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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2012 year, number 3

1.
Methods for Producing Kaptax and Improving the Environmental Safety of Its Production

L. L. GOGIN,   E. G. ZHIZHINA,   Z. P. PAI and  V. N. PARMON
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: gogin@catalysis.ru
Keywords: kaptax, obtaining, production
Pages: 227235

Abstract >>
Known laboratory-scale and industrial methods are reviewed therein concerning the production of one of the most important vulcanization accelerators such as kaptax (2-mercaptobenzothiazol) those are based on modifying the substituents in the thiazol ring and synthesizing from acyclic precursors. The latter include also the main industrial method of obtaining kaptax based on the reaction between aniline, sulphur and carbon disulphide dangerous from the environmental point of view. Potentialities are demonstrated concerning the development of methods for producing kaptax without using carbon disulphide, which would significantly improve the environment safety of the process.



2.
Synthesis and Biological Activity of the Derivatives of Alkaloid Cytisine

I. V. KULAKOV  and   O. A. NURKENOV
Institute of Organic Synthesis and Coal Chemistry, Republic of Kazakhstan, Ul. Alikhanova 1, Karaganda 100008 (Kazakhstan)
E-mail: kulakov_iv@mail.ru
Keywords: alkaloid cytisine, cytisine derivatives, 1 NMR spectroscopy, X-ray structural analysis, biological activity
Pages: 237250

Abstract >>
Results of the investigations carried out by the authors during the past five years in the area of chemical transformation of cytisine alkaloid are presented. A number of new polyfunctional derivatives of cytisine alkaloid containing pharmacone groups including heterocyclic fragments were obtained. The composition and structure of the synthesized compounds were confirmed by means of the data of mass spectrometry, 1 NMR spectroscopy and X-ray structural analysis. Some features of the spatial structure of cytisine were established. The data obtained in the investigation of the biological activity of the synthesized derivatives are presented.



3.
Obtaining Ultra-Pure Hydrogen for Fuel Cells in the Reactors with Membrane Separation

B. N. LUKYANOV
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: lukjanov@catalysis.ru
Keywords: hydrogen, steam conversion, methane, carbon monoxide, fuel processor, membrane reactor, fuel cell, catalyst, adsorbent, reviews
Pages: 251263

Abstract >>
Main catalytic processes and fuel types are described inherent in the production of hydrogen for low-temperature fuel cells. Different types of solid membranes for extracting hydrogen from gas mixtures are considered. Descriptions of new membrane reactors are presented and the prospects for their use in hydrogen energy engineering are assessed.



4.
Dumps of Excavation Sites in the Elkon Horst as the Sources of Natural Radionuclides and Toxic Elements

S. YU. ARTAMONOVA,  M. S. MELGUNOV, V. N. DEMENTYEV and L. V. MIROSHNICHENKO
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: artam@igm.nsc.ru
Keywords: ore deposits, dumps, hypergenesis, secondary scattering aureoles, mass transfer with water, migration of radionuclides, natural radionuclides, isotopes, toxic elements, ecological risk
Pages: 265278

Abstract >>
Experimental data on water-assisted migration of uranium and microelements that are satellites of gold, from the dumps formed during exploration works in 1960–1970 at the territory of gold and uranium deposits of the Elkon horst (Yakutia) are presented. Investigations were carried out using a complex of methods including X-ray fluorescence analysis with the synchrotron radiation, semiconductor high-precision gamma spectrometry, scintillation gamma spectrometry, instrumental neutron activation analysis etc. It was established that the excavation dumps are the objects of increased ecological risk.



5.
Obtaining a Molecular Composite Based on Polytetrafluoroethylene and Silicon Dioxide

V. M. BOUZNIK1, A. N. DYACHENKO2 and A. S. KANTAEV2
1 Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Pr. 49, Moscow 119991 (Russia)
E-mail: bouznik@ngs.ru
2 Tomsk Polytechnic University, Pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
E-mail: akantaev@tpu.ru
Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene ammonium hexafluorosilicate, fluorosilicon polymer powder, thermal degradation, kinetics, thermal analysis, structural analysis
Pages: 279285

Abstract >>
A method is proposed for making a composite material based on a molecular mixture of polytetrafluoroethylene and SiO2 via absorbing the on thermal decomposition products of ammonium hexafluorosilicate and polytetrafluoroethylene in ammonia water. Using XRD diffraction analysis, it was evidenced that there is of SiO2 molecular distribution observed in the composite structure. An influence of the compound introduced upon the yield of fluorosilicon composite output from the gas phase was studied



