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Region: Economics and Sociology

2014 year, number 1

Chief-Editor's Note

Viacheslav Seliverstov
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering (IEIE) SB RAS, Novosibirsk

Labour Productivity Dynamics: Regional Aspects

Nadezhda Mikheyeva
Council for the Study of Productive Forces, Moscow
Keywords: labour productivity, regions, economic growth, wage, spatial proportions, structural shifs, regional employment, regional differentiation

Abstract >>
The paper considers the techniques for measuring and assessing regional labour productivity and its dynamics and differences. It compares the results obtained by applying the different techniques, and can state that the trends identified according to different methods, display a little difference. Only the indicator of a real labour productivity compared to wage shows a higher difference and results in higher ratings of the regions where wages are relatively low. A high share of extractive industries in regions is a key factor of a high labour productivity. The labour productivity and its dynamics show a strong sectoral difference. The growth of a total labour productivity in regions can be explained by the increased efficiencies but not by relocation of production and labour forces to the regions with higher indicators of efficiency.

Comparative Assessment of Labour Potential in the North Regions of Russia

Larisa Popova, Marina Terentyeva
Institute of Socio-Economic and Energy Problems of the North, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch RAS, Syktyvkar
Keywords: North, labour potential, the integral index of the labour potential, partial indices of the labour potential, northern regions

Abstract >>
The paper proposes a methodical approach to the quantitative-qualitative evaluation of labour potential in regions. The authors performed a comparative analysis of the labour potential dynamics in the Russian northern regions over 2002-2010. As our analysis show, the working life span close to the maximal level, employment index and level of professional education of the employed population are key factors of the integral labour potential index for both Russia and the Russian North. However, the GRP per capita indices and capital-labour ratios, which displayed a many times increase over the time between last and previous censuses, make the most significant contribution to positive dynamics of the labour potential index in the context of the economic growth in 2002-2010.

Economic Development Threats in Subjects of the Russian Federation

Sergey Kazantsev1,2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering (IEIE) SB RAS, Novosibirsk
2Principal Researcher, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow
Keywords: economic security, threats, regions, depopulation, orientation of the national economy on export of natural resources, defense industry complex

Abstract >>
The author analyzes a nature and causes of the endogenous threats Russia and its regions can face in their economic development. Possible consequences of a modern type of the Russian development are shown. They are depopulation in the Russian Federation subjects, the national economy orientated on export of raw materials and a possible imbalanced ratio of the civil sectors to military ones.

Regional Spatially-Neutral and Local Target Focused Policies: Issues of Choice

Larisa Melnikova
IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: regional policy, regional differentiation, new economic geography, endogenous growth

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes modern principles of regional policy and whether they are applicable to the Russian economy. We consider, on the one hand, the principles of the World Bank policy based on a spatially neutral approach to choosing measures of regional policy, and, on the other hand, the EU policy which is focused on local targets and insists on a necessity of differentiated regional incentives. The arguments of both approaches are based on the different concepts, i.e. the theory of the new economic geography and theory of endogenous growth.

Images of Siberia: Economy from the Historical Point of View

Victor Suslov
IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: mega-region Siberia, development, colonial produce, export of financial resources, Moscow-Siberia Route, transcontinental route, special economic zone of the tourist and recreation type

Abstract >>
The paper describes the specifics of Siberia as a mega-region with a focus on its three images - as the Russian colony, trade and transportation route, and tourist zone; how Russia differs from other colonial countries; what role Siberia play in the fight for land and see routes of the world trade; and what the World Heritage List of Sites, UNESCO and special economic zones could bring to the development of the Siberian tourist and recreation potential. Other images of Russia are also described: Russia as a resource stockpot, innovation generator, and homeland.

The Siberian Federal District within the Current Russian Economy

Yury Yershov
IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: regional economy, comparative dynamics of the macro-economic indicators, spatial structure of the economic sectors, intergovernmental relations

Abstract >>
The paper compares indicators of the SFD economic development with those concerning Russia in whole. It shows major qualitative differences of the dynamics in this region over the initial and next periods of the economic reforms; key factors of the negative development trends in the region; and their specifics in the 1990-s and beginning of the current century. Our main conclusion is that not so many the positive changes in the role the District played in recent years can be observed and the District shows a relatively stable position within Russian economy. Moreover, the time of radical changes of the spatial production and consumption indicators is over for the most part, and there are no signs of the stable and especially radical spatial proportions which would allow the suggestion that the SFD started reinstating its positions it had lost in the past.

