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Humanitarian sciences in Siberia

2013 year, number 4

Peasant Farms’ Agriculture in Russia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries: Factors and Evolutionary Dynamics

M.M. Yesikova
Keywords: крестьянство, моральная экономика, сельское хозяйство, агротехника, урожайность, агрономическое обслуживание, peasantry, moral economy, agriculture, agrotechnics, crop capacity, agronomic service

Abstract >>
The paper analyzes factors and dynamics of peasant farms’ agriculture in Russia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. It is stated that main deterrents preventing from increase of agriculture’s effectiveness were the peasants’ poverty as well as egalitarian approach typical for the communal peasantry’s moral principles. The rise of agriculture was facilitated by the activities of the zemstvo agronomic service and technical equipment of the farms. All this led to the yield increases at the beginning of the XX century, while the village came close to introduction of the multiple crop rotation.

Abundance of Refi ned Intellectuals: Administrative Authorities in Agriculture of Siberia (June 14th, 1918 – January 5 th, 1920)

V.M. Rynkov
Keywords: аграрный вопрос, органы государственной власти, Гражданская война, Сибирь, agrarian question, governmental authorities, Civil War, Siberia

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The paper based on the analysis of legislation and archival documents considers the history of formation and interaction between the central and local agriculture administration authorities in Siberia in the summer of 1918 – 1919. Main attention is paid to analysis of the structure and personnel of the Russian Government’s Ministry of Agriculture. The author shows difference in viewpoints of the heads of the Ministry and zemstvo officials who acted at the local level and on whom the implementation of agricultural policy depended to a considerable degree. It is proven that central authorities suffered from the inflated staff while the Ministry could not find adequate solutions to many practical tasks it faced.


M.S. Salamatova
Keywords: крестьянство, аграрный сектор, нэп, избирательные кампании, советская политическая система, электоральное поведение, гражданская ответственность, peasantry, agrarian sector, electoral campaigns, Soviet political system, electoral behavior, civil responsibility

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The paper analyzes key features of electoral behavior of the peasantry in Soviet Russia in the 1920s. The peasants’ behavior during the elections varied, ranging from the protest to the active support. The degree of peasants’ loyalty to the Soviet power during the electoral meetings depended on many factors, mostly economic in character. Peasants and authorities demonstrated the biggest, difference in opinions in regard to the problem of the Soviets personal structure. Peasants nominated their candidates based on the traditional understanding of social justice and labor ethics while the Bolsheviks acted on the premise that the Marxist ideology was of the highest value.

Food Policy of the Soviet State in the Far East in 1922-1928

S.M. Stasyukevich
Keywords: хлебный рынок, аграрная политика, продовольственное снабжение, нэп, Дальний Восток, grain market, agrarian policy, subsistence, NEP, Far East

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The paper traces formation of the food policy of the Soviet state in the Far East; reveals its main aspects suchats refusal from imports and self-provision of the region. The author comes to conclusion that such agrarian and food policy led to the crisis in the grain market.


S.A. Yesikov
Keywords: крестьянское хозяйство, нэп, кризис хлебозаготовок, сельская кооперация, альтернативы социально-экономического развития, коллективизация, модернизация, peasant economy, NEP, crisis of grain procurement, agricultural cooperation, alternatives to the socioeconomic development, collectivization, modernization

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The paper considers social and economic prerequisites of mass collectivization. The author believes that NEP didn’t create a mechanism of sustainable development of agriculture. By the late 1920s the cultivated areas didn’t reach the level of the pre-war period. Is is concluded that under the concrete historical circumstances at the turn of 1920s and 1930s neither Bukharin’s nor Chayanov’s and Kondratyev’s alternatives to the Stalin’s forced collectivization had any real chances to be implemented.

Collectivization of the Village: Projects and Realities

V.A. Ilyinykh
Keywords: коллективизация, проекты аграрного развития, Сталин, колхозная система, историография, collectivization, projects of agrarian development, Stalin, kolkhoz system, historiography

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The paper considers prerequisites, alternatives, plans of implementation and socio-economic results of the forced collectivization. The author comes to conclusion that aims formulated by the ideologists of the Bolshevist regime were not achieved due to the opposition of peasants, whose traditional mental principles of life activity were not taken into account in the development of plans for socialist reconstruction of agriculture.

Soviet Grain Procurement Policy during the First 5-Year Plan and Its Results

V.V. Kondrashin
Keywords: хлебозаготовки, коллективизация, аграрная политика, феномен сталинизма, репрессии, индустриализация, экспорт зерна, голод, grain procurement, collectivization, agrarian policy, phenomenon of Stalinism, industrialization, grain exports, famine

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The paper characterizes reasons, mechanism and consequences of the forced grain procurement in the USSR during the first 5-year plan. Based on the documents from the Russian Presidential Archives and other sources it shows the role played by I.V. Stalin in the grain procurement policy realization; analyzes its regional specifics and other important aspects.

