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Philosophy of Sciences

2014 year, number 3

1.
History and philosophy of science as an object of metatheoretical analysis

A. P. Fedyaev
Kazan State Medical University, Kazan
Keywords: history of science, growth of scientific knowledge, the future of science

Abstract >>
The paper presents a new periodization of the development of science. The antique science is regarded as a starting point (thesis) in the formation of the modern natural science. The classic stage in the development of science is treated as its opposite (antithesis). The future science is considered to be a special synthesis of antique and modern concepts. Also, the paper develops a method of controllable growth of scientific knowledge which makes possible to foresee main features of science in the future.



2.
Historical aspects of the development of the decision theory

A. V. Kostikova
Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd
Keywords: theory, decision, risk, tools

Abstract >>
The paper considers the background and the main stages in the development of the decision theory as a scientific discipline which is principally significant for the evolution of the modern civilization. We show that the development of tools of the decision theory (depending on tasks and interpretation of methods and versions of their decision) makes possible to solve problems concerning decision making under uncertainty and risk, to develop principles of arrangement of activities of decision-makers, to work out practical advices for executive bodies, and to use technical aids and automated control systems.



3.
Prior intentions and the problem of wayward causation

S. M. Levin
National research university higher school of Economics, St. Petersburg
Keywords: theory of action, free will, moral responsibility

Abstract >>
For any compatibilist theory of free will basing on the naturalistic worldview, it is difficult to reconcile propositional content of intentions with their specific causal implementation. We often fulfill our prior intentions in an absolutely unexpected way; nevertheless, they result in desired consequences. Then, there arises a question whether we should treat such an action as an accidental or intentional one. To answer this question the paper uses John Searles taxonomy of action and considers how a description of phenomenology of action may differ from a description of its real causes. We show why cases of wayward causation are relevant just for our prior intentions and are of no significance in situations when our action is an effect of our immediate intention.



4.
The Implementation of Unification Ideas in the Development of General Relativity

E. A. Bezlepkin, A. Y. Storozhuk
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: the unification in physics, general relativity

Abstract >>
We may consider the process of unification which takes place in the development of the theory in the aspect of different generality levels. The initial level is that of concepts; basic concepts of space, time and matter are analyzed and transformed at this level. Then, at the level of presumptions there form main principles making up a hard core of the program. At the functional level, the theory formalizes. The development of the theory results in a large-scale unification of approaches, universalization of principles, and generalization of concepts.



5.
General vision of physics: to the posing of problems

A. L. Simanov
Institute of philosophy and law SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: philosophy, physics, theory, the formation

Abstract >>
Possibly whether and is necessary whether today idea and perception of physics as the integral, united system of theories, which lies at the base of all natural sciences? Yes, but for this, in the opinion author, it is necessary to change system and procedure of physical formation by beginning from the school and by continuing in the graduate study.



6.
The structure of biological diversity

A. A. Pozdnyakov
Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: Biodiversity, repeatability, similarity, Willis rule, self-similarity, fractal, explanation, Cartesianism, Newtonianism

Abstract >>
The paper describes two ways used to explain the order in biological diversity: the Cartesian and Newtonian ones. The order in biodiversity shows itself by repeatability of phenomena: similarity of taxa series (recorded in periodic tables), mimicry, cryptic species, similarity of taxa morphological variability (reflected in Vavilovs law of homologous series), and parallelism of individual traits. Ratio of the number of taxa and their volume is represented by a concave curve (Willis rule). Self-similarity is a characteristic feature of biodiversity. We show that solving the problem of the structure of biodiversity in compliance with scientific standards is possible only by the use of the Newtonian approach.



7.
Revolution in Mathematics? What Really Happened a Century Ago and Why It Matters Today

F. A. Quinn
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Keywords: philosophy, revolution, mathematics, methodology, logic, definition, proof, education

Abstract >>
The basic purpose of article - to show that in the consequences of revolution in mathematics were allowed the sad consequences in the mathematical formation and marginalization of the core of mathematics. Reasonable measures, in the case of the recognition of disease, can make it possible to get rid of these consequences.



8.
An essential unity of the spiritual and the material in Galens theoretical and practical system. Part I

D. A. Balalykin
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow
Keywords: history of science, history of medicine, ancient natural science, the spiritual and the physical, substantial unity, Galen

Abstract >>
By analyzing Galen’s «Quod animi mores corporis temperamenta sequantur» we study his views on the nature of human soul and the relation of the spiritual and the physical in a human body. The Roman physician thinks over a practical importance of one or another soul property for physical health. When reasoning, Galen rejects the opinion that an eternal soul stays in an inconstant body accidentally for it results in separation of spiritual and material essences which is inadmissible. He bases his analysis on the principles of the rational knowledge and intentionally limits his statements only to empirically proven facts. This work by Galen helps to grasp his theoretical and practical system.