6.
Kinetics of Oxidative Deamination by Monoamine Oxidase Preparations

N. V. GUREEVA
Tyumen State Clinical Academy of Health Ministry of Russia, Ul. Odesskaya 54, Tyumen 625026 (Russia)
E-mail: natalivg@mail.ru
Keywords: serotonin, tryptamine, kinetics, deamination, monoamine oxidase
Pages: 287291

Abstract >>
Assessing the activity of monoamine oxidase enzyme was performed for the reactions of serotonin, tryptamine and benzylamine deamination in different groups of animals according the ratio between the maximum deamination rate (wmax) and the Michaelis constant (KM). For the representatives of mammalian species studied the ratio of wmax/KM ranges within 1.0–3.6, for birds this range is wider amounting to 0.45.0, for fish this value ranges within 0.31.8. It was demonstrated that increasing the concentrations of substrates (up to 102 mol/L) or temperature (up to 42 °) promotes the enzyme activation.



7.
Studying the Kinetics and Equilibrium of Praseodymium (III) Sorption by Naturally Occurring Mordenite-Containing Tuff

N. M. KOZHEVNIKOVA
Baikal Institute of Nature Management, Siberian Bramch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,Ul. Sakhyanovoy 8, Ulan Ude 670047 (Russia)
E-mail: nicas@binm.bscnet.ru
Keywords: naturally occurring mordenite-containing tuff, praseodymium, kinetics, equilibrium
Pages: 293296

Abstract >>
Kinetic laws inherent in the sorption of praseodymium (III) ions from sulphate solutions on mordenite containing tuff. Kinetic parameters for the sorption process were determined, and constructed absorption isotherms for praseodymium ions were obtained. It has been established that the rate-determining stage is presented both by external and internal diffusion. From dilute solutions (<0.002 mol/L) praseodymium can be extracted to a complete extent.



8.
Effect of Mechanical Activation on the Kinetics of Kyanite Mullitization

G. G. LEPEZIN1, E. G. AVVAKUMOV2, YU. V. SERETKIN1 and O. B. VINOKUROVA2
1 Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: lepezin@uiggm.nsc.ru
2 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
E-mail: avvakumov@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: aluminosilicates, kyanite, mullitization, thermal treatment, mechanical activation
Pages: 297301

Abstract >>
The kinetics of mullitization of kyanite samples, both initial and mechanically activated in high-energy grinding devices within temperature range 12731573 K was investigated. It was shown that the kinetics of kyanite mullitization formally corresponds to the equation of monomolecular decomposition. The activation energy of this transformation is (63010) kJ/mol. It was established that mechanical activation of kyanite accelerates mullitization processes during subsequent thermal treatment. The yield of mullite per unit surface area is almost two times higher for mechanically activated sample than for non-activated one. Possible mechanism of mullitization process and technological aspects of the implementation of this process in industry are discussed.



9.
Effect of Al/AlN Deagglomeration on the Formation of a Modifying Porous Coating on Polymeric Fibres

A. S. LOZHKOMOEV,  O. V. BAKINA,  E. A. GLAZKOVA,  A. N. IVANOV,  N. V. SVAROVSKAYA,  A. N. SEROVA and M. I. LERNER
Institute of Strength Physics and Material Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademicheskiy 2/4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
E-mail: alekc@sibmail.com
Keywords: deagglomeration, nanopowder, modification, porous coating, adsorption
Pages: 303308

Abstract >>
Using dynamic light scattering technique, studying the destruction process were performed for the agglomerates of electro-explosion aluminium nitride nanopowder composition Al/AlN under ultrasonic dispersing in isopropyl alcohol. The average size of the initial agglomerates amounts to ~5.4 μm. It has been demonstrated that under the conditions of dispersing under investigation the initial agglomerates are disintegrated to produce a particle size of about 0.5 μm. No destruction resulting in primary particles of 40–80 nm in size is observed. It is demonstrated that the deagglomeration exerts a considerable effect upon the chemical reactivity of the aluminium nitride nanopowder composition in the reaction with water. It has been established that the size of the precursor particles exerts a substantial effect on the formation of a modifying nanostructured porous coating on polymeric fibres and on adsorption properties of the fibrous sorbent based the mentioned coating.



