 805-818

Abstract >>
Problems concerning the production of diesel fuel and motor petrol at small-scale installations intended for oil and gas condensate processing into motor fuel are considered. It is shown that for a large number of oil and gas condensate deposits the virgin diesel fractions correspond in their physicochemical characteristics to the requirements of standards for diesel fuel. In some cases, graded diesel fuel can be obtained by varying the fraction composition and/or using the corresponding additives. For the production of graded automobile petrol at small-scale installations, the most optimal process is Zeoforming, which is based on the use of a zeolite-containing catalyst. It is shown that varying the process conditions one may manufacture petrol of required grades (from AI-80 to AI-96, of summer and winter kinds) from low-octane hydrocarbon fractions of different origin without preliminary desulphurization or hydrofining and without any use of hydrogen-containing gas. In comparison with reforming, petrol obtained by Zeoforming Process is characterized by lower content of aromatic hydrocarbons, especially benzene.
																				  																		



16.
Catalytic Systems for Hydrogen Purification from CO for Fuel Cells

V. F. TRETJAKOV, T. N. BURDEYNAYA, L. A. BEREZINA AND R. A. LYUBUSHKIN
Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Leninskiy 29, Moscow 119991 (Russia)

E-mail: tretjakov@ips.ac.ru
Pages: 819-825

Abstract >>
Comparative investigation of the activity of synthesized deposited Cu,Ñî/YxCeyZr1-x-yO2 and Au-, Pt-containing catalytic systems in the reaction of a low-temperature selective CO oxidation in hydrogen-containing gas mixtures had been conducted. It had also been demonstrated that these systems provide a high CO conversion level and selectivity with respect to Î2 in an interval of temperatures up to 150oC. It has been found that Au-containing catalyst is of the highest activity. The activity and selectivity of nanocrystalline Cu/YxCeyZr1-x-yO2 catalysts in the mentioned reaction is higher as compared to Pt-containing catalysts, and they are comparable with an Au containing sample in their selectivity. It had been demonstrated that the use of these catalysts makes it possible to reach the degree of hydrogen cleansing from CO to the level of about 15 ppm, which meets the for fuel cells requirements.
																				  																		



17.
Prospects for the Application of New Materials Based on Fluorine-Containing Alcohols in Automobile Construction

G. G. FURIN1, A. A. IL¢IN2, L. M. IVANOVA2, YU. L. BAKHMUTOV2 AND A. N. IL¢IN2
1Vorozhtsov Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)

E-mail: furin@nioch.nsc.ru

2Halogen JSC,
Ul. Lasvinskaya 98, Perm 614113 (Russia)

E-mail: halogen@perm.raid.ru
Pages: 827-834

Abstract >>
A set of problems and directions of the accelerated application of fluorinated materials to solve a number of tasks in automobile industry is considered. The examples of the treatment of mechanical rubber goods with fluorinated reagents coating the surface of rubber parts with protective films that approach the characteristics of fluorinated polymers are shown. Due to these films, the used materials to not swell in petrol vapour, their wear resistance increases, friction coefficient decreases and becomes comparable with that of fluoroplastics, performance characteristics are conserved under irradiation with light. Examples of the use of acrylates modified with fluorine for corrosion-protective coatings on metal units of automobiles are given. New developments of fluorine-containing surface-active substances for use in nickel- and chromium-plating processes of metal parts, providing ecologically safe and pure conditions for the personnel of these works, are considered. The problems connected with the deposition of oil- and water-resistant coatings on glass are discussed. The efficiency of the treatment of cloth materials for car interior furnishing rendering nonflammable properties and making no flame under the action of open fire is demonstrates. New fluorine-containing lubricants for mechanisms are proposed that exceed those in use in performance characteristics. The technology of obtaining a new cleaning agent for the systems of cooling the car engine and carburetor is developed.
																				  																		



18.
Composite Materials Based on Wollastonite for Automobile Construction

I. A. BORODINA and V. V. KOZIK
Tomsk State University,
Pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)

Å-mail: sasha@elefot.tsu.ru
Pages: 835-837

Abstract >>
The effect of reinforcing the unsaturated polyester resin with wollastonite on primary physical-mechanical and performance characteristics of the hardened composite material is investigated.
																				  																		



19.
Application of the Catalysts Containing Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn Based on Alumocalcium Cement for Purification of the Exhaust of Internal Combustion Engines

