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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2017 year, number 2

1.
THE POLITICAL POSITION OF THE URBAN CONSUMER COOPERATION OF SIBERIA ON THE EVE OF 1917

G.M. Zaporozhchenko
Institute of History of SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: consumer cooperatives, political parties, political exile, the Social Democrats, the Socialist Revolutionaries, the February revolution, Siberia

Abstract >>
In focus - clearing up of a political position of the Siberian city consumer cooperation by 1917. The considerable impact on its activities was exerted by political exiles which is clear from the documents of the police Department, cooperative organizations, materials of periodicals and memoirs. Presence at city consumer cooperatives of various political forces was not continuous, greatest role in management personnel was played by Mensheviks and Social Revolutionaries. Great opportunities for politicians to use consumer societies for the propaganda purposes opened during campaigns against high cost in 1915-1916. In the conditions of disappointment in an official food policy their propaganda promoted growth of social and political activity of shareholders and understanding of democratic requirements - freedom of the coalitions, democratic reforms, formation of the government of national trust, upgrade of the cooperative legislation. But radical representatives of political parties not always got a complete support of members even in workers’ consumer cooperatives. Two currents - economic and political - were shown on a number of questions: reception of exiled in cooperatives, the ideological direction of the cooperative press and cultural work, content of speeches of cooperative leaders, interaction between the city authorities and public organizations. Despite considerable influence of political parties and efforts of party activists, first of all the Bolsheviks, aimed at submission of resources of cooperation to party tasks, most of shareholders were guided by purely economic motivations and desire to be engaged in actually cooperative work. Activity of city and workers’ cooperation was determined by mainly economic, but not ideological and political factors. Most of shareholders deliberately or spontaneously supported ideology of a peaceful evolutionary way of reorganization of a social and economic order.



2.
G.YE. ZINOVIEV’S ACTIVITY AS A POLITICAL AGITATOR IN APRIL-JUNE OF 1917

V.N. Samokhodkin
Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of History, 5 Mendeleev Str., Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russia
Keywords: Bolsheviks, Zinoviev, Lenin, Kamenev, RSDRP (b), Great Russian Revolution, agitation, propaganda, Petrograd, Central Committee

Abstract >>
Under new conditions established in Russia after the February revolution agitation activities of political parties, including the RSDLP(b), obtained a special value, which was specially emphasized by V.I. Lenin in his “April Theses”. Thus it seems actual to focus on the activity of one of the most talented orators of the Bolshevist party G.Ye. Zinoviev, who was the closest associate of Lenin and a member of the Central Committee of the RSDRP(b). The current topic relevance is also determined by the fact that G.Ye. Zinoviev’s role in the events of 1917 was covered with prejudice in the Soviet historiography for ideological reasons, and it didn’t attract any scientific interest in the Post Soviet period. However, according to his contemporaries, political propaganda was one of the most important aspects of Zinoviev’s work between two Revolutions. The author of the current article strives to investigate the propagandist activities of G.Ye. Zinoviev since his return from the exile to Petrograd and up to the historical events of June. The study is based on the preserved transcripts of G.Ye. Zinoviev’s speeches and newspaper reports about them, archival documents, as well as his contemporaries’ memoirs. Studying G.Ye. Zinoviev’s activities and his ideas the author attempts to draw a conclusion, whether the assumption that Zinoviev had opposed V.I. Lenin since spring of 1917 is true. Being an outstanding public speaker, Zinoviev played a prominent role in the propaganda of Bolshevist ideas during April-June, 1917. The party entrusted Zinoviev with participating in rallies that were the most difficult in terms of agitation and propaganda, because of the lack of sympathy for the Bolshevist movement. With that, the ideas propagated by Zinoviev did not come into collision with those of V.I. Lenin. This in turn indicates, that the reason why Zinoviev fell into opposition to Lenin should be searched in later revolutionary events.



3.
“TRIUMPH OF EVIL AND SLYNESS”: DEVELOPMENTS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION IN “PROCLAMATION” OF BELOKRINITSKIY BISHOP ANTONIY (PAROMOV)

N.A. Starukhin
Institute of History SB RAS, 8 Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Old Believers, revolution, Belokrinitskaya group of Old Believers, eschatology, polemics

