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2014 year, number 2

1.
Preface

O.A. Romanovskii1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia



2.
Adaptive optics system, based on the GerchbergSaxton algorithm, for phase-locking of single-mode lasers

S.D. Polskikh, P.A. Semenov
State Research Center of Russian Federation Astrophysica, 95, Volokolamskoye av., Moscow, 125424, Russia
Keywords: adaptive optics, multichannel laser systems, phase-locking, GerchbergSaxton algorithm, global optimization

Abstract >>
We report the method of active phase-locking of lasers in multichannel laser system based on the GerchbergSaxton algorithm. We propose the strategy of reconstruction of phase information, based on the global optimization methods. The mathematical modeling of the system was made for various numbers of phased channels.



3.
Residual phase distortions at correction with laser guide star

L.A. Bolbasova, V.P. Lukin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: turbulence, laser guide star, high modal aberrations of phase fluctuations

Abstract >>
With the advent technology of the laser guide stars the problem of general tilt wave front correction appears. The high aberrations of the wave front are corrected by means of signal from laser guide star. However, whereas such star is formed by means of laser beam, directed from telescope, it can be represented as spherical wave with random center position. Residual distortions of high aberration phase fluctuations in such presentation with calculation in the HuigensFresnels approximation are executed.



4.
Lidar reflections of upper atmosphere of Kamchatka by results of observations in 2008

V.V. Bychkov1, Yu.A. Nepomnjashchii1, A.S. Perezhogin1, B.M. Shevtsov1, N.M. Polekh2
1Institute of Cosmophysical Researches and Radio Wave Propagation Far Eastern Branch of the RAS, 684034 Kamchatka region, Elizovskiy district, Paratunka, Mirnaya str., 7
2Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: atmosphere, ionosphere, lidar, ionosonde

Abstract >>
The results of upper atmosphere sounding, in comparison with the results of ionosphere observations, carried out simultaneously over Kamchatka, are presented. The correlation of lidar signals and parameters determining density of plasma in night F2 layer of ionosphere is investigated. The possible role of ridberg atoms in forming phenomena is discussed.



5.
Lidar observations of stratospheric aerosol traces of Chelyabinsk meteorite

V.N. Ivanov1, D.S. Zubachev1, V.A. Korshunov1, V.B. Lapshin2, M.S. Ivanov2, K.A. Galkin2, P.A. Gubko2, D.L. Antonov2, G.F. Tulinov2, A.A. Cheremisin3,4, P.V. Novikov4, S.V. Nikolashkin5, S.V. Titov5, V.N. Marichev6,7
1Research and Production Association 'Typhoon', 4 Pobeda str., Obninsk, Kaluga Region, 249038, Russia
2E.K. Fedorov Institute of Applied Geophysics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Rostokinskaya str., Moscow, 129128, Russia
3Siberian Federal University, 79 Svobodny pr., 660041 Krasnoyarsk, Russia
4Krasnoyarsk Railway Institute, 89 Lado Ketskhoveli str., 660028, Krasnoyarsk region, Krasnoyarsk, Russia
5Yu.G. Shafer Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Aeronomy of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 677980, Yakutsk, 31, Lenina ave
6V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
7National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: lidar, aerosol, meteorite, stratosphere

Abstract >>
The results of lidar sounding of aerosol layers formed in stratosphere after Chebarcul meteorite fall on 15 February 2013 are presented. Aerosol layers were observed at altitudes of 34–42 km in Moscow, Obninsk, and Yakutsk at the end of February — beginning of March. The meteoritic origin of observed layers was confirmed by analysis of air mass trajectories.