E. Z. GOLOSMAN1, G. I. SALOMATIN1, T. N. SMIRNOVA2, V. N. EFREMOV1 and V. I. YAKERSON3
1Novomoskovsk Institute of Nitrogen Industry,
Ul. Kirova 11, Novomoskovsk 301650 (Russia)

E-mail: gez@novomoskovsk.ru

2Institute of Motors,
Ul. Novoslobodskaya 37, Moscow 125255 (Russia)

3Zelinskiy Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskiy Pr. 42, Moscow 119991 (Russia)
Pages: 839-841

Abstract >>
The application of Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn-containing catalysts based on alumocalcium cement in catalyst converters of exhaust for motor transport is considered. The possibility of promoting the studied systems both by depositing a small amount of palladium and by charging palladium-free catalysts together with those containing a small amount of it.
																				  																		



20.
Nanosized Diamond-Containing Carbon for Motor Transport and Automobile Construction

V. F. KOMAROV AND G. V. SAKOVITCH
Institute of Problems of Chemical and Energy Technologies,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Sotsialisticheskaya 1, Biysk 659322 (Russia)

E-mail: lab4@ipcet.ru
Pages: 843-846

Abstract >>
High efficiency of the use of diamond-containing carbon additives in lubricants and rubber parts for engines and machines is demonstrated.
																				  																		



21.
Outlooks for the automobile application of oxide film catalysts formed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation

N. B. KONDRIKOV1, V. S. RUDNEV2, M. S. VASILYEVA1, L. M. TYRINA2, T. P. YAROVAYA2 AND A. V. ROZHKOV1
1Far-Eastern State University,
Ul. Oktyabr´skaya 27, Vladivostok 690090 (Russia)

E-mail: kondr@chem.dvgu.ru

2Institute of Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka 159, Vladivostok 690022 (Russia)

E-mail: rudnevvs@ich.dvo.ru
Pages: 847-849

Abstract >>
In order to solve the problems of fuel combustion in internal-combustion engines and exhaust gas purification, one may use catalytic coatings deposited either on cylinders and pistons or on the surfaces of bulk supports in the systems of catalytic afterburning of exhaust gas. Both problems can be solved by using the manufacturable method of depositing the coatings with catalytic properties - plasma electrolytic oxidation.
																				  																		



22.
New series of gas-generating compositions for automobile safety bags

D. B. LEMPERT AND G. B. MANELIS
Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Prospekt Akademika Semenova 1, Moscow Region, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russia)

E-mail: Lempert@icp.ac.ru
Pages: 851-854

Abstract >>
Modern requirements to smokeless gas generating compositions for automobile safety bags are described. Possible ways to decrease combustion temperature and the concentrations of toxic gases in combustion products are analyzed. Thermal stability of the potential components of gas-generating compositions (organic compounds) and the phase state of ammonium nitrate within the temperature range from -50 to +100 oC are investigated. The routes of phase stabilization of ammonium nitrate with organic compounds containing no metals or halogens are proposed. The regularities of combustion of the compositions are investigated, the ways of a substantial increase in the combustion rate of compositions based on ammonium nitrate are proposed.
																				  																		



23.
Development of a polymer-bitumen binder for road building taking into account the specific features of raw material in the Samara region

A. B. SOKOLOV AND S. V. LEVANOVA
Samara State Engineering University,
Ul. Molodogvardeyskaya 244, Samara 443100 (Russia)

E-mail: kinterm@samgtu.ru
Pages: 855-858

Abstract >>
A mathematical model for the determination of the quality of polymer-bitumen binder for road construction on the basis of the raw material from local oil-processing plants was developed. The model obtained on the basis of investigations into the selection of the optimal composition of modified road bitumen allows one to predict the quality of the product depending on the composition of the initial raw material, thus providing the flexibility of the process of obtaining polymer-bitumen binder.
																				  																		



24.
Carbon monoxide antidote as the necessary item for the first-aid automobile kit

B. A. TROFIMOV, L. V. BAYKALOVA, V. A. BARINOV AND KH. KH. BABANIYAZOV
Favorskiy Irkutsk Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)

E-mail: ludabaik@irioch.irk.ru
Pages: 859-862

Abstract >>
A complex compound bis(1-vinylimidazole)zincdiacetate is proposed for use as a prophylactic and curative antihypoxic means against poisoning with CO and other products formed as a result of incomplete combustion of fuel in an automobile engine. An efficient method of its manufacture was developed; its molecular structure was revealed. It was determined that, in addition, the preparation possesses antidote properties.