Abstract >>
The article deals with historiographically unstudied work of a famous Ural and Siberian bishop of the Belokrinitskaya hierarchy, Antoniy (Paromov), which was published in one of the last issues of “Sibirskiy Staroobryadets” , a diocese journal that is edited in Barnaul. In the first place “Proclamation” of bishop Antoniy is interesting as it provides the direct reaction of the Old Believers’ bishop on the revolution developments of the year 1917. In the work under investigation, with the polemic attacks against ideological ex-opponents of the Belokrinitskie Old Believers - the supporters of not named priestless sects are kept to a minimum. The main accent is made on critics of the socialist parties, which was a reaction to their rise in August-September of 1917. For this purpose bishop Antoniy uses separate works and periodicals published by A. Bebel, M. Gorkiy. Originality of the author’s approach is seen in the updating of the above named texts, their extrapolation on the contemporary developments of the Russian life, and - not very characteristic for “Austrians” - an active use of the Old Testament - 3 Esdras (non-canonical). One can notice definite rigidity of the Belokrinitskiy bishop in the evaluation of different socialist parties’ leaders conduct. In our opinion, the published composition confirms conclusions of the researchers, who repeatedly pointed to both the acuteness of eschatological feelings initially inherent to the Old Believers’ movement, as well as the entwinement of social and religious motives in it. It testifies that politization of society in the period of “three revolutions” affected such conservative social groups as Old Believers. Foremost it refers to the Belokrinitskaya (“Austrian”) group of Old Believers. Revolutionary events of the year 1917 can be considered a definite period in political activities of the Belokrinitskie communities.



4.
THE HISTORY OF STUDYING THE LATE NEOLITHIC OSINOOZERSKAYA CULTURE OF THE WESTERN AMUR REGION

S.V. Kovalenko
The Amur Laboratory of Archeology and Ethnography Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of SB RAS, A2, Uralova prosp., Blagoveshchensk, 676000, Russia
Keywords: Western Amur Region, Osinoozerskaya archaeological culture, stratigraphy, ceramic complex, pressure technique, microwear analysis, tool set, agriculture, archaeological periodization, cartography

Abstract >>
It is possible to mark two periods in the history of study of the Osinoozerskaya archaeological culture of the Western Amur Region. The first one refers to work of the Far Eastern archaeological expedition under the direction of A.P. Okladnikov in the 1960-1970s in the territory of the western part of Priamurye. The result of the studies of a number of sites and collected data was a new culture of the developed Neolithic, which received name Osinoozerskaya according to the eponymous site found in 1961 by A.P. Okladnikov on the bank of Lake Osinovoe in the Amur region. The cultural and chronological characteristic was given to the settled population living in semi-underground dwellings and being engaged mainly in hunting and fishery. The received archaeological remains allowed researchers to draw a preliminary conclusion that the carriers of this culture had rudiments of agriculture. The second stage of the research of the Osinoozerskaya culture began in the middle of the 1990s after almost thirty-year break in studying the Neolithic of the region, and is connected with collaboration of groups of the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science and the Blagoveshchensk archeologists. In addition to the 1960s data of the settlement on Lake Osinovoe, in the last two decades the known sites were partially re-studied, and some new sites were investigated, thereby source base for the analysis of the Osinoozerskaya culture has essentially expanded. Such rare site as a workshop on production of stone trade tools - Mikhaylovka-Klyuch on the Amur River - was found and surveyed. On the Neolithic settlement in the mouth of the Gromatukha River the first seasonal aboveground dwelling within the northern part of an area of this culture was examined. In spite of obtaining new data, many problems connected with debatable questions of emergence of the making economy and chronology of the culture still remain outstanding. Works on studying the Osinoozerskaya culture are continued.



5.
BRONZE PLAQUES OF URILSKAYA CULTURE IN THE FORM OF PAWS OF WESTERN PRIAMURIE

S.P. Nesterov
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, Lavrentieva ave., 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Urilskaya culture, early Iron Age, bronze plaques in the form of paws

Abstract >>
The beginning of the early Iron Age in the Amur area is associated with the origin of Urilsk archeological culture (XII-II centuries BC). Studies have shown that that its bearers representing a symbiosis of the tribes in this region were migrants who lived in western and south-western Manchuria and Inner Mongolia of China at the end of II thousand BC. Two plaques in the form of paws are known among very few bronze ornaments of the Urilskaya culture in Priamurie. One plaque was found in 1961 at the Urilsky island on the Amur river, and later was «lost» until 2017, accidentally placed into a collection of the Ango site from the Zeya river. Another plaque was found in 1997 at the Bukinski Kluch-1 site on the Bureya river. For these plaques are common signs of a sub-triangular shape, the bulge outwards, a linear type of ornament on the front side, the presence of broken loops for hanging on a smooth reverse side, which were inherent in the original things and served as a model to create matrices. Equally the problem of a new fastening device has been solved. After plaques loops for hanging have been broken pair horizontal holes in the plate were made. In this form plaques were used in one case, as a stripe, in the second one - as a suspension. These ornaments are copies of two typologically similar plaques. The technology of plaques production applying a print of original things in the plastic form was similar. The plaques in the form of paws were widespread during Karasuk era in Siberia, Central Asia and North China at the end of II - early I millennium BC. Archaeological materials, stratigraphic data of Suchie Protoki-2 and Bukinski Kluch-1 sites, where in the layers with Urilsk culture ceramics bronze and iron objects of Karasuk appearance were found, as well as radiocarbon dates allow us to date the bronze plaques in the form of paws by the initial stage of forming the Urilsk archeological culture in Priamurie.



