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Contemporary Problems of Ecology

2006 year, number 5

Nanobacteria, a New Ecological Problem

G. V. Smirnov, D. G. Smirnov

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Experimental data connected with the investigation of a new class of bacteria n

Investigation of Bacteriophages of the Angara River by Means of Transmission Electron Microscopy

N. V. Dutova, V. V. Drucker

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The morphological composition and size distribution of bacteriophages of the Angara were investigated for the first time by means of transmission electron microscopy. Eight morphological types were found; among them, 59 % are the representatives of Siphoviridae family and 11 % are the phages of Podoviridae family. According to the frequency of occurrence, the major part of bacteriophages (70 %) is comprised by the phages with tail appendix. Predomin

Polymorphism of Protein Spectra of Endemic Amphipoda of Lake Baikal and Palearctic Species, the Effect of Temperature Stress

M. A. Timofeev, Zh. M. Shatilina, D. S. Bedulina, A. V. Kolesnichenko

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The goal of the investigation is comparative evaluation of the protein spectra and their changes under stress in several species of fresh-water amphipoda. Endemic species from Lake Baikal and Palearctic species differing by their adaptive ability were studied. Polymorphism of the protein spectra not only between systematically dissimilar but also between closely related species was revealed. Polymorphism of the protein spectra was observed in the differently aged stages of two Baikalina amphipod species. The effect of temperature stress on the protein spectra was estimated. It was shown that the temperature stress affects the content and synthesis of some proteins which have inter-species and age differences.

Occurrence of the Bacteria of Caulobacter Genus (Henrici and Johnson, 1935) in Lake Baikal

A. S. Kovadlo, V. V. Drucker

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Features of the occurrence of bacteria of Caulobacter genus in Lake Baikal in various econiches and in different seasons are investigated. The number of microorganisms was observed to vary from the absence in the majority of samples from the lake pelagialy to 700 000 p./ml in the mouth of the Barguzin river. For the first time, identification of Caulobacter from Lake Baikal was carried out by means of hybridization with the fluorescent oligonucleotide probe. Different morphological species of the bacteria of Caulobacter genus were determined with the help of investigations using the light, epifluorescent, transmission and scanning electron microscopes.

Dynamics of the Population of Paramecium caudatum with Oil-Degrading Bacteria as a Food Tesource

A. D. Zhirkova, E. A. Karetnikova

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The results of investigation of the dynamics of population of Paramecium caudatum infusoria fed with oil-degrading bacteria utilizing easily available organics and diesel oil are presented; changes in the population of the protozoa for different concentrations of the food resource are described. The data of morphometric measurements and the data on the changes in specific growth rate with different kinds of bacterial food are presented. Adaptive reactions of the infusoria to consumption of the bacteria cultivated under different conditions are investigated.

Features of Expansion of Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing, 1899) in Water Bodies of East Transbaikalia (for Lake Arakhley as Example)

D. V. Matafonov, M. Ts. Itigilova, R. M. Kamaltynov

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The problem of the features of expansion with the invasive species of water ecosystems of East Transbaikalia is considered for the example of the Bailkanian amphipod Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing, 1899). Settling of G. fasciatus from the Ivano-Arakhley lakes is negatively affected by the summer mean-water intermittence of the brooks flowing out of the lakes and their freezing during the winter mean water period. In Lake Arakhley, the major effect on the spatial distribution of this species during the summer period is caused by the depth, the character of bottom sediments, near-bottom temperature, and the amount of oxygen dissolved in water. The features of the life cycle of G. fasciatus in the lake, the effect of the invader species on the population of the local amphipod species Gammarus lacustris (Sars, 1863) and macro-animal benthos were revealed.

About the Fauna of Gasteropods (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of the Borovoye Lake System (North Kazakhstan)

M. V. Vinarsky, E. A. Lazutkina, A. V. Karimov

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The faun

Ecological Niche of Two Species of Genus Crustaceans Salmincola (Crustacea: Copepoda) - Parasites of

N. M. Pronin, T. G. Burdukovskaya

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Ecological characteristics of two species of genus Salmincola crustaceans - parasites of Baikal omul are considered. The species are characterized by strict localization in the gill cavities (S. extumescens) and in muscles in the base of fins (S. extensus). Isolation of the species occurs because S. extensus is infecting young age groups of omul, while S. extumescens - those of old age. The regularities of the distribution of crustaceans depending on the depth of the reservoir and the features of seasonal infection dynamics by S. extumescens of the Chivyrkui omul population were determined.

Effect of Emulsified Oil Products on Cladocera of Different Age

D. V. Lozovoy, M. N. Saxonov, A. E. Balayan, D. I. Stom

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The effect of oil products and oil hydrocarbons on different Cladocera species was an

Features of the Mechanisms of Antioxidant System Activation in Limnetic (Freshwater) Amphipoda: I. Palearctic Gammarus lacustris Sars

M. A. Timofeev

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The goal of the investigation is to estimate the mechanisms of activation of the antioxidant system (AOS) under the oxidative action of exogenic character in Palearctic Gammarus lacustris Sars. The oxidative action was induced by exposing the amphipoda in the solutions of a humin-containing laboratory preparation. Investigations indicated that exposure of the amphipoda under question in the solutions of the preparation leads to an increase in the activity of peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase enzymes, as well as the level of lipid peroxide oxidizer (LPO), which is an evidence of the intensification of oxidative stress. A two-stage mechanism of the reaction of antioxidant system was revealed in the amphipoda. The first stage is characterized by the high protection level and allows effective containment of the negative oxidative action. The second stage is of low efficiency; it is accompanied by an increase in the level of LPO and the activity of glutathione-S-transferase, which is an evidence of the destruction of cell membrane structures.

Effect of Pollution with Petroleum on Earthworm Survival

A. G. Kartashev, K. S. Kozlov, A. G. Gryaznov

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The effect of petroleum and oil products (petrol, diesel fuel) under the model n

Structure of Communities of Elateridae Family of the Sub-Zones of Middle and South Taiga under the Industry-Related Action

S. D. Seredyuk

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The structure of the communities of elaterids was investigated in the regions affected by brass works in the areas located in different ecological and geographic sub-zones of the taiga zone. A comparison of emission sources of the same kind in forest ecosystems of different sub-zones of the taiga allowed us to analyze changes in the structural arrangement of elaterid complexes over the gradient of chemical pollution, to reveal adaptive mechanisms of elaterid complexes to high industry-related load, to observe general and specific zonal features of the reaction of click beetles to this kind of anthropogenic action. We succeeded to demonstrate that the latitudinal

Investigation of the Effect of Thiophane Antioxidant on Carcinogenic Action of 3,4-Benzpyrene after Oral Introduction in Mice

V. I. Kaledin, B. G. Nekrasov, A. M. Gonchar, V. I. Ermolaev, A. E. Prosenko

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The effect of thiophane, a polyfunciton

Trends of Changes in the Amount and Quality of Humus in the Soil of Various Links of the Near-Salair Agricultural Landscapes

A. A. Tanasienko, T. A. Gorelova, E. S. Bukhanistova

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Human impact on soils of biogeocenoses, such as black soil, leached and dark-gray forest soil, is followed by a decrease in humus level and deterioration of its quality. Annual humus mineralization in full-profile soil reaches 0,7 t/ha, while estrangement of this substance due to erosion processes varies within the range 1.4-1.8 t/ha. As a result of annual wash-out of the upper part of humus horizon and increase in arable owing to underlying soil layers, the composition of humus is transformed from humate to fulvate-humate. The effect of plough-out is more clearly pronouced under the Siberian conditions than in the similar kinds of soil in the European part of the country.

Effect of the Diet Containing Different Parts of Plant Serratula coronata L. - Producer of Ecdysteroids - on the Development of Egyptian Cotton Leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisd. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

K. G. Ufimtsev, T. I. Shirshova, V. V. Volodin

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The effect of the diet containing 10 % (mass) of dry finely ground parts of Serratula coronata L. plant with different content of ecdysteroids on the development of caterpillars of Egyptian cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis of the IV age is investigated. It is shown that in the absence of a clearly exhibited antifidant action, the growth and development of the worm were suppressed, pupation period increased, and imago prolificacy decreased substantially.

Lichens of the Museum-Reserve "Tomskaya Pisanyza" (Kemerovo Region)

N. V. Sedelnikova

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The lichen species composition of the museum-reserve "Tomskaya Pisanyza" was determined from 227 species, 82 genera and 35 families. All the species are new for the reserve, and Caloplaca brachyspora Mereschk. is a new species for Russia and Asia, Aspicilia griseopallida (Vain.) Oxner, Pyrenopsis umbilicata Vain, Verrucaria squamulosocrustacea (Savicz) Oxner are the new ones for Asia, Protoparmeliopsis macrocyclos (H. Magn.) Moberg et R. Sant. is a new species for Siberia, and Cryptothele rhodosticta (Tayl.) Henssen is a new one for West Siberia. The diameters of the largest lichen thalli Caloplaca cirrochroa (Ach.) Th. Fr. and Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr. near petroglyphs were measured in order to determine their age.

Pollution of Drinking Water Near the Ishym River with Mineral Compounds of Nitrogen

S. V. Kvashnin, G. S. Koshcheeva

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Changes in the level of nitrogen pollution of the ground water in the regions near the Ishym river with the mineral compounds of nitrogen during the years 1985-2004 is considered on the basis of the samepls from wells and holes. A connection between the pollution level and changes in the regional management conditions was revealed. High saturation of the buffer capacity of geosystems with nitrogen compounds was established.