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2016 year, number 1

1.
From the Alternating-Sign Explosion Response of Rocks to the Pendulum Waves in Stressed Geomedia. Part IV

V. V. ADUSHKIN1, V. N. OPARIN2,3
1Institute of Geosphere Dynamics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 38, Moscow, 119334 Russia
2Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
3Novosibirsk Sate University, ul. Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Keywords: nonlinear geomechanical and geophysical processes, rock failure, natural and induced disasters, source zones, multi-layer geoinformation monitoring systems, prediction and prevention, geoecology, high-priority basic and applied research and engineering

Abstract >>
The scope of this expert and analytical review encompasses major achievements in the area of nonlinear geomechanics, geophysics, geomonitoring and advanced information technologies with a view to developing the natural and induced emergency prevention and response technology listed among the “national critical technologies” in the Russian Federation. The topical trends of the related R&D activities are basic research in physics and geomechanics of natural and induced failure source formation and growth in rocks and in mines, and creation of multi-layer geoinformation monitoring system for geomechanical and geodynamic safety in Russia. The authors believe that the described R&D activities may be the basis for an international multidisciplinary mega-project in geosciences: Engineering and Creation of the World’s Multi-Layer Geomechanical, Geodynamic and Environmental Safety Geoinformation Monitoring System.



2.
Theoretical Explanation of Conditions for Sinkholes after Emergency Flooding of Potash Mines

A. A. BARYAKH, S. YU. DEVYATKOV, N. A. SAMODELKINA
Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: затопление рудника, растворение пород, провалы, математическое моделирование, разрушение, mine flooding, dissolution of rocks, sinkholes, mathematical modeling, failure

Abstract >>
The authors discuss conditions for sinkholes at ground surface after the active phase of potash mine flooding has been completed. The mathematical modeling shows that interconnected signs of sinkholing are localization of subsidence in a comparatively small area, high gradients of subsidence at the boundaries of this area and occurrence of a solution cavity to accommodate the caved volume. The research findings are promising in terms of adequate space-time prediction of dynamic failure of strata above flooded mines.



3.
Mechanism of Generation of Peak Load on Under-Bin Feeders at Processing Plants

YU. A. VINOGRADOV1, V. E. ASMING1, E. O. KREMENETSKAYA1, D. V. ZHIROV2
1Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 14, Apatity, 184209 Russia
2Geological Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Fersmana 14, Apatity, 184209 Russia
Keywords: техногенная сейсмичность, сейсмическое событие, землетрясение, взрыв, горный удар, induced seismicity, seismic event, earthquake, blast, rockburst

Abstract >>
The Murmansk Region in the northeastern Baltic Shield has been for long assumed as aseismic. Initiated in the 1950s, the regular instrumental seismological studies allow new data on the essential increment in seismicity, demonstrated in the maps of the general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia (OSR-97). Powerful mining industry in the Murmansk Region also induces many seismic events. This article analyzes natural and induced seismicity and their cross-effect.



4.
Elastoplastic Problem for Various Cross-Section Tunnels on the Assumption of Coulomb’s Limit Equilibrium

A. G. PROTOSENYA, M. A. KARASEV, N. A. BELYAKOV
National Mineral Resources University-Mining University, V.O. 21-aya liniya 2, Saint-Petersburg, 199026 Russia
Keywords: упруго-пластическая задача, условие Кулона, выработка, напряжение, зона предельного состояния, elastoplastic problem, Coulomb’s condition, tunnel, stress, critical state zone

Abstract >>
An elastoplastic problem is considered for elliptical, arched, square and polygonal cross-section tunnels on the assumption of Coulomb’s limit equilibrium and varied lateral earth pressure coefficients in intact rock mass. The problem is solved using the method of small parameters and the finite element method. The elastoplastic solutions are obtained for mutually influencing tunnels. The mechanisms of concentration of vertical stresses in a pillar established between mutually influencing tunnels are determined.



5.
Effect of Contact Conditions on Estimates of Critical Parameters, Elastic Moduli and Failure of Rock Specimens under Compression

YU. A. KOSTANDOV
Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, pr. Akademika Vernadskogo 4, Simferopol, 295007 Russia
Keywords: сжатие, разрушение, коэффициент контактного трения, параметры предельного состояния, контактные поверхности, зона полного контакта, зона проскальзывания, compression, failure, contact friction coefficient, critical state parameters, contact surface, full contact zone, slide zone

Abstract >>
The study is devoted to effect of contact friction on failure, ultimate stress and moduli of elasticity in rock specimens under compression. It is found that dependence of the listed characteristics on friction coefficient is incremental. The author reveals zones of full contact and slide.