6.
HUNNIC ENCLOSED-TYPE WOODEN FUNERAL BEDS IN MONGOLIA: A CASE STUDY OF SALHITYN AM BURIAL SITE

V.P. Mylnikov1, S. Ulziybayar2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Institute of History and Archaeology Mongolian Academy of Sciences, 77, Jucov str., Ulaanbaatar, 13343, Mongolia
Keywords: Mongolia, archeology, the Hunnic time, funeral beds (coffins, blocks), wood (tree), technology

Abstract >>
Enclosed-type wooden funeral beds in North and Central Asia are divided into the blocks and coffins. The first burials are in blocks carved from a tree trunk dating back to the early Scythian time. Burials in coffins made of boards appeared much later in the Hunnic time. On the shape and complexity of the devices the following types of coffins are distinguished: rectangular, trapezoidal as well as single or double. Despite the large variation in the size and complexity of the device, they are comprised of three main parts: a rectangular or trapezoidal box-cavity, the bottom and the lid. Boxes-cavity are collected from four - six right-hewn timbers and boards, interconnected by means of leather straps, rectangular and X-shaped curved slots (facets-cuttings) and the same form of wooden spikes (fasteners) or nails. Long coffins’ longitudinal walls in most cases are made with the residue. They are interconnected by means of grooves and thorns. edges of the sides and ends by means of the operation of slots-finger joints are attached to the bottom of one or more wide boards. Caps are generally flat, mounted from one to two and three rarely right hewn boards in exactly the same way as the bottom-cavities boxes. In the children’s coffins-cradle lids are nailed to the end walls of wooden nails (spikes). In double coffins external box-cavity usually made of hewn logs sided (half log) connected to each other «in junction», «in spike (inserted tenon)», very rarely - «paw (claw)». Cap or ceiling are constructed of two or three thick long timbers or a dozen short cross ones. To date in the territory of Mongolia and neighboring areas lots of Hunnic time burial plank coffins have been studied. Each new study of these archaeological sites provides new information about the features of the production of this type of burial bads and in general about the state of woodworking in the chronological period.



7.
ZOOARCHEOLOGICAL COMPLEXES OF THE MONUMENTS OF VERHNEOBSKAYA CULTURE (ON NOVOSIBIRSK OB REGION MATERIALS)

M.S. Demakhina
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS, 17, Lavrent’ev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: zooarcheological complex, Verkhneob culture, osteological material, settlement, burial ground, cattle breeding, hunting

Abstract >>
The object is to characterize the economic activity of the Verchneob culture representatives in Novosibirsk Ob region based on the osteological material analysis. Nowadays there are no special works dedicated to studying zoomaterials of the early middle ages (Verkhneob and synchronous cultures). Mainly specific composition is briefly mentioned in generalizing articles. That is why the author has investigated osteological materials of the Verkhneob culture monuments in Novosibirsk Ob region in details. The materials of settlements and funeral monuments have been studied. The paper marks an extreme scarcity of osteological materials on monuments of the early middle age. Animals submitted in a bone sample are both wild and domestic ones. Three forms of domestic cattle have been revealed - a horse, a goat (a sheep), a cow. The brief characteristics of animals are given. It is also noted, that horse bones prevail at all monuments of early middle age both in Novosibirsk Ob region and adjacent territories. Several points of views are identified on finding dogs bone residues in settlements and monuments. The basic zones of bone remains allocation on monuments have been defined. Bones (1-6 fragments) were located in dwellings and between dwellings sites, but bone remains practically were not recorded near hearths in settlements. In funeral monuments animal bones were recorded in burial pits, as well as small pits near burials. Thus, the economic-cultural type of the population of Novosibirsk Ob region in the period under review is characterized as a complex one including in itself both elements of assigning and producing economy. It should be clearly confirmed that a cattle breeding was a predominant branch of the producing economy. The cattle breeding with horses’ dominant role is noted. Rather high role of hunting in economy of West Siberian residents in early middle age has been marked.



8.
FLAILS OF THE KYRGYZ WARRIORS OF TIAN SHAN

Yu.S. Khudyakov1,2
1nstitute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentiev str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk National State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Tian Shan, Kyrgyz warriors, hand-held shock weapon, fighting weights, late Middle Ages, Modern era

