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2004 year, number 1

1.
Analysis of the Cycles of Human Mortality and Variations of Ozonosphere Using Dendro-chronological Data

V. V. ZUEV, N. E. ZUEVA, S. L. BONDARENKO

Abstract >>
The first attempt is made to carry out quantitative analysis of the connection between human mortality cycles and changes in UV-B radiation due to the variations of the ozonosphere together with the cycles of solar activity.
The data on total ozone content of the stratosphere (TO) were obtained with the help of the procedure described in the present paper, which involves reconstruction of a retrospective view of the behaviour of the ozonosphere on the basis of the density of annual tree-rings.
Systematic decrease in TO causes an increase in the UV-B radiation, growing stress of human organism because of the action of UV-B radiation, and therefore an increase in death rate. As a rule, the major peaks of mortality coincide with the maxima of solar activity, because short-wavelength radiation of the Sun, including the UV-B region, increases sharply at those moments. However, within the phase of quiet Sun, the filtering ability of the ozonosphere toward the UV-B radiation turns out to be predominant. Because of this, in general, correlation with TO is higher.



2.
Conditions of the Formation of Air Quality in Urbanized Systems of the South-Eastern Side

I. E. TROFIMOVA, V. V. BUFAL, N. N. GUSTOKASHINA

Abstract >>
The general characterization of climate/atmosphere of the town of Baikalsk is presented as an ecological factor of the environment. Against the general climatic background, the areas of anthropogenic types of microclimate are revealed. Attention is paid to the determination of microclimatic potential of self-purification of the surface layer of the atmosphere. The data on total emission of hazardous substances from the Baikal cellulose complex into the atmosphere for some recent years are analyzed. Zones of most probable distribution of atmospheric pollutants are determined. Using the landscape climatic approach and taking into account the available information on the status of climate/atmosphere, the authors divide the territory of the town and its suburbs into zones applying the ecological climatic approach. Such a cartographical model can be used to predict critical ecological situations in different parts of the town and to elaborate plans for optimization of economics, especially under the conditions of the functioning Baikal cellulose complex.



3.
Investigation of the Effect of Synthetic and Natural Antioxidants on the Development of Lung Tumours Induced in A/Sn Mice by Urethane

V. I. KALEDIN, N. G. KOLOSOVA, A. M. GONCHAR, A. YU. GRISHANOVA, A. E. PROSENKO

Abstract >>
The effect of synthetic and natural antioxidants (thiophane, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and myrtasole



4.
The Effect of Motor Transport on the Structure of Catching Nets of Larinioides patagiatus (Arachneda, Aranei)

A. G. KARTASHEV, A. A. KARTASHEVA

Abstract >>
The purpose of the work was investigation of the effect of motor transport on the structure of catching nets structure of spiders L. patagiatus (Singa hamata Cl). The measurement was carried on the nets of mature females according to the technique of standard nets. The quantitative parameters describing the structure of individual nets were processed by statistical methods.
As a result of research, it was established that the average statistical characteristics of L. patagiatus catching nets in the experimental region were reliably different from those of the control. The correlation dependence between the parameters of structure of catching nets was revealed. Comparative analysis showed that the number of correlation links in the experimental region is 2 times lower than that in control. The discovered changes characterize lower determinacy level for catching nets of L. patagiatus in experiment. Factor analysis allowed revealing decrease in total variance and structural rearrangements in each component of the catching nets in the experimental group of observation, which indicated substantial changes in the instinctive algorithm of behaviour during making catching nets near motor roads. It is established that a motor road has a multi-aspect effect on the algorithm of instinctive behaviour of the species under investigation.



5.
Combined Action of Oil Products and Humate on Daphnia

D. I. STOM, A.V. DAGUROV

Abstract >>
The joint influence of commercial preparation of humic substances and oils, oil-products and their individual components on Daphnia magna was studied. The presence of humic substances prevented, or at least reduced the transition of Daphnia magna into the superficial film in emulsions of oil products. It is shown that in some concentrations the preparation of humic substances weakens toxic effect of emulsions of oil-products and their saturated solutions on Daphnia.



6.
Experimental Estimation of the Role of Abiotic Factors in Containment of Endemics Beyond the Bounds

M. A. TIMOFEEV, K. A. KIRICHENKO

Abstract >>
The data obtained in experimental estimation of the attitude of several endemic amphipoda species toward the main environmental factors (temperature and the extent of water saturation with oxygen) are described. Thermoresistivity of amphipoda, stability to hypoxia, thermal preferences are described. In order to estimate the role of abiotic factors of environment in containment of endemics spreading off Lake Baikal, and to elucidate the role of mechanisms providing immiscibility phenomenon, the obtained data are compared with the expansion of the investigated species beyond Lake Baikal along the Angara



7.
Chemical Composition of Plants in the Baikal Biospheric Reserve (in Connection with the Problem of Degradation of Fir Forest at the Northern Side of the Khamar-Daban Mountain Ridge)

N. B. SANINA, E. V. CHUPARINA, A. A. NESTEROVA

Abstract >>
The composition of macroelements (Al, Si, P, Mn, Fe, S, Cl, etc.) and microelements (Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, etc.) in fir needles and in bushes of the Baikal biospheric reserve is considered for the purpose of revealing the reasons of shrinkage of fir forests. No high content of elements (including those indicating anthropogenic action, first of all from the Baikal Pulp and Paper Plant) was detected in fir needles and in the branches (with leaves) of bushes (except raspberries), which indicates the absence of a substantial arrival of inorganic elements of anthropogenic origin. The detected levels of the investigated chemical elements in fir needles cannot be the reason of degradation of fir forest within the reserve. Anomalous Cl content in raspberries is of unclear nature and requires further investigation.



8.
Specific Features of the Changes in Daily Photosynthetic Productivity of Conifers. I. Siberian Larch

G. G. SUVOROVA, A. S. SHCHERBATYUK, L. S. YAN’KOVA

Abstract >>
The dependencies of daily photosynthetic productivity of the Siberian larch on total daily illumination, air temperature averaged over the photosynthesis period, soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm, and amount of moisture accumulated in the upper half-a-meter layer of soil are analyzed. Regular variations of this parameter are revealed. For larch under the conditions of optimal soil moistening, broad ranges of optimal air temperature and illumination are typical. The dependence on temperature is clearly expressed during cold seasons. The importance of these features in vital functions of plants is discussed.



9.
Specific Features of the Changes in Daily Photosynthetic Productivity of Conifers. II. Siberian Spruce and Pine

G. G. SUVOROVA, A. S. SHCHERBATYUK, L. S. YAN’KOVA

Abstract >>
The dependencies of daily photosynthetic productivity of the Siberian larch on total daily illumination, air temperature averaged over the photosynthesis period, soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm, and amount of moisture accumulated in the upper half-a-meter layer of soil are analyzed. The dependence on the environmental factors was found to be substantially different in spring and in the summer-autumn period: in spring spruce requires sufficient moisture content of soil and sufficient illumination; for pine, the dependence on soil temperature was revealed. In summer and in autumn, spruce is shade- and moisture-requiring while pine exhibits the features of a xerophyte. The importance of these features in vital functions of plants is discussed.



10.
An Integral Influence of the Novosibirsk Megapolis on River Run-off of Natural Radionuclids

Yu. M. PUZANKOV, S. V. MELGUNOV, A. E. BOGUSLAVSKY

Abstract >>
A comparative estimation of the radiation status of water currents in the vicinity of Novosibirsk is presented. The data on U, Ra, Th, K content of bottom sediments, soils and rocks are listed. The distribution and concentration levels of natural long-living radionuclids in river-bed sediments in the territories which are the purest from the viewpoint of possible man-made pollution (basin of the Berd



11.
System-Analytical Modeling of Changes in Temperature, Precipitation and Agroclimatic Potential of Siberia

Yu. B. KIRSTA

Abstract >>
The model for many-year dynamics of agroclimatic potential of territories is presented. The model describes agroecosystem dynamics with theoretically highest accuracy. Progress of phenological development of plants; monthly (including the winter) dynamics of soil humidity; crop formation and its bulk; many-year trends of average monthly air temperature, precipitation and anthropogenically influenced fertility of soils; dynamics of agroclimatic potential of territory were estimated simultaneously by numerically solving the inverse problem on the basis of many-year sets of actual wheat crops, long-term average monthly temperature and precipitation. The agricultural area of Siberia is considered as a case study. Information basis for a well-known Le Chatelier principle characterizing self-stabilization of agroecosystems and ecosystems has been revealed. Self-stabilization provides



12.
Absorption of Copper and Lead by Chestnut Soils of the Semipalatinsk Region Near the Irtysh, in the Republic of Kazakhstan

M. S. PANIN, T. I. GULKINA, A. M. BAIROVA

Abstract >>
The dependence of adsorption of Cu and Pb on their chemical nature, properties of soils and concentrations of the solutions applied is investigated. The mechanisms of the interaction of Cu and Pb ions with various soil ingredients are considered. It is shown that the adsorption of Cu and Pb by chestnut soils proceeds in agreement with Langmuir equation. The parameters of Langmuir equation are calculated.



13.
Estimation of Balance and Cycles of Nitrogen in Agricultural Ecosystems on Forest Soil of Pribaikalia Contaminated with Fluorides

A. Yu. PROKOFYEV, L. V. POMAZKINA

Abstract >>
It is demonstrated in small-allotment field experiments with unpolluted gray forest soils of Pribaikalia and the same soils polluted with water-soluble fluorides (6 MPC) that the pollution did not cause a decrease in the productivity of spring wheat; fluorine was accumulated only in straw. Investigations with 15N isotope revealed that pollution caused an increase in mineralization of the soil nitrogen and in gas losses; on the contrary, (re)immobilization decreased. This caused the formation of highly deficient total balance of nitrogen in soil. Efficiency of land improvement by peat and superphosphate at the background of NPK was exhibited by an increase in (re)immobilization and decrease in gas losses of nitrogen.



14.
Dynamics of Uranium Accumulation in Bottom Sediments of Lake Hollows of the Kulunda Plain

A. E. BOGUSLAVSKY

Abstract >>
The data on the content of natural radioactive elements (U, Ra, Th, and K40), as well as technogenic Cs137 in soils, subsoil substrata and bottom sediments of the regions of closed lake hollows are presented. It is shown that under the conditions of internal-drainage regions uranium is accumulated at a number of geochemical barriers: evaporative, sorption, gley and hydrogen sulphide. The intensity of uranium migration depends on the chemical composition of superficial water.