10.
Purifying Man-Caused Wastewaters and Technological Solutions from Heavy Metal Ions and Arsenic

A. I. MASLIY1, A. G. BELOBABA1, G. R. BOCHKAREV2, G. I. PUSHKAREVA2 and K. A. KOVALENKO2
1 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
E-mail: masliy@solid.nsc.ru
2 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia)
E-mail: masliy@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: man-caused wastewater, heavy metals, arsenic, electrolysis, flow-through porous cathodes
Pages: 309314

Abstract >>
A process of purifying complex multicomponent technological solutions with the use of a combined sorption-and-electrochemical method was studied. By the example of processing the technological solutions from the Belovo Zinc Plant and from the sulphuric acid workshop of the Ural Mining and Processing Company, a potentiality of combined using the adsorption and electrochemical stages for efficient extracting of HMI and arsenic up to attaining required MPC standards for discharging the solutions into a sewage system was demonstrated. This allows reducing to a significant extent the hazard inherent in the wastewaters and technological solutions, improving the environmental situation around the enterprises and reducing the metal loss.



11.
Iron Ore Concentrate for Purifying Water from Oil

YU. A. MIRGOROD1, V. M. FEDOSYUK2 and S. G. EMELYANOV1
1 Southwest State University, Ul. 50 Let Oktyabrya 94, Kursk 305040 (Russia)
E-mail: yu_mirgorod@mail.ru
2 Institute of Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Scientific-Practical Materials Research Centre, Ul. P. Brovki 17, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)
E-mail: fedosyuk@ifttp.bas-net.by
Keywords: powder, iron ore concentrate, the specific surface area, specific magnetic saturability, Verwey phase transition, oil, water purification
Pages: 315322

Abstract >>
With the use of X-ray diffraction, SEM, XFA, IR spectroscopy, and a Cryogenic High Field Measurement System we studied the composition, structure, properties of powders of iron ore concentrate from the Mikhailovskiy OMPE with a view to its use as a magnetic adsorbent for removing oil from the surface of water. It was demonstrated that the specific surface of the concentrate is equal to 1.5 m2/cm3, the concentrate exhibiting hydrophobic properties due to the formation of carbon on the surface thereof after the pyrolysis of the flotation reagent and starch resulting from drying at 800 . The specific magnetic saturability of the concentrate is 2.3 times higher than the specific magnetic saturability of pure magnetite, which could be caused by the penetration of iron atoms from the equipment into the interior of the concentrate particles (1 μm from the surface) as a result of the procedures of extraction, grinding, of dry and wet magnetic separation and flotation in the course of obtaining the concentrate. It was noted that the oil exhibits weak magnetic properties due to the presence of natural and man-made magnetic substances therein. After adding 15 % of the concentrate the specific magnetic saturability of hydrocarbons reaches 0.63 A m2/kg. Ways to use the concentrate are under discussion.



12.
Some Processing Techniques for Rhenium Isolation and Purification from Refractory Alloys

V. A. SHIPACHEV
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
E-mail: schipvl@niic.nsc.ru
Keywords: refractory alloy, hydrometallurgy, nonferrous metals, rhenium, segregation, separation, purification
Pages: 323326

Abstract >>
Two variants are presented for the hydrometallurgical extraction of rhenium from the solutions of complicated composition, obtained via recycling the wastes of multicomponent refractory alloy ZhS-32. The applying of both schemes results in the formation of AR-0 grade NH4ReO4. The yield of the metal amounts to 99.2 % from the initial metal content in the alloy. The techniques used allow performing a single stage separation of the rhenium from impurity metals with eliminating the channels of the irretrievable loss thereof.



13.
Elemental Composition of the Leaves of Wood Plants under the Conditions of Technogenic Pollution

T. A. SUKHAREVA
Institute of North Industrial Ecology, Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Fersmana 14a, Apatity 184209 (Russia)
E-mail: sukhareva@inep.ksc.ru
Keywords: elemental composition, pine, birch, leaves, needles, atmospheric pollution, GMK Pechenganikel JSC, northern taiga forest, the Kola Peninsula
Pages: 327333

Abstract >>
Chemical composition of assimilating organs of Pinus Sylvestris and Betula pubescens in the zone affected by the GMK Pechenganikel JSC situated in the northwest of the Murmansk Region near the borders of Finland, Norway and Russia was studied. Anomalously high concentrations of copper and nickel in the leaves (needles) of trees under the conditions of technogenic pollution were revealed. Insufficient provision of pine needles with nutrition elements – phosphorