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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2012 year, number 6

1.
Platinum Metals in the Environment: Content, Determination, Behaviour in Natural Systems

I. V. KUBRAKOVA,  A. V. NIKULIN,  I. YA. KOSHCHEEVA and  O. A. TYUTYUNNIK
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kosygina, 19, Moscow 119991 (Russia)
E-mail: kubrakova@geokhi.ru
Keywords: platinum, palladium, content and forms of occurrence in natural systems, determination methods, modelling of behaviour at geochemical barriers
Pages: 593603

Abstract >>
Modern analytical methods of the investigation of platinum-containing objects are considered, including the features and possibilities of the combined methods to determine trace amounts of platinum and palladium in surface water, soil and rocks. The data on metal content, the forms of their occurrence in geochemical systems and in technogenic sources from which they inter the environment are reported. The migration behaviour of different forms of platinum and palladium under the conditions characteristic of natural systems are considered, along with the results of model studies of the sorption behaviour of these elements at geochemical barriers.



2.
Catalysts for Obtaining 2,3,5-Trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, a Key Intermediate for the Synthesis Vitamin E

YU. A. RODIKOVA and E. G ZHIZHINA
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: rodikova@catalysis.ru
Keywords: 2,3,6-trimethylphenol, 2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, oxidation
Pages: 605619

Abstract >>
The development of catalytic methods for the oxidation of organic compounds those fit contemporary environmental requirements represents a complicated and highly urgent task, especially for the processes of fine and pharmaceutical chemistry. This review summarizes data concerning the catalytic oxidation methods developed during the last 20 years for converting 2,3,6-trimethylphenol into 2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, a key intermediate for the synthesis of vitamin E. Also considered catalysts during 2,3,6-trimethylphenol hydroxylation in to 2,3,5-trimethyl-1,4-hydroquinone are considered, too.



3.
Properties of Enterosorbents Obtained from Autohydrolyzed Bark

E. V. VEPRIKOVA1, S. A. KUZNETSOVA1,2, N. V. CHESNOKOV1,2 and B. N. KUZNETSOV1,2
1 Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia)
E-mail: veprikova2@mail.ru
2 Siberian Federal University,
Pr. Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 664041 (Russia)
Keywords: birch bark, phloem, silver bark, explosive authohydrolysis, enterosorbent
Pages: 621626

Abstract >>
Preliminary birch bark activation by steam under the conditions of explosive autohydrolysis was studied. It has been established that as the result of the preliminary processing the sorption activity of obtained enterosorbents with respect to methylene blue and gelatin exhibits a significant increase. The properties of enterosorbents resulted from autohydrolyzedyh phloem and silver birch bark have been compared. Conditions for the activation of birch bark by explosive authohydrolysis to obtain enterosorbents have been determined those could be better than commercial enterosorbent Polyphepan according to the sorption activity with respect to methylene blue and gelatin.



4.
Biologically Active Substances of Amaranth (Amaranthus L.) from the Collection of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB RAS (Novosibirsk)

G. I. VYSOCHINA1, T. A. KUKUSHKINA1, N. B. ZHELEZNOVA2 and A. V. ZHELEZNOV2
1 Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: vysochina_galina@mail.ru
2 Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 10, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: flavonols, catechins, tannins, carotenoids, amaranth Amaranthus L.
Pages: 627633

Abstract >>
The content of biologically active substances (flavonols, catechins, tannins, carotenoids) was studied for 45 samples of amaranth (Amaranthus L.) of different geographical origin, grown at the experimental plot of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics of the SB RAS (Novosibirsk). Amaranth leaves contain up to 3.2 % of flavonols, 0.33 % of catechins, 10.7 % of tannins, 101.4 mg% of carotenoids, whereas the flowers contain up to 3.1, 0.19, 11.3 %, and 32.3 mg %, respectively. A significant variation in the characteristics under testing has been revealed, which allows one to carry out the selection for increasing the content of either substance, and to use available species as feedstock sources.



5.
Recycling Spent Sulphur-Containing Sorbents Obtained from Sodium Polysulphide and Organochlorine Wastes

V. A. GRABELNYKH1, E. P. LEVANOVA1, A. V. REDINOVA2, N. V. RUSSAVSKAYA2 and N. A. KORCHEVIN2
1 Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
-mail: venk@irioch.irk.ru
2 Irkutsk State Railway Engineering University,
Ul. Chernyshevskogo 15, Irkutsk 664074 (Russia)
Keywords: sulphur-containing sorbents, processing, 1,2-dithiol-3-thione and 1,2,3-tris(methylsulpha-nyl)propane
Pages: 635639

Abstract >>
By means of reducing or thermal cracking, spent sulphur-containing sorbents obtained from waste organochlorine products can be converted into valuable organosulphur products such as 1,2-dithiol-3-thione, or 1,2,3-tris(methylsulphanyl)propane. The metal contained in the sorbent in both cases is transformed into corresponding sulphide and could be used to produce the metal in the usual way.



6.
Investigation of the Kinetics and the Development of a Mathematical Model for the Synthesis of Propylene Oxide in Methanol Environment

A. A. OVCHAROV, S. M. DANOV and A. V. SULIMOV
Dzerzhinsk Polytechnical Institute,
Division of Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University,
Ul. Gaydara 49, Dzerzhinsk 606026 (Russia)
E-mail: epoxide@mail.ru
Keywords: propylene oxide, kinetic model, epoxidation, titanium-containing zeolite
Pages: 641645

Abstract >>
Kinetics of propylene epoxidation using an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of titanium-containing zeolite was studied. An effect of concentration reagent and reaction product concentration and the temperature on the reaction rate was considered. Basing on the experimental data obtained, a mathematical model of the process was proposed to calculate the reaction rate constants, adsorption equilibrium and activation energy.



7.
Mechanochemical Synthesis of Metal Carbides Using Carbon from Plant Raw Material

D. V. ONISHCHENKO and  V. P. REVA
Far East Federal University,
Ul. Sukhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russia)
E-mail: Ondivl@mail.ru
Keywords: renewable plant raw materials, titanium carbide, tungsten monocarbide, mechanochemical synthesis, mechanical activation, polymethylmethacrylate, aromaticity, structure of carbon modifications, cold isostatic pressing, high temperature sintering
Pages: 647653

Abstract >>
Mechanochemical synthesis of titanium and tungsten carbides involving carbon modifications obtained from the wastes of agricultural plants was developed. The conditions that affect the progress of mechanochemical synthesis of tungsten and titanium carbides were studied.



8.
Extraction of Uranium from Mineralized Waters of the Shaazgay Nuur Lake (Mongolia)

YU. V. OSTROVSKIY1, G. M. ZABORTSEV1, N. Z. LYAKHOV2 and V. P. ISUPOV2
1 JSC “State Specialized Design Institute”, Novosibirsk VNIPIET,
Ul. B. Khmelnitskogo 2, Novosibirsk 630075 (Russia)
E-mail: ost@vnipiet-nsk.ru
2 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
E-mail: isupov@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: naturally occurring mineral water, uranium, galvanochemical treatment, sorption, anion
Pages: 655660

Abstract >>
Processes were studied concerning uranium extraction from the mineralized water of the Shaazgay Nuur Lake using the techniques of galvanochemistry and ion exchange on anionites. The application of galvanochemical method with the use of coal and steel wool as galvanic couple has been demonstrated to allow almost completely extracting the uranium from the mineralized water with the uranium content amounting to about 1 mg/L. A quantitative extraction of uranium from the mineralized water using anion exchangers AM-P, Purolite A-400 and Purolite A-560, has been shown to be possible, both in static and dynamic modes.



9.
New Combined Preparations Based on the Extracts of Larch and Lichen as Efficient Tool to Enhance the Productivity of Spring Wheat

M. P. POLOVINKA1, M. T. EGORYCHEVA2, N. G. VLASENKO2 and N. F. SALAKHUTDINOV1
1 Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: polovina@nioch.nsc.ru
2 Siberian Research Institute of Agriculture and Chemization, Russian Agricultural Academy,
Krasnoobsk, Novosibirsk Region 630501 (Russia)
Keywords: extract of larch (Larix sibirica), extract of lichens of Usnea genus, bisamine, 2,4-dichlorophenylacetic acid, spring wheat, phytopathogens, productivity
Pages: 661668

Abstract >>
A new efficient preparation with the broad range of action was developed on the basis of the aqueous solution of larch extract with the addition of a salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with bisamine and the extract of lichens of Usnea genus. The activity of this preparation is comparable with that of chemical fungicides. The preparation suppresses the development of mycosis and increases the productivity of spring wheat.



10.
Synthesis of Phenol-Containing Polysaccharides Basing on 6-Chloro-6-deoxy Cellulose and Phytogenous Phenolic Acids

M. A. TORLOPOV
Institute of Chemistry, Komi Science Centre, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Pervomayskaya 48, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russia)
E-mail: Torlopov-ma@chemi.komisc.ru
Keywords: phenol-containing polysaccharides, ferulic acid, halogenated deoxy cellulose
Pages: 669673

Abstract >>
Cellulose derivatives were synthesized containing up to 25 mass % of the fragments of ferulic or vanillic acid. Phenol-containing polysaccharides obtained by means of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution reaction between 6-chloro-6-deoxy cellulose and potassium or tetrabutylammonium salts of corresponding phenolic acids. The source halogenated deoxy polysaccharide was obtained via the action of sulphuryl chloride on cellulose in the presence of pyridine in N,N-dimethylformamide environment.