Abstract >>
The article examines findings of flails (fighting weights) representing a sort of hand-held shock weapon, that were in the Kyrgyz warriors weapon of Tian Shan during the Late Middle Ages and Modern period. These objects of armament were studied in the weapon collection of private museum «Rarity», as well as a part of a private collection of archaeological objects in Bishkek city. The article traces the main events of the history of flails studied by specialists of the weapon history in Northern Eurasia. The examined findings of fighting weights from the territory of Tian Shan are classified by formal signs and related to different types of this sort of weapon. The paper provides argumentation to define chronology and cultural affiliation of examined fighting weights. It is supposed that fighting weights were used by the Kyrgyz warriors during their battles with historical adversaries in the nomadic world: West Mongolian, Dzungar or Oirat peoples. The author considers main data on the history of applying fighting weights by the ancient and medieval ethnoses in Europe, Central Asia. According to available archaeological materials this weapon appeared in Eastern Europe in the Late Bronze Age. The most ancient findings of flails were discovered in archaeological monuments of the Koban culture in Northern Caucasus. Flails were used in close combats by the warriors of Khazar Khanate in the era of the early Middle Ages. They were used as strike weapon by the Sogdian warriors in the territory of Central Asia. The Old Turkic and Kimaek warriors utilized fighting weights as strike weapon in regions of Sayan-Altai Mountains and the Irtysh River basin in the early Middle Ages. Similar strike weapons were applied by the warriors of Great Liao and Jurchen State at the territory of Central and Eastern Asia in the developed Middle Ages epoch.



9.
ANCIENT CULTURES OF PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO: KEY TOPICS AND SUBJECT MATTERS

A.V. Tabarev1, D.A. Ivanova1, A.E. Patrusheva2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Ak. Lavrentieva str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: Pacific basin, Philippine archipelago, Austronesians, periodization, chronology, jar burials

Abstract >>
Archaeological materials from the Philippine archipelago in spite of their uniqueness, though unique, highly informative and unusual, have been for a long time out of interests of Russian archaeologists. Up to date Russian specialists have not studied Philippine topics, archaeological materials have been unknown, and publications in Russian on the ancient Philippine cultures are absent. Intensification of scientific-educational contacts among countries of the Asia-Pacific region along with mutual aspiration to the cooperation create favorable conditions for systematic studies of ancient cultures of the Philippines and joint archaeological projects. The article objective is an overview of key topics and subject matters of the archipelago archaeological exploration, and debatable issues of archaeological chronology and periodization. Pilot archaeological studies on the archipelago are connected with names of American scholars C. Guthe (1893-1974), H. Beyer (1883-1966), R. Fox (1918-1985), W. Solheim II (1924-2014), and Filipino A. Evangelista. The degree of the Philippines archaeological research is extremely uneven. Traditionally the main research objects are compact territories on the largest islands Luzon, Palawan, Negros, and Mindanao, while vast areas of small islands remain a “blank spot”. Nowadays archaeological periodization of the Philippines looks like that: - 67 - 11,000 BP - Paleolithic; - 11 - 4,000 BP - “Preceramic period” or “Early Holocene period”; - 4 - 2,000 BP - Neolithic; - 0 - 900/1,000 AD - “Metal period”; - 1,000 - 1,500 AD - “Tradeware ceramics period” The tradition of secondary “Jar burials” (“Urn burials”) in ceramic vessels is one of the most spectacular archaeological complexes. In the archaeological literature discussions on the origin and evolution of “Jar burials” on the Philippines is traditionally connected with the culture on the territories of Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. It seems to us that the “Japanese vector” deserves no less attention.



10.
NATIONAL CULTURE IN A SIBERIAN METROPOLIS AS AN OBJECT OF ETHNIC-CULTURAL MODELING

A.Y. Mainicheva, L.O. Ponedelchenko
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS, 17, Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: national-cultural organizations, Ukrainians, Belarusians, ethnic cultural model, Siberia

Abstract >>
The article considers peculiarities of forming the national culture image under conditions of a Siberian metropolis. For the first time it has been made on Novosibirsk materials. To achieve the study objectives a model-based approach has been applied for the first time. The sources consist of data and reports provided by national-cultural organizations, interviews, and data of included observations. The national culture is diverse and it is manifested in activities of the society, social institutions, national traditions, spiritual values, peculiarities of language and lifestyle, and covers the totality of spiritual and material cultural phenomena produced and consumed by ethnic groups. It gives the opportunity to shape an ethnic-cultural model, which components allow revealing features of the national culture image creation. The ethnic-cultural model should provide understanding of the national culture model, which is the result of activities of national cultural organizations to adapt elements of their culture to the metropolis environment. Taking into account the fact that the model only approaches to the reality description, coarsens it, as well as gives the basic idea about it, the study results have shown that the main activities of the national cultural organizations are directed to work in a field of the language practice, the symbolic-iconic range of clothing, diet, dwellings, crafts, song and dance creativity, calendar’s holidays, religious views, which construct the body of the ethnic-cultural model elements. Ukrainian and Belarusian national cultural organizations working in Novosibirsk are integrated into the Siberian metropolis modern life, build a collective image of their national culture based on ethnic-cultural patterns. In addition to demonstrating cultural identity, they are aimed at promoting a tolerant attitude towards other peoples’ cultures.