6.
Generation of Methane Absorption due to Relaxation of Molecular Structure of Coal

A. F. BULAT, S. P. MINEEV, A. A. PRUSOVA
Polyakov Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, ul. Simferopolskaya 2a, Dnepropetrovsk, 49005 Ukraine
Keywords: угольный пласт, трансформация молекулярной структуры угля, релаксация, сорбированный метан, массоперенос, объем метана, coal bed, transformation of molecular structure of coal, relaxation, methane absorption, mass transfer, methane volume

Abstract >>
Transformation of the molecular structure of coal under long-term effect of confining pressure due to strain relaxation is estimated numerically. It is found that both under dynamic deformation, as has been determined earlier, and under relaxation of molecular structure of coal, atoms of methyl group and hydrogen remove from aliphatic fringe, join together and form molecules of methane. It is shown that these molecules immediately form sorbing-based connection with coal. Volumes of methane absorption generated in coal due to strain relaxation of the molecular structure of coal are calculated.



7.
Efficiency of Cyclical-and-Continuous Method in Open Pit Mining

V. L. YAKOVLEV, G. D. KARMAEV, V. A. BERSENEV, A. V. GLEBOV, A. V. SEMENKIN, I. G. SUMINA
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Mamina-Sibiryaka 58, Ekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
Keywords: циклично-поточная технология, дробильно-конвейерный комплекс, автомобильно-конвейерный транспорт, дробильно-перегрузочный пункт, удельные затраты, cyclical-and-continuous method, crush-and-conveyor unit, conveyor-and-truck haulage, crush-and-reload station, specific cost

Abstract >>
The article reviews in brief application of cyclical-and-continuous method in the conveyor-and-truck haulage in open pit mines. Consumption of materials and power is evaluated as a function of mined rock haulage volumes and depth of crush-and-reload station position in an open pit mine. The change in capital and operational cost to transport ore and hard overburden is studied at varied distances from a crush-and-reload station in open pit to a surface receiving station. Efficiency of the conveyor-and-truck haulage using cyclical-and-continuous method is evaluated. In terms of deep and large mineral deposits, the authors substantiate positions for crush-and-reload stations in large open pit mines.



8.
Predictive Analysis of Slope Stability of Internal Dumps in Tamnava-West Field Mine after Flooding

B. PETROVIC1, S. VUJIC2, V. CEBASEK3, G. GAJIC3, D. IGNJATOVIC3
1Elektroprivreda Srbije, Kolubara Mining Basin, Lazarevac, Serbia
2Mining Institute of Belgrade, Batajnicki put 2, Belgrade, 11080 Serbia
3University of Belgrade, Studentski trg, 1, Belgrade, 11000 Serbia
Keywords: разрез, внутренний отвал, устойчивость откосов, геостатический анализ, open pit mine, internal dump, slope stability, geostatic analysis

Abstract >>
The article reports the results of estimation of internal dump slope stability in flooded open pit coal mine Tamnava-West Field. The geostatic analysis of stability used methods by Bishop and Morgenstern-Price. The studies confirm that slopes of internal dump are sufficiently stable and sustain stability after drainage of the open pit.



9.
Prospects for Underground Leaching in Gold Mines

A. G. SEKISOV, YU. S. SHEVCHENKO, A. YU. LAVROV
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Aleksandro-zavodksaya 30, Chita, 672032, Russia
Keywords: шахтное выщелачивание, дисперсное золото, взрывоинъекционная подготовка, микроструктурная трансформация руд, undergound mine leaching, dispersed gold, explosive gas injection, microstructural transformation

Abstract >>
The authors describe experiments on pretreatment of ore by injection of explosive gases before underground leaching of gold in mine conditions. It is shown that injection of explosive gases into opening micro-fractures enhanced efficiency of underground leaching owing to microstructural transformation of ore containing dispersed gold.



10.
Prospects for Directional Drilling in Hard Rocks

A. S. KONDRATENKO, V. V. TIMONIN, A. V. PATUTIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: ударное вращательное бурение, гидроударник, траектория скважины, бестраншейные технологии, percussion-rotary drilling, hydraulic hammer, borehole trajectory, trenchless technology

Abstract >>
The study is focused on the existing methods of long directional borehole drilling in hard rocks in high-viscous oil and natural bitumen field development. The authors suggest improving the hard rock mass drilling process by combining percussion-rotary drilling and positioning systems.



11.
Ring-Type Elastic Valve Operation in Air Hammer Drive

A. M. PETREEV, A. YU. PRIMYCHKIN
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
Keywords: пневмоударная машина, упругий клапан, расчетная схема, клапанная щель, среднее давление, air hammer, elastic valve, design model, valve clearance, average pressure

Abstract >>
The article describes bench tests and calculations aimed to determining effect of parameters of ring-type elastic valve on variation of average pressure in the valve clearance. The results allow refinement of the design model of ring-type elastic valve and correction of the elastic ring cross-section based on the determined mechanisms.



12.
Engineering and Analysis of Independent Mobile Compression-Vacuum Percussion Source of P-Waves in Seismic Survey

A. A. REPIN1, A. K. TKACHUK1, V. N. KARPOV1, V. N. BELOBORODOV1, A. G. YAROSLAVTSEV2, A. A. ZHIKIN2
1Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnyi pr. 54, Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
2Mining Institute, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Sibirskaya 78a, Perm, 614007 Russia
Keywords: источник упругих колебаний, малоглубинная сейсморазведка, ударная машина, elastic vibration source, shallow-depth seismic survey, percussion machine

Abstract >>
The experience of engineering a small mobile compression-vacuum machine for seismic prospecting at shallow depths of 100-150 m is described. It is shown that percussion sources are preferable for shallow-depth seismic survey. The article reports laboratory and field testing data. The authors identify ways of further improvement of this class machines.



13.
Improvement of Cutting Tool to Enhance Performance of Heading Machines in Rocks

S. A. PROKOPENKO1,2, V. S. LUDZISH2, I. A. KURZINA3
1Tomsk Polytechnic University, pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk, 654059 Russia
2VostNII Science Center, ul. Institutskaya 3, Kemerovo, 650002 Russia
3Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Keywords: шахтный комбайн, резец, конструкция, эффективность, износ, прочность, массив, режущий диск, mine heading machine, cutter, design, efficiency, wear, strength, rock mass, cutting wheel

Abstract >>
The determinants are found and the matrix is developed for rate of wear of heading machine cutting tool. Influence of rock strength on active life of heading machines is assessed. The authors describe field studies into the nature and rate of wear of cutters. The design of multiuse tangential revolving cutter of prolonged operating life is engineered and trialed. It is proposed to enhance rock cutting efficiency using a tool with a cutting wheel.



14.
Chemical Aspects of Manganese Removal from Mine Water at Copper-Sulfide Deposits

V. A. CHANTURIA1, N. L. MEDYANIK2, I. V. SHADRUNOVA1, O. A. MISHURINA2
1Institute of Integrated Mineral Development-IPKON, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kryukovskii tupik 4, Moscow, 111020 Russia
2Nosov Magnitogorsk State Technical University, pr. Lenina 38, Magnitogorsk, 455000, Russia
Keywords: марганец, электрохимическое окисление, электрокоагуляционное осаждение, активные формы хлорсодержащих соединений, электрофлотационное извлечение, параметры процесса, manganese, electrochemical oxidation, electric coagulation deposition, active forms of chloride-containing compounds, electric flotation, process parameters

Abstract >>
The key mechanisms of selective recovery of manganese ions from mine water by combination of chemical and electrochemical methods are studied. The authors present the efficient parameters of oxidation deposition of ions Mn2+ in electrolysis solutions of active chlorine forms generated in chloride-containing solutions under electric treatment and subsequent removal of dispersed phase manganese from the solutions. The mechanism of generation of dispersed phase manganese by electric treatment of acid mine water at copper-sulfide deposits is offered



15.
Effect of Fine Slime on the Choice of Columbium Ore Pretreatment Flowsheets

G. I. GAZALEEVA1, E. V. BRATYGIN1, I. A. VLASOV1, S. V. MAMONOV1, A. A. ROGOZHIN2, A. V. KURKOV2
1Uralmekhanobr Research and Design Institute for Mineral Dressing and Mechanical Conversion, ul. Khokhryakova 87, Ekaterinburg, 620144 Russia
2Fedorovsky All-Russian Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials, Staromonetnyi per. 31, Moscow, 119017 Russia
Keywords: cтепень ошламования, лазерный гранулометр, рудоподготовка, критерий селективности, ниобиевая руда, измельчение, грохочение, технологическая схема, slime formation rate, laser granulometer, ore pretreatment, selectivity criterion, columbium ore, milling, screening, flowsheet