Regional Policy of a Subject of the Russian Federation: Problems of Its Elaboration and Implementation

Asiya Marshalova, Alexander Novoselov
IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: RF subject, regional economic policy, regional development administration, competitiveness, cluster approach

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the methodological approaches to choosing principles, forms, and methods of regional policies pursued by the RF subjects, as well as major objectives, structure and content of such policies. The paper also analyzes the preconditions and limits of the regional socio-economic development, which impact on competitiveness of the regions, and instruments of regional policy, which perform distributive, regulative, and stimulating functions. The authors present their recommendations on building indicators, including an integrated one, which would show how effective the regional development administration is. The application of a cluster approach to realize the competitive advantages of regions is considered necessary. Two types of regional clusters are specified. How effective the elaboration and implementation of regional policy could be depends on such factors as the involvement of local communities in these processes and monitoring of the socio-economic processes.

Social Mapping as a Tool to Enhance Public Participation

Nadezhda Vavilina1, Irina Skalaban2
1New Siberian Institute, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
Keywords: public participation, social inclusion, participatory social mapping, local community, rural settlement

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes perspectives, strategies, and procedures of participatory social mapping to diagnose and encourage public participation in local corn-munities' development. It shows that involving local people in mapping as experts could allow producing not only empirical data concerning the nature of territorial identity, territorial interests and public participation, but also building «zones of agreement» and residents' involvement in their communities' development. We describe residents' involvement in mapping taken place in the rural communities of the Novosibirsk oblast.

Transformations of Demographic Processes in Yakutia

Alexander Pakhomov1, Tatyana Mostakhova2
1Department of Regional Economic and Social Studies, Yakutsk Research Center, SB RAS, Yakutsk
2Division, Department of Nortern Affairs, Sakha Republic, Yakutsk
Keywords: Yakutia, demographic indicators, transformation, birth rate, death rate, marital relations, migration, trends

Abstract >>
Our analysis of the population reproduction transformations observed in Yakutia shows that sources of the population changed. The natural population growth in the region does not balance the outward migration flows, and depopulation could be regarded as a current trend of the regional demographic development. The aggregate and crude birth rates are still high. Despite the rise in births over the previous decade, the population replacement has been observed. The high indicators of bastardy are still characteristic and this displays the existence of new forms of matrimonial behavior in the region. The number of deaths in the region still remains high whereas the expected lifespan is low. The transformations observed take place due to positive dynamics of infant mortality. In recent years a coefficient of outward migration flow dropped but it is twice as much in the region than in the Far East District in whole.

How the Quality of Urban Environment and Level of Higher Education Impact on University Enrollees' Choice

Vladimir Kryukov
Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, Vladivostok
Keywords: university, educational level, quality of life, the talents, knowledge, rating, university enrollee, knowledge zone, infrastructure, economy

Abstract >>
The paper presents a list of the Russian cities with the high number of higher education institutions, the analysis of quality of life in the cities chosen, and composite city rating according to the young people's attractiveness when they chose where to continue their education. The analysis show that Moscow, according to its high rank, is still the most attractive city to the young people despite high cost of living there, expensive housing, and social misbalances. Only several urban agglomerations between Moscow and Novosibirsk may stand against Moscow in fight for the talents.

Regional Fiscal Policy in the Context of Russian Fiscal Federalism

Anna Kireyenko, Yelena Orlova
Baikalsk State University of Economics and Law, Irkutsk
Keywords: Siberian Federal District, regional policy, fiscal policy, tax control, tax advantages, fiscal efficiency

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes how fiscal policy could be set at the regional level and how tax regulation and tax control could be realized. The study bases on comparison of the regional tax statistics data and indicators. To characterize a regional fiscal policy, we present a comparative analysis of efficiency of tax advantages, tax burdens, tax arrears, tax office expenditures, and direct and reverse financial flows in the SFD regions. We show that regional results of the tax control depend not only on regional differentiation, but also reflect the policy pursued by the RF subjects, and there are three types of fiscal policies pursued by the different regions.

Innovation Market in Siberia: Limits and Capacities

Galina Untura1,2
1IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State National Research University
Keywords: Siberia, science, education, technologies, investments, innovations, technological platforms, clusters, regional branches of the RAS

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the contradictory features of the Siberian development which do not fully reflect what Siberia contributes to the growth of the country's economy. We consider several investment preconditions which would allow new industrialization in Siberia and the Far East, and what our science and innovations could contribute to the SFD regional development. We describe how regional branches of the RAS could be involved in scientific supervising a number of technological platforms and clusters to enhance the development of the new and traditional sectors in the eastern regions of the country and how the existed and potential forms of regional branches of the RAS could cooperate with other participants of innovation activities for this purpose.

Federal Fiscal Policy for Siberian Regions

Boris Lavrovsky1, Yekaterina Goryushkina2, Igor Murzov3
1Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
2Novosibirsk State National Research University, Novosibirsk
3IEIE, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: regions of the Siberian Federal District, taxes, federal budget, revenues, expenditures, compensation-free transfers, consolidated regional budget

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes Russian fiscal policy toward Siberian regions. The assessment of efficiency of intergovernmental relations set in the spirit of fiscal federalism, in the author's opinion, should be connected, first of all, with a balance between fiscal revenues and expenditures in regions. It is a matter of correlation of the demand for fiscal expenditures in time and opportunities to meet them by tax and non-tax revenues located in regions (without external resources). In general the SFD showed a good balance of regional demand and local resources to meet them except the recession years. The District could be considered as a self-sufficient region which can maintain its balance, although extremely vulnerable, of the regional revenues and spending. The opportunities to cover the demands by their own revenues significantly differ in the different regions, and a lack of own revenues is reimbursed through outer support. The question is a scope of such support to regions since any centralized support should take into account what appropriate share the region contributes to the total revenues of the country. To what degree our current fiscal policy meets these conditions is in focus of this paper. Our conclusions are: fiscal capacities of region-outsiders could not be less than their contributions to the total revenues of the country; and region-leaders' contributions could not be an upper limit of their fiscal capacities due to the social and political requirements.

Fires in Siberian Boreal Forests: Causes and Impacts

Yury Samsonov1, Galina Ivanova2
1V.V. Voevodsky Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
2V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, SB RAS, Novosibirsk
Keywords: forest resources, combustion of the forest biomass, forest fire, smoke emission, weather and climate changes, ecologic and economic damage from fires

Abstract >>
The authors carried out more than thirty simulative fire experiments in the forests of Krasnoyarsk Krai within the framework of the international projects on fires in boreal forests. We obtained the representative and statistically-valid experimental data on how wildfires behave in the conditions of Siberian climate and landscape; what energy combustion properties of the forest biomass are; what smoke emissions into atmosphere are and how they impact on the chemical, optic, and respiratory properties of the near-earth atmosphere as well as weather and climate; to what degree, depending on fire intensity, the forest stand is destructed after fires; how physical and chemical properties of the forest soils can change; how fires impact on forest biocoenosis; and for how long bio-coenosis can be restored after wildfires. In practice, almost all fires in Siberian taiga forests are surface ones and they are spread on the forest ground cover. The experiments show that a share of the destructed trees is 10-15% when combustion intensity is not so high. This means that the softwood timber stand may well survive three-five fires with intervals approximately of 30—10 years over its natural productive life. The data obtained could be applied to assessing ecologic and economic damages from fires happened in the pine and larch forests commonly observed in Siberia.

Regional Environmental Impacts of Coal Industry and Development Prospects according to a Decoupling Model

Anatoly Akulov
Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo
Keywords: industrial region, coal industry, environment, assimilatory potential of biosphere, economic growth, decoupling

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes ecologic impacts of coal mining observed in industrial regions and it presents a case-study for Kemerovo Oblast. We can state that the increased coal production brings higher pollution of water basins whereas its impact on the atmosphere is not so unambiguous. There is also no effect of decoupling observed in the region. We obtain the statistical estimates of environmental pollution from the increased coal production and recommend a number of institutional and economic tools to reduce ecologic impacts which would contribute to transition to a decoupling model of the development by the region.

Modernization Aspects of Regional Policy in Central and Eastern Europe in the Context of EU Changes

Gyula Horvath
Institute of Regional Studies, Centre for Regional Studies of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Pecs, Hungary
Keywords: European Union, countries of the Eastern and Central Europe, regional policy, competitiveness, subsidiarity, decentralization, regional powers

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the experience of structural and cohesion policies pursued by the countries of the Eastern and Central Europe during their membership in the European Union. We can state that the countries - new members of the EU - displayed the increased economic, social, and infrastructural disparities. The paper considers the factors of the lowered effectiveness of regional policies such as the point of institutional equilibrium in regional policy, inevitable transboundery cooperation, and management of development plans as they are important for the purpose of coming planning for 2014-2020. The conclusion is to change factors of regional development means to change regional policies, their goals, tools, and institutions with safeguarding national interests.

Key Labour Trends in Volga Region

Marina Simonova
Samara State University of Economics, Samara
Keywords: labour resources, Volga region, structure of the labour resources, employable population, labour market, demographic situation, professional education, qualification

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes the labour dynamics in the Volga Federal District over the past decades. The condition of labor resources and their development trends impact on regional development. Research and forecasting allow public authorities, educational institutions, and commercial organizations to make medium-and long-term plans. The structure and dynamics of education of the labour resources in the different oblasts of the District reflect their qualitative characteristics. The lack of labour resources requires their higher quality.