11.
THE SYMBOLISM OF THE TRADITIONAL CLOTHING AS A MANIFESTATION OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL IDENTITIES ‘OWN / OTHERS’ IN SIBERIA

E.F. Fursova
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of SB RAS, 17, Lavrent’ev av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: symbolism of traditional garments, symbolic dominant ‘own / other’, old residents of Siberia, the Southern Russian and Ukrainian immigrants

Abstract >>
Author of the article analyzes the symbolic dominance in traditional dress of Russian old-residents, as well as the Southern Russian and Ukrainian immigrants in Siberia in the first quarter of the twentieth century. Inclusion of clothes in all spheres of life in a traditional society (the time of the pre-industrial technology) led to a high degree of symbolism in clothing together with footwear, additions and embellishments. The study of traditional garments such as the synthesis of the diverse manifestations of popular culture was conducted in the field of ethnographic expeditions to Western Siberia, organized by more than half a century in the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the SB RAS. Collected source base, on the one hand, makes it possible to reveal the question of overcoming the border, when people of different culture became “own”. On the other hand, it is possible to identify the conditions under which this border is irresistible and long preserved. South Russian and Ukrainian women who wore similar clothes, although perceived local Siberian complex with a skirt and a jacket, which was also supported by fashion at the time, but at different pace. Voronezh, Tambov, Kursk and others migrants sooner adopted common types of clothing in Siberia, while Poltava, Chernihiv and other settlers from the Ukrainian lands until the 1950s retained shirts clung (afterwards jackets), tank tops etc., but abandoned the swing types of waist dress in favor of skirts. Of the several symbols of traditional clothing of Siberian communities most resistant were embroidered shirts (‘vishivanka’), which discovered new facets of their importance, as shown by historical experience, even set the tone for fashion trends in 1920-1950s. The main motive of the refusal from the traditional clothing was the fact that it was missing among the local population - the Siberians (Chaldon). In the eyes of the settlers they looked not only secured, but also “fashionably” dressed. This refutes the widespread image of the “Siberian Bear”, which was formed under the influence of a large complex of fur garments for the winter.



12.
TRADITIONAL BARGUZIN BURYATS’ CLOTHES IN THE XIX - EARLY XXI CENTURIES: ETHNOGRAPHIC AND LINGUISTIC ASPECTS

V.V. Lygdenova1, Ye.G. Damdinova2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Lavrentieva Av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2Buryatsky State University, 24 a, Smolina Str., Ulan-Ude, 670000, Russia
Keywords: Buryat traditional clothes, Barguzin Buryats, national costume, shoes, hats, Buryat sub-ethnic groups, indigenous peoples of Siberia, ethnography, anthropology

Abstract >>
The paper considers main stages of transformation of the Barguzin Buryat traditional costume in the XIX - early XXI centuries. Currently one observes the growth of interest to this sub-ethnical group that can be explained by the Barguzin Buryats’ Association high activity, attracting public attention to the history of the Bargut ancient tribe settled in the Barguzin valley in the early Middle Age. The paper relevance is also explained by the fact that the Barguzin Buryat material culture and history has not been deeply examined. The article objective is to reveal main stages of the traditional clothes transformation based on the archival and field data. In the XVIII - early XIX centuries Buryats started migrating from the Upper Lena River banks to the Barguzin valley, therefore this time period was chosen to study. During three centuries of neighboring with Evenks and Transbaikal Buryats the traditional costume of Barguzin Buryats significantly changed due to adaptation to climatic conditions and new social-cultural realities. The article’s first part represents specific features of the Upper Lena Buryats, because Barguzin Buryats belonged to this ethnic group. Then it shows the analysis of the costume changes in the early-mid XX century. The paper’s third part describes modern tendencies in Barguzin costumes. As a result borrowings from the costumes of Transbaikal Buryats and Evenks are revealed: unique details in summer clothes decoration and hats originated in Transbaikal Buryat costumes, Evenk borrowings of winter clothes and fur shoes, etc. In addition, the article reveals linguistic peculiarities and similarities in the clothes’ terminology of Barguzin and Upper Lena Buryats dialects, which confirms the originality and authenticity of the Barguzin Buryat costume.