Abstract >>
The article presents studies of slime formation in processing of Vishnevogorsk columbium ore. The slime formation criterion is assumed as the presence of size grades less than 50 and 5 µm estimated from modern laser granulometer data. The optimal methods and equipment for grinding are chosen depending on rate of slime formation in final products. The studies use centrifugal and rod mills. The rod mill assures the lowest rate of slime formation. Based on the experimental results, the columbium ore pretreatment flowsheet and special ore disintegration methods have been selected. The flowsheet uses crushing machines ensuring the highest rate selectivity-inertia cone crusher and the lowest rate slime formation during milling-rod mill.



16.
Water Emulsions of Dibutyl Xanthate and Their Interaction with the Surface of Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite and Silicon Dioxide

A. A. KARACHAROV, M. N. LIKHATSKII, YU. L. MIKHLIN
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50, Bld. 24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: aлотация, дибутилдиксантоген, микроэмульсия, адсорбция, атомно-силовая спектроскопия, динамическое рассеяние света, дзета-потенциал, капиллярные силы, газовые нанопузыри, flotation, dibutyl xanthate, micro-emulsion, adsorption, atomic-force microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, capillary forces, gas nano-bubbles

Abstract >>
Water micro-emulsions of dibutyl xanthate as an active compound of commercial manufacture flotation agent are produced and analyzed using the methods of dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements. It is found that the typical hydrodynamic diameter of xanthate drops is of the order of 300 nm and their zeta potentials are negative. The effect exerted on properties of hydrophobic (pyrolytic graphite) and hydrophilic (silicon dioxide) surfaces by pretreatment with the micro-emulsions is examined using the atomic-force microscopy method and colloid probe (SiO2 micro-sphere). The long-range high-amplitude attraction forces, probably of capillary nature, are revealed between the probe and surfaces after the contact with dixanthate for 1 min. It is supposed that these forces are conditioned by the action of gas nano-structures (nano-bubbles, nano-cavities, etc.) initiated on the surface rendered hydrophobic by dixanthate.



17.
Effect of Pseudomonas Japonica Bacteria on Selection of Sulfides

N. K. ALGEBRAISTOVA1, A. V. RAZVYAZNAYA1, M. I. TEREMOVA2, E. V. MAZUROVA3
1Siberian Federal University, pr. Svobodnyi 97, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
2International Research Center for Extreme Body States, Krasnoyarsk Science Center Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50/12, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
3Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Akademgorodok 50, Bld. 24, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Keywords: cульфиды, халькопирит, молибденит, ксантогенат, микроорганизмы, культуры бактерий, бактериальная обработка, растровая электронная микроскопия, инфракрасная микроскопия, sulfides, chalcopyrite, molybdenite, xanthate, microorganisms, bacteria, bacterial treatment, scanning electron microscopy, infrared microscopy

Abstract >>
The industrial-level tests prove efficiency of Pseudomonas Japonica bacteria in production of copper-molybdenum bulk concentrate. Using scanning electron microscopy, it is found that adsorption of Pseudomonas Japonica bacteria takes place at the points of xanthate attachment. The infrared spectroscopy analysis shows that after treatment with the bacteria, C-O and C=S bonds vanish while valence and deformation vibrations in СН3- and CH2 groups become less intensive, which may be reflective of desorption of xanthate from the mineral surface.



18.
Enhancement of Low-Grade Scheelite Ore Processing Efficiency

E. D. SHEPETA1, L. A. SAMATOVA1, I. V. ALUSHKIN2, V. B. SHCHIPCHIN2, I. G. KORNEEV2
1Institute of Mining, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Turgeneva 51, Khabarovsk, 680000 Russia
2Trane Technik, ul. Severnaya 5, Elektrostal, 144006 Russia
Keywords: забалансовая шеелитовая руда, обогащенный продукт сепарации, несортируемый класс исходной руды -6 +0 мм, шихта, non-commercial scheelite ore, separation concentrates, -6 +0 mm original ore screenings (non-gradable size), charge material

Abstract >>
In focus of the study are the results obtained in flotation testing of products of X-ray absorption separation that enhances 4-5 times WO3 content of feed for the next flotation stage. The authors estimate feasibility of reducing yield of original ore screenings (non-gradable size) -6 +0 mm and its gravity concentration.