Consequences of Famine in the Omsk Region in 1946-1947

V.B. Laperdin
Keywords: историческая демография, голод, смертность, показатели смертности, социальная политика властей, historical demography, famine, mortality, death-rate, social policy of the state

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The paper considers consequences of famine in the Omsk region in 1946-1947; it’s impact on the demographic and social spheres. Famine led to negative changes in dynamics of death-rate and population structure. It had specific social consequences as it stroke the most unprotected groups of population. After famine was over the social and demographic processes were stabilized.

Reasons and Alternatives for Reorganization of the Machine and Tractor Stations in 1958

S.N. Andreenkov
Keywords: машинно-тракторные станции, колхозы, реорганизация МТС, аграрная политика, Н.С. Хрущев, сельское хозяйство, machine and tractor stations, kolkhozes, reorganization of MTS, agrarian policy, N.S. Khrushchev, agriculture

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The paper analyzes some important problems of agrarian and economic history of the USSR in the 1950s when the government took measures to raise mechanization level of agricultural industry. The author studied governmental measures aimed at development of MTS; analyzed the projects of reforms proposed in the middle of 1950s; tried to determine reasons that led to liquidation of MTS in the late 1950s. The article contains different views of researchers on the reasons of MTS reforms. For the first time in historiography the author analyzes the alternative project of this reform that was denied for political reasons.

Transformation of the Rural Family in the Central Non-Black Soil Zone in 1940s-1980s

O.V. Gorbachev
Keywords: сельская семья, историческая демография, аграрные реформы, урбанизация, колхозы, сельское расселение, Нечерноземье, rural family, historical demography, agrarian reforms, urbanization, kolkhozes, displacement of rural population, Non-black soil zone

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The paper deals with changing structure and numbers of rural families in Central Russia during the period of the most intensive urbanization processes. The author reveals dependence of the families’ transformation on the regional specifics of settlements, type of economic organization, as well as specifics of agrarian reforms realization. It also discusses the economic role of families and prospects of cottage industry.

On the Expert Evaluation of the Monument of Peasant Architecture in the Village of Verkh-Uymon

B.D. Lurye, I.I. Pishchik, Ye.V. Koroleva
Keywords: реставрационные работы, экспертиза, уймонские старообрядцы, памятник деревянного зодчества, reconstruction, expert evaluation, Uymon Old-Believers, monument of wooden architecture

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The paper presents results of scientific investigation aimed at evaluating the quality of reconstruction of the monument of peasant architecture – the house of V.S. Atamanov in the village of Verkh-Uymon (Ust-Koks District of the Altai Republic). This investigation resulted in determining the archaic construction technology of Verkh-Uymon as an Altai variant of the North-Russian architecture tradition. The age of wood was dated with non-destroying method of I.I. Pishchik giving the range of dates from 1457 to 1857.

The Prefaces in Оld-Believers` Manuscript Tradition

O.D. Zhuravel
Keywords: старообрядцы, рукописный сборник, Урало-Сибирский патерик, риторика, барокко, литературная культура, утопия, эсхатология, Old Believers, the manuscript collection, Ural-Siberian Paterik, rhetoric, baroque, Literary Culture, Utopia, eschatological ideas

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The paper deals with the problems of Old-Believers Literary Culture at the beginning of the XVIII - XX centuries. The author studies prefaces to the manuscript collections and explores the methods of work of the Old-Believers` writers. The article focuses on the prefaces of the “Ural-Siberian Paterik (Patericon)”. The author identifies the sources of prefaces of the “Ural-Siberian Paterik”, including collections of the Vyg Old-Believers` writers of the XVIII century. It is established that along with textual borrowings some ideas and concepts were transmitted, the ones that were important elements in the ideology of Old Believers (utopian, eschatological ideas).

Participation of Tartar Warriors in the Russian Troops in Military Operations in Western Siberia in the Late XVI and Early XVII century

J.S. Khudjakov
Keywords: татарские воины, российская служба, Сибирское ханство, Западная Сибирь, Tartar warriors, the Russian service, Siberian Khanate, Western Siberia

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The article deals with the historical evidence of involvement of military units made up of Siberian Tatars who were in the Russian service in military operations against the supporters and heirs of Kuchum Khan seeking to restore the Siberian Khanate. It also shows the role of the service class of Siberian Tatars in guarding of borders and construction of new ostrogs.

Resolution of the Legendary Old-Believers Assembly and the Corpus of “Paternal Testaments”

I.N. Nikanorov
Keywords: старообрядчество, федосеевцы, Преображенское кладбище, традиция, рукописный сборник, Церковь, реформа патриарха Никона, Old-Believers, Fedoseevtsy, Preobrazhenskoye cemetery, tradition, manuscript collection, Church, reform of Patriarch Nikon

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The paper deals with research of the manuscript tradition of the Old-Believers corpus of “Paternal testaments”. It considers the fact of inclusion of the legendary assembly’s resolution into one of the versions of “Paternal testaments” in the latter half of the XIX century. It is concluded that the Fedoseevtsy changed their attitudes to the authoritative texts and modified their polemical methods in the second half of the XIX century.