13.
BARRIER AS SIGN MARKING THE PROTECTED AREA (SIBERIA OF THE LATE XVI - EARLY XVIII CENTURIES)

A.A. Lutsidarskaya, N.A. Berezikov
Institute of Archeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Lavrentiev Av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: barriers, borders, colonists, fortress, Russians, safeguard, Siberia, symbol, walls, wooden architecture

Abstract >>
The subject of the article is wooden and ground constructions connected with fencing in Siberia in the XVII century. The authors study such constructions as walls and other elements of fortresses. The research objective is to reveal sign and symbolic functions of barriers in the ethnic, political and social space of a colonized territory. The authors analyze the Siberian documents, archeological data, graphic, and folklore materials. They use a semiotic-phenomenology paradigm both in its classic and post-Foucauldian interpretation as the main method of research. The authors refer to the modern Russian ethnographic school devoted to ethnic-symbolic colonization and sociological-anthropological research of the urban symbolic spaces. As a result the authors argue that the barriers had defensive functions at the beginning of the XVII century and provided three security levels: state, public and individual ones. However, very soon the government turned the walls and other fencing into a discipline strategy for people in Siberia. Furthermore, the barriers performed the important elements of the ethnical, political and social hierarchical representation of Siberia under the control of Russia. These facts showed no transparency of the institutional environment and the government endeavor to limit social mobility or at least set it under the administrative control. The author’s findings are that there were two trends during the period under study: the first one was connected with main cultural characteristics of the Russian space as continuously dispersing territory with huge migrants flows; the contrary second trend was in fixing people to the place of their living and proper social groups. In that case the fencing was the appropriate symbol of the Russian government efforts to shape the vast territory.



14.
HOUSEBUILDING TRADITIONS OF RUSSIAN POPULATION IN MINUSINSK DISTRICT IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

U.V. Svetacheva1,2
1Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography SB RAS, 17, Lavrentiev Av., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
2N.M. Martyanov Minusinsk Regional Museum of Local History, 60, Lenin Str, Minusinsk, 662608, Russia
Keywords: traditional house, housebuilding, Minusinsk district, settlers

Abstract >>
The traditional culture of Russian inhabitants of the Minusinsk hollow is not a deeply studied subject. It concerns mainly immigrants of the second half of the XIX - early XX centuries. The article objective is studying the architectural customs of the Upper Syda basin inhabitants. The article is based on the field research carried out during the author’s expedition organized by Minusinsk Museum of Local History in 2016, as well as the text materials kept in Minusinsk State Archive concerning the history of villages foundation, statistic data, and materials of the expedition of Minusinsk Museum of Local History headed by E.V. Leontyev in 2009. The Russians have developed the Upper Syda river region since the mid XIX century. The major part of immigrants was from Perm-Vyatka region, it was fixed in villages’ names, inhabitants’ nicknames, archives data and informants’ memories. The country people of the Syda river basin had enough wood. The cribbed houses of pine-tree, cedar, silver-fur and larch were typical for them. There were four- and five-walled houses, cross-shaped houses. Huts often had saddle and hipped roofs. Gates usually had butterfly type sheds. Windows (four or five of them facing the street) were mostly big and decorated with floral and solar ornaments. The rooms’ names were traditional: izba (a hut), gornitsa (a chamber), seni (a sort of an entry, a hall), kazenka (a cabin, a log deck). A stove was usually placed on the right to the door with its mouth next to the window; the far left corner was “red” (krasny ugol). The superstitions connected with choosing of a building place, the process of building, moving rituals are not numerous nowadays because there aren’t many informants left who can tell about pre-revolutionary traditions. We can only assert that the elder generation still believe in domovoy (a bogie). Many customs were lost in Soviet times. Now the majority of informants are people born in 1920s-1940s. Hard life conditions such as collectivization, war and need to restore the economics advanced the loss of traditions promoting the survival matter.



15.
THE ROLE OF ELECTRIFICATION IN MODERNIZATION OF INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST IN THE PRE-REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD

A.V. Maklyukov1,2
1Institute of History, Archaeology and Ethnography of the Far Eastern Peoples, 89, Pushkinskaya Str., Vladivostok, 690001, Russia
2Far Eastern Federal University, 8, Sukhanov str., Vladivostok, 690091, Russia
Keywords: Russian Far East, modernization, industry, electrical power engineering, electrification, production

Abstract >>
The article considers the process of industrial enterprises electrification in the Far East in the pre-revolutionary period (late XIX - early XX centuries). The research relevance is conditioned by the need to comprehend the historical experience of Russian modernization, the Far East place and role in this process. The most important component of modernizing the industry of the Russian Far East in the late XIX - early XX centuries was electrification, i.e. introducing into production of electric energy, various mechanisms and machines operating on its basis. The study of this problem makes it possible to trace the influence of new production technologies on the transformation of the country’s economy main sectors in the late XIX - early XX centuries, and to reveal specific features of this process at the regional level. At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries Russia began a profound technical reorganization in industrial production. Russian enterprises obtained various electro-technical machines that began to free workers from carrying out heavy and labor-intensive operations. In 1908-1917 the rapid technical improvement of the public and private factories of the Far East began. Electrification became the most important technological basis for industrial modernization. In such industries as gold and coal mining the transition to electric power allowed increasing production volumes significantly. Technical reorganization of enterprises in metalworking, agricultural processing, food, polymer and other industries led to the growth of the power-to-weight ratio of labor and increased its efficiency. But at the same time, the most remote region of Russia lagged behind the overall indicators of the country on the degree of electrification. The industry development occurred here under conditions of a low population density, a shortage of labor forces, and therefore it was carried out more slowly than in the center of the country. The most successful electrification took place at strategically important state enterprises, which reflected the state policy of the region development and its transformation into an outpost of Russia in the Pacific Ocean.



