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2004 year, number 2

Development of nanotechnologies and their application to designing semiconductor electronics devices

Yu.G.Sidorov, A.I.Toropov, V.V.Shashkin, V.N.Ovsyuk, V.A.Gaisler, A.K.Gutakovskii, A.V.Latyshev, V.A.Tkachenko, Z.D.Kvon, A.V.Dvurechenskii, O.P.Pchelyakov, V.Ya.Prinz, V.P.Popov, and A.L.Aseev
Pages: 4–15

Abstract >>
Results on development of the molecular beam epitaxy technology and the silicon-on-insulator structure technology as applied to designing a new generation of IR photodetector devices, vertical cavity lasers, quantum dot transistors and photodetectors, quantum electronic interferometers, and nanotransistors are reviewed. Results of using the method of self-assembled strained epitaxial heterostructures and probe nanolithography for fabricating nanoobjects are shown. Data on the nanoobject structure, which were obtained by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunnel microscopy of atomic resolution, are presented. The capabilities of nanotechnologies for solving the main tasks of present-day semiconductor electronics are analyzed.

Nanometry: problems and solutions

Pages: 16–28

Abstract >>
The state and prospects for development of metrological provision of linear measurements in the nanometer range are considered. Problems of nanometer measurement technique are formulated and the most important tasks of their solution are defined. By analyzing the potentialities of different methods and facilities of nanometry, and also the fabrication technologies and designs of measures of small length it became possible to advise the most optimal ones in terms of their resolution, stability, and measurement error. Results of experimental investigation of a reference measurement complex based on a scanning probe microscope and a laser interferometer, which ensures real-time 3D measurement of linear dimensions with the atomic resolution are presented.

Nanotechnology instruments: the state of the art and development prospects

V.A.Bykov and V.N.Ryabokon
Pages: 29–35

Abstract >>
The current status, trends, and prospects of nanotechnology instrument designs based on scanning probe devices are presented. Some characteristics of scanning probe microscopes, probe laboratories, and probe fabrication facilities are considered. Examples of domestically produced probe devices are presented.

Laser pattern generator for synthesizing the microrelief of diffractive optical elements on 3D axisymmetric surfaces

V.M.Vedernikov, A.G.Verkhoglyad, V.M.Gurenko, L.B.Kastorskii, A.V.Kiryanov, V.P.Kiryanov, S.A.Kokarev, and A.R.Sametov
Pages: 36–45

Abstract >>
Peculiarities of constructing the main control systems in a laser pattern generator designed for synthesizing the microrelief of diffractive optical elements on 3D surfaces are considered. Particular emphasis is given to problems of designing an autofocusing system. For these applications the system was done as a self-tuning system with functions of automatic search, capture, and retention of the record surface at a distance of the best focusing. Results of writing diffractive optical elements on different types of surfaces, including flat surfaces, coated with chromium or photoresist films, and a spherical surface coated with a chromium film are presented.

The problem of the mechanism of image writing in chromium films

V.P.Kiryanov and V.G.Nikitin
Pages: 46–53

Abstract >>
An explosive crystallization model of the mechanism of latent image writing in chromium films is considered. It is shown that application of this model of image writing by means of laser pattern generators of the CLWS-300/C type allows one to describe the difference in the form of the front and back edges of the interaction trace and explain the change in the position of the front edge of the trace relative to the angular coordinate corresponding to the moment of switch-on signal actuation. It is claimed that the dominating process in latent image writing in chromium films is their recrystallization.

A review of laser range-finder designs

Cachan, France
Pages: 54–63

Abstract >>
Principles of designs of present-day laser range-finders are reviewed. They are simple time-of-flight laser range-finders, phase-shift frequency modulation continuous-wave laser range-finders based on phase-shift measurement of a signal reflected from the target, and complex correlation devices based on digital pseudo-random modulation characterized as noise-immune ones. Application fields of each type of laser range-finders are presented, and their advantages and limitations are analyzed.

An optoelectronic device for noncontact inspection of geometrical parameters of fuel elements

V.A.Beloglazova, O.I.Bityutskii, A.A.Gushchina, Yu.K.Karlov, B.E.Krivenkov, P.I.Lavrenyuk, V.I.Ladygin, V.I.Nesin, A.I.Pastushenko, A.N.Petrov, Yu.V.Pimenov, V.V.Rozhkov, I.G.Chapaev, V.M.Chernyshev, Yu.V.Chugui, V.P.Yunoshev, and S.P.Yunoshev
Pages: 64–72

Abstract >>
A device for dimensional inspection of fuel elements (FE) of nuclear reactors VVER-1000 and VVER-440, which is based on the shadow measurement method, is presented. Technical software and metrological assurance of the device are described. Results of industrial tests and pilot exploitation are discussed. It is shown that such a device will properly maintain the technological process of FE production and, thus, improve safety of nuclear reactors and their service characteristics.

Laser triangulation position sensors in industrial inspection and diagnostics systems

A.N.Baibakov, V.I.Ladygin, A.I.Pastushenko, S.V.Plotnikov, N.T.Tukubaev, and S.P.Yunoshev
Pages: 83–90

Abstract >>
Results of investigating the triangulation measurement error as a function of signal processing algorithms and probing beam width are presented. It is shown that a median processing algorithm and a probing beam of 100 m width will reduce the minimum error from 10 to unities of micrometers. Circuitry decisions ensuring the rate of the sensors in the range from 1000 to 100 000 measurements per second are considered. This has made it possible to solve complex problems and extended the application field of laser position sensors. Applications of laser position sensors developed at the Technological Design Institute of Scientific Instrument Engineering of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in inspection-measurement systems used in the metallurgy and automobile industry, energy producing branch, and railroad are illustrated.

Determination of object shift from a Fourier interferogram

Pages: 91–96

Abstract >>
A case when in the Fourier holography scheme an object under investigation experiences a combined displacement with a previously known (test) shift, which allows one to easily determine the value and direction (sign) of the unknown displacement, is considered.


T.V.Kudryashov and V.A.Grechikhin
Pages: 97–103

Abstract >>
The method of the wavelet analysis of signals of the laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) used to measure the velocity of light-scattering particles in a given local area of an aerodynamic or hydrodynamic flow is considered. The errors in velocity estimates are analyzed; these errors are caused by setup parameters, chosen observation conditions, and characteristics of the processing algorithm of the output LDA signal. Recommendations on the measurement technique are given.