Escape of the Narodnik Exiles from Yakutia in the Last Quarter of the XIX Century

P.S. Troyev
Keywords: царизм, ссылка, Якутская область, «Черный передел», «Народная воля», секретное письмо, tsarism, strictest measures, “Black Partition”, “People’s Will”, remote sites, secret letter

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The paper considers security issues in places of exile as well as relationships between the exiles and local citizens of the region. The author describes the role of the head of Boturussky Ulus E.D. Nikolaev, an ethnic Yakut, in organizing a daring and successful escape of exiles from the remotest ulus to France.

“The State is in Extremely Critical Situation, That is Why Creation of Its Combat Power is of Utmost Importance”

V.I. Shishkin
Keywords: население, армия, призыв, мобилизация, пополнение, добровольцы, унтер-офицеры, офицеры, запасные части, population, army, draft call, mobilization, replacement, volunteers, non-comissioned offi cers, offi cers, reserve units

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The paper introduces into scientific use the major document containing key information about the principles of recruit induction to the armed forces of the Provisional Siberian government in the late summer of 1918.

Renovationist Church Schism in Siberia

S.G. Petrov
Keywords: Русская Православная Церковь, обновленчество, Сибирь, «митрополит» Петр Блинов, патриарх Тихон, The Russian Orthodox Church, renovationism, Siberia, the «metropolitan» Peter Blinov

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The paper examines specifics of antireligious policy carried out by the state and party management in Siberia during the first two decades of the Soviet regime. It reviews major events connected with the beginning of the Renovationist Church schism and its further development in this largest region.

Academician A.V. Nikolaev – Organizer of Scientific Research in Inorganic Chemistry in the Siberian Branch of Academy of Sciences of the USSR

N.A. Kupershtokh
Keywords: академик А.В. Николаев, научные исследования в области неорганической химии, научные школы, Институт неорганической химии Сибирского отделения АН СССР/РАН, Academician A.V. Nikolaev, scientifi c research in inorganic chemistry, scientific schools of thought, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of SBRAS

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The paper considers activities of Academician A.V. Nikolaev – an outstanding scientist and first director of the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of Academy of Sciences of the USSR/ Russian Academy of Sciences. He organized scientific research in the branch of learning new for Siberia; formed a research team and a system of staff training for specialists in inorganic chemistry. On A.V. Nikolaev’s initiative scientific centers of chemical studies were created in Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk and Kemerovo. Nowadays the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry named after A.V. Nikolaev is an acclaimed center of fundamental and applied research as a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Impact of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Tests on the Natural Environment and Population in Western Siberia during the “Cold War”

I.M. Savitskiy
Keywords: испытание ядерного оружия, природные условия, ядерные следы, радиационная обстановка, загрязнение территорий, населенных пунктов, их изучение, nuclear tests, natural environment, nuclear fallout, radiation environment, territory contamination, contamination of settlements, contamination analysis

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The paper evaluates impact of numerous and various nuclear tests of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on the natural environment and population of Western Siberia in the late 1940s – late 1980s. It characterizes radiation environment and its correlation with cancer morbidity in the Altai and Novosibirsk Regions.

The Socionym «Inozemtsy» with Regard to the Siberian Natives in the Office Work of the Moscow State (Second Half of the XVI – Early XVII Centuries)

P. S. Ignatkin
Keywords: Сибирь, Северное Приуралье, иноземцы, русско-аборигенные отношения, христианство, XVI–XVII вв, Siberia, inozemtsy, Russian–aboriginal relations, XVI–XVII centuries

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The paper deals with semantics of the concept of “inozemtsy” and attempts at finding out when it was introduced into use in paperwork as a term for designation of Siberian aborigines. The author comes to conclusion that Russians started to apply this socionym to the Siberian peoples from the second half of the XVI century. It contained the meaning of cultural “otherness” of Siberian natives and reflected a situation of their incomplete subjugation to the Russian power.

Exnuptial Birth Rate in West-Siberian Cities in the Final Stage of the Great Patriotic War (1944-1945)

N.S. Korobeynikova
Keywords: внебрачная рождаемость, очередность рождений, институциализаця внебрачной рождаемости, охрана материнства, институт семьи, out-of-wedlock births, birth order, institutionalization of illegitimate births

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The article presents analysis of the phenomenon of illegitimate birth rate in the final stages of the Great Patriotic War in the cities of Western Siberia. The author studies age-related dynamics of birth, social structure of fertility, birth order.

Living Standards of the Novosibirsk Region Population in the Early Stage of the Radical Economic Reforms

Y.A. Markov
Keywords: уровень жизни, социальная работа, доходы населения, социальные программы, standard of living, social work, income, social programs

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On the basis of documents from the State Archive of the Novosibirsk Region, the article discusses the dynamics of quality and standards of living in the Novosibirsk Region under the circumstances of socio-economic reforms during the last decade of the XX century. The author shows that during this period at least the minimal help was provided for the low-income citizens, despite the obvious lack of funds allocated by the state.