16.
AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY OF SIBERIAN FARMING IN THE DISCOURSE OF 1932-1933

V.A. Ilyinykh
Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Ak. Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: agricultural policy, farming, agriculture, agronomy, agricultural technology, fight against «harm-doers», Siberia

Abstract >>
The paper reconstructs the content and specifics of the discourse of 1932-1933 on the problem of choosing the preferable farming techniques in the West-Siberian Region. Analysis is carried out against the background of agricultural policy of the Soviet state, situation in the agriculture of the region as well as ideological and theoretical disputes in agronomic science. It is established that soil fertility decline occurred due to the neglect of basic farming techniques during the period of forced collectivization. In this regard the Soviet leadership in September, 1932 emphasized the importance of introducing the preferable farming techniques. The science and technology institutions of the region developed a range of agrotechnical measures that were supposed to lead to higher yields. In early 1933 some of these recommended techniques were considered as “harmdoing”. This was followed by the political and ideological campaign in the course of which the requirements of shallow ploughing, medium length planting season for grain crops, substitution of complete fallows for the seeded ones, refusal of the fall plowing etc. were exposed and identified as “harmdoing”. Agrarian workers were also supposed to obey policies in choosing crop rotation systems. “Harmdoing” was exposed not only in farming techniques, but also in zootechnics and animal husbandry systems. The rejected farming techniques were replaced with agrotechnical “innovations” that had not been previously tested in practice in the region. They either proved to be ineffective under Siberian conditions or had been of anti-scientific character from the outset (ultra-early planting, vernalization). The campaign undertaken in 1932-1933 to find the preferable farming techniques and fight against the “harmdoing policies” failed to bring qualitative changes in farming. The agricultural technology in the region and in the country remained at the unsatisfactory level.



17.
IN SEARCH OF FORMS OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SOCIALIST PRODUCTION: LABOR RATE SETTING OF PIECE-WORKERS IN THE ALTAI TERRITORY INDUSTRY IN THE 1940s - 1980s

K.P. Pribytkova
Altai State University, 61, Lenin Str., Barnaul, 656049, Russia
Keywords: labor motivation, industry, Altai region, microhistory

Abstract >>
Using a microhistorical approach the article examines the process of labor rate setting and the mechanism of its toughening in the industry of Altai region in 1940s- 1980s as an aspect of the industrial labor motivation problem in the Soviet Union, which analysis is closely related to discussions about causes of the Soviet socialism model crisis and collapse. A methodological approach established in the modern historical science is used, it proposes to distinguish three groups of work incentives: coercion, compensation and commitment. They are also different due to the motivation purpose: incentives to attract employees to an enterprise, and incentives promoting productive and intensive labor. The state of rationing is a factor determining the piecework system effectiveness as a compensatory (financial) incentive to increase productivity, and the mechanism of standards toughening is an independent way of employees’ labor coercive intensifications. The paper analyzes large engineering enterprises created on the basis of Kharkov and Stalingrad tractor plants in the early1940s after their evacuation: Altai Tractor Plant (ATP) in Rubtsovsk and Transport Engineering Plant («Transmash») in Barnaul. The article describes the state policy evolution on the matter of labor rationing, shows decreasing a coercive component in the mechanism for raising standards, which occurred simultaneously with the transferring the regulation control to the plant administration in the second half of the 1950s. The author has reconstructed the actions by masters and foremen of the selected plants and analyzed the dynamics of performing norms by piece-workers, which led to the conclusion about underestimated labor norms in the plants, a widespread practice of additions to the workers’ real production and a general lack of demands to toughen norms by plant managers as a motivation tool due to the need to provide a guaranteed level of workers’ income under conditions of a high staff turnover typical for the analyzed period.



18.
THE “VIRGIN PROJECT” OF 1954 IN THE AGRARIAN HISTORY OF SIBERIA AND KAZAKHSTAN

S.N. Andreenkov
Institute of history of SB RAS, 8, Nikolaev Str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
Keywords: grain production, “Virgin project” of 1954, developing virgin and fallow lands, agriculture, Kazakhstan, Siberia, N.S. Khrushchev