6.
Simulation of lidar measurements of profiles of atmospheric meteorological parameters using overtone CO laser

G.G. Matvienko1, O.A. Romanovskii1,2, O.V. Kharchenko1, S.V. Yakovlev1,2
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050, Russia
Keywords: , , , -, lidar, meteorological parameters, atmosphere, CO laser

Abstract >>
The possibility of the overtone CO laser for lidar measurements of atmospheric humidity and temperature profiles by differential absorption method in middle IR region is studied. Wavelengths for lidar measurements of meteorological parameters are found. The spatial and spectrally allowed lidar signals and random errors for reconstruction of profiles of atmospheric meteorological parameters using wavelength of overtone CO laser are calculated.



7.
Properties of atmospheric aerosol in the plumes of forest fires according to the spectronephelometric measurements

R.F. Rakhimov, V.S. Kozlov, M.V. Panchenko, A.G. Tumakov, V.P. Shmargunov
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: smokes of forest fires, natural measurements, angular polarization spectronephelometry, optical and microphysical properties, soot

Abstract >>
A cycle of measurements of the angular aerosol scattering coefficients under conditions of extremely dense smoke haze from Siberian forest fires has been carried out in Tomsk in JulyAugust of 2012 with the aid of a polarization spectronephelometer. The size spectrum of the smoke haze had the ultra-fine (particle radius < 150 nm) and medium (with a mode of the volume distribution near 350 nm) fractions. The effective radius of particles was about 220 nm. The smoke haze was characterized by a weak absorption: the imaginary part of the refractive index of the ultra-fine and medium particles had values of ~ 0.038 and ~ 0.012, respectively. The mean value of the single scattering albedo at a wavelength of 525 nm was about 0.91. At the decay of smoke haze (in peripheral zones of smoke plumes), the optical contribution from the ultra-fine fraction increases, which shows itself in the increase of the imaginary part of the refractive index of ultra-fine particles up to ~ 0.5 and a decrease of albedo from 0.91 to 0.84.



8.
Influence of solar activity on climate changes

V.A. Kovalenko, G.A. Zherebtsov
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: climate, ocean, troposphere, solar activity

Abstract >>
We discuss problems which are of main importance for understanding the origin of climate changes in XX century and basic physical processes responsible for these changes. The possible role of solar activity in the Earths climate changes in the past and future is considered. As shown, physical mechanisms which can provide for solar variability effect on weather and climate come to controlling the energy flux from the Earth to space. A special emphasis is given to mechanism of solar activity effect on climatic characteristics of the troposphere through the atmospheric electricity. We consider peculiarities of the response of thermal and dynamic regimes of the ocean and atmosphere to solar activity changes processes in the atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere. We also show and discuss the results of analysis of regularities and peculiarities of the troposhere and ocean surface temperature (OST) response to both isolated heliogeophysical disturbances and to long-term changes of solar and geomagnetic activity.



9.
Astronomic factors in the long-term evolution of the Earths climate

I.V. Dvoretskaya1, G.M. Kruchenitsky2, G.G. Matvienko3, I.I. Stanevich4
1Ukraine Institute of Hydrometerology, 37, prospect Nauki, 03680, Ukraine, Kyiv . , . , 37,
2Central Aerological Observatory, ul. Pervomayskaya, 3, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
3V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
4Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, per. Institutskii, 9, Dolgoprudnyiy g., Mosk. Obl., 141700, Russia
Keywords: climate, global warming, dynamic modeling, relative greenhouse gas efficiency, tidal effects, Earths orbit degeneration

Abstract >>
The concept of the dependence of observed global climatic changes on anthropogenic factors is analyzed. The limitations of modern approaches to global climate modeling are shown to be unremovable, which makes it impossible to arrive at grounded enough conclusions and predictions. An alternative parameter-reduced energy balance model of the global temperature is proposed, and the relative contribution of basic greenhouse gases to global temperature variability is estimated based on this model. A list of factors, including astronomic ones, to be additionally allowed for in analyzing and diagnosing the observed long-term changes in the mean global temperature is substantiated.



10.
Remote monitoring of wetlands in West Siberia using SMOS satellite data

A.N. Romanov, I.V. Khvostov, V.E. Pavlov, Yu.I. Vinokurov
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 656038, Barnaul, 1, Molodezhnaya str.
Keywords: soils of wetlands, alkali soils, microwave remote sensing

Abstract >>
A comparative analysis of multi-temporal images of West Siberia with the use of MIRAS radiometer of 1.42 GHz frequency from satellite SMOS was made. For validation and calibration of the satellite data, the ground-based measurements of physical parameters of the underlying surface were performed. The Kulunda plain located in the steppe part of Altai Krai was chosen as a test site. Wetlands and swamp lands adjacent to salinas and brackish lakes were identified based on the use of satellite and ground data.



11.
The manifestation of solar activity in the sea surface temperature

K.E. Kirichenko, V.A. Kovalenko, S.I. Molodykh
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: solar activity, geomagnetic activity, ocean, climate

Abstract >>
The influence of solar activity on changes of ocean temperature is considered. The results are presented of the analysis of changes in sea surface temperature (SST), covering the time period from 1854 to 2012 and their relationship to variations of solar activity. The aa–index of geomagnetic activity was selected as a characteristic of solar activity. The changes are identified in patterns of relationship between SST and the aaindex and discussed in detail. It is found that the relationship between changes in SST and the aaindex shows considerable spatial and temporal inhomogenity and regional nature. It is determined that the most significant contribution of solar activity into changes in SST was observed in the period from 1910 to 1940, when the trend of increasing geomagnetic activity was observed both in the maximum and minimum values.



12.
The study of morphological characteristics of travelling ionospheric disturbances using quasi–vertical ionospheric sounding data

V.I. Kurkin, O.A. Laryunin, A.V. Podlesnyi, M.D. Pezhemskaya, L.V. Chistyakova
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, 664033, Irkutsk, 126a, Lermontova str
Keywords: ionogram, travelling ionospheric disturbances, cusp

Abstract >>
A morphological analysis of quasi-vertical sounding ionograms has been conducted in this paper. Some ionograms contain an additional trace (called cusp) apart from the main trace, which is an indicator of travelling ionospheric disturbances presence. The cusp occurrence rate, depending on the time of the day, their average duration and morphological characteristics have been studied for winter and summer time. The every minute ionosonde recording of ionograms allowed one to trace the dynamics and the evolution of cusps. The use of extensive data archive allowed the display of high cups occurrence rate and seasonal cusps occurrence characteristics.



13.
Radiation power calculation of stationary radioactive emission of radiochemical plant at 1420 and 16651667 MHz frequencies

G.A. Kolotkov, S.T. Penin
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, 1, Academician Zuev square, Tomsk, 634021, Russia
Keywords: monitoring, radioactivity, MHz, NPP, RPC

Abstract >>
The calculation of radiation power at 1420 and 16651667 MHz frequencies from emission plume for the radiochemical plant of Siberian Chemical Enterprise were performed. The comparison between experimental and theoretical data on radiation power from emission plume of radiochemical plant were drown. Radiation power from emission plume matching performed for nuclear power plant and radiochemical plant.



14.
Amplitude modulation of whistlers

V.P. Sivokon, N.V. Cherneva, G.I. Druzhin, D.V. Sannikov
Institute of Cosmophysical Research and Radio Wave Propagation of the Far-Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Science, 684034 Kamchatka region, Elizovskiy district, Paratunka, Mirnaya str., 7
Keywords: electromagnetic fluctuations and waves, whistlers, magnetosphere

Abstract >>
Experimental supervision for whistlers, spent in July, 2011 in an observatory of “Paratunka” (53.02 N, 158.65 E; L = 2.3) and coinciding in time with experiments under program HAARP (62.30 N, 145.30 W; L = 4.2) have allowed us to find out their non-standard form, most likely caused by peak modulation by electromagnetic pulses with duration of about 1 second and frequency of filling of ≈ 1.1 kHz.