11.
Degradable Bioplastics as an Alternative to Nondegradable Polyolefins

E. G. KISELEV1,2 and O. N. SHISHATSKIY2
1 Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Akademgorodok 50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russia)
E-mail: evgeniygek@gmail.com
2 Siberian Federal University,
Pr. Svobodny 79, Krasnoyarsk 664041 (Russia)
Keywords: biopolymers, polyhydroxyalkanoates, degradable bioplastics, cost price of polyhydroxyalkanoates, substrates, synthesis gas
Pages: 675677

Abstract >>
Urgency is demonstrated concerning the studies focused on the development of processes for producing a new generation of environmentally safe and biodegradable polymeric materials. Basing on the experimental characteristics of the process of synthesizing polyhydroxyalkanoates obtained as the result of pilot plant operation at the Institute of Biophysics of the SB RAS (Krasnoyarsk), there has been a technical and economic analysis of the process performed. Calculation results are presented for the cost price of polyhydroxyalkanoates in the case of different substrate scenarios.



12.
(S)–(+)Dihydromyrcene in the Directed Synthesis of Insect Pheromones

O. S. KUKOVINETS1, V. G. KASRADZE2, V. N. ODINOKOV3 and G. A. TOLSTIKOV4
1 Bashkiria State University,
Ul. Zaki-Validi 32, Ufa 450074 (Russia)
E-mail: kukovinets@mail.ru
2 Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ufa Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Oktyabrya 71, Ufa 450054 (Russia)
E-mail: kasradzevg@anrb.ru
3 Institute of Petrochemistry and Catalysis, Ufa Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Oktyabrya 141, Ufa 450075 (Russia)
4 Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Keywords: (S)-(+)-dihydromyrcene, pheromones, oxidation, ozonolysis
Pages: 679681

Abstract >>
Via the selective oxidative transformations of double bonds in (+)-(3S)-3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-diene (dihydromyrcene), the main thermolysis product of (+)-cis-pinane, efficient schemes are developed for the synthesis of a number of optically active insect pheromones.



13.
Obtaining Nanofibrous Carbon from Sphagnum Moss with the Help of Pyrolysis and Mechanochemical Activation

D. V. ONISHCHENKO and V. P. REVA
Far East Federal University,
Ul. Sukhanova, 8, Vladivostok 690950 (Russia)
E-mail: ondivl@mail.ru, festurvp@mail.ru
Keywords: sphagnum moss, pyrolysis, mechanical activation, nanofibrous carbon
Pages: 683685

Abstract >>
Nanofibrous carbon (multi-wall nanotubes) was obtained through mechanochemical treatment of the amorphous modification of carbon, synthesized from sphagnum moss, carried out using the vario-planetary mill.



14.
Role of Volcanic Factor in Enhancing Springtime Ozone Anomalies over Antarctica

E. S. SAVELYEVA, V. V. ZUEV and N. E. ZUEVA
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademicheskiy 10/3, Tomsk 634055 (Russia)
E-mail: sav@imces.ru
Keywords: Antarctic ozone hole, volcanoes, Mount Erebus, Volcanic Explosivity Index VEI, sulphuric acid aerosol, chloronitrate, hydrogen chloride, polar vortex, polar stratospheric cloud, condensation nuclei
Pages: 687692

Abstract >>
A predominant role of volcanic factor in strengthening the springtime ozone anomalies over Antarctica has been demonstrated. Correlation analysis was performed concerning the average data for September and October with respect to the areas of polar stratospheric clouds and the ozone hole over Antarctica as well as with respect to minimum temperature values in the stratosphere at an altitude of 18 km, during three 11-year period from 1979 to 2011. It is demonstrated that the accelerated growth of the ozone hole in the early 1980s coincided with the maximum gas emissions of the Antarctic volcano Mount Erebus. Within the subsequent 11-year period, increasing the area of the ozone hole was caused by an abrupt increase in the content of sulphuric acid aerosol in the stratosphere over Antarctica associated with powerful volcanic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo and Hudson Cerro in 1991.



15.
The First Baikal Materials Science Forum
CHRONICLE

S. S. PALITSYNA
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
susanna@binm.bscnet.ru