Abstract >>
The study objective is to compare prerequisites, course and consequences of implementing the “Virgin project” in 1954 in Kazakhstan and Siberia. The article main tasks are the following: to analyze the prehistory of large-scale development of virgin and fallow lands, to determine features of adopting and realizing the virgin program, to identify and assess short-, medium- and long-term consequences of this action for the grain economy of studied regions. The work is based on the documents collections of the federal archives, data of archival and published statistics of the USSR, the Russian Federation and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The research findings are that the idea of mass development of virgin and fallow lands at the USSR east, which was actively promoted by N.S. Khrushchev in 1953, was not new and perceived with skepticism in the regions. It was treated with doubt in the Kazakh SSR, where it was planned to explore the largest areas of virgin lands. However, the “Virgin project” was supported by the West Siberian regions, and its implementation began. The development of virgin and fallow lands turned into a large-scale national economic-political action with significant consequences. Short-term results of the campaign were impressive. Quantitative indicators of developing the virgin land cultivation were quite high, but this could not be said about its qualitative characteristics, which were extremely important for consolidating the achieved successes. Therefore, in the medium term, the mobilization development of virgin and fallow lands did not ensure the non-recessionary development of agriculture. The long-term consequences of the action had the following specificity. Thanks to the virgin campaign, Kazakhstan has become a major supplier of bread to the all-Union food fund, and after the USSR collapse - into a significant grain exporter. There was a different situation in Siberia, in the long term perspective the virgin land gave it less than to Kazakhstan.



19.
HISTORY OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK INSTITUTE OF RADIOPHYSICS AND ELECTRONICS (1957-1964)

N.A. Kupershtokh1, I.A. Kraineva2
1Institute of History SB RAS, 8, Acad. Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 6300090, Russia
2A.P. Ershov Institute of Informatics Systems SB RAS, 6, Acad. Lavrentiev Av., Novosibirsk, 6300090, Russia
Keywords: Russian Academy of Sciences, West Siberian Branch, Siberian Branch, Department of Technical Physics, Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, Professor G.V. Krivoshchekov, Professor Yu. B. Rumer

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The paper reconstructs the history of the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics of Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk in 1957-1964. The formation of the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics dates back to the mid-1940s, when a sector, and later a department, of Technical Physics in the structure of the West Siberian Branch (WSB) of the USSR Academy of Sciences led by Prof. G.V. Krivoshchekov was organized. The Department was focused on solving the problems of the rapidly growing industrial potential of Siberia. Yu. B. Rumer, an outstanding theoretical physicist, who moved to Novosibirsk in 1950, contributed greatly to the development of physics fundamental research. In 1957, the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics was created as a part of WSB. Yu. B. Rumer was its director from 1957 to1964. It is concluded that after organizing the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences the growth rate of the personnel potential of the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics increased substantially and important results were obtained in a number of academic fields. The resource base of the Institute became much stronger, and new equipment was purchased. At the same time, a complex of subjective and objective factors caused the Institute reorganization in 1964. The paper shows the research potential significance of the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics for the further development of scientific fields in institutions of the Siberian Branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences and other research centers. Despite the fact that the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics had existed only for seven years, it left a notable mark in the history of the Russian academic science. The scientists of the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics were the founders of new scientific trends, they obtained world-class results and were awarded prestigious prizes and tributes. Further studies are required to find out, whether there was an opportunity to preserve the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics as an independent institution.



20.
MUSEUMS-RESERVES OF SIBERIA: THE EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE ÑULTURAL HERITAGE DEVELOPMENT

O.N. Shelegina
Istitute of History SB RAS, 8, Ak. Nikolaeva Str., Novosibirsk, 6300090, Russia
Keywords: Siberia, museum-reserves, archaeological, ethnic and cultural heritage, development of heritage, intangible heritage actualization, region geobrending

Abstract >>
An increased attention of foreign and Russian scientists to current status, problems, and development prospects of the museum-reserves has been observed. Its evidence is reflected in intensified scientific reflection, organizing relevant research-practical conferences. It is noted, that a system of open-air museum models offered by M.E. Kaulen should be considered as a theoretical background for the museum-reserves up-to-date classification. The article summarizes study results of Siberian museum-reserves in the 2nd decade of the XXI century in the Russian and world historiography. A.Yu. Maynicheva has revealed features of forming and functioning of this museum group focused on the Historical-Architectural Open-Air Museum-Reserve of the Institute of History and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. V.A. Kaplunov has offered a concept (disputed by the authors of this article) of a complex museum-reserve based on an archeological monument as a modern museum type. L.V. Eremin has defined and characterized the museumification processes based on founding the museum-reserves in especially protected territories of the historical-cultural significance in republics of South Siberia. T.S. Kuryanova and P.V. Glushkova have carried on research devoted to the heritage problematics including analysis of open-air museums and museums-reserves activities. Systematization of the current Siberian museum-reserves in accordance with the profile (archeological, historical-architectural, memorial, ethnographical ones) has been implemented; the algorithm and perspectives for their development (foundation of a landscape museum-reserve, museumification of the Russian Orthodox Church heritage in Biysk and tourist destinations in Kemerovo region) have been specified. A role of museum-reserves in the development of the Siberian population’s cultural heritage and regional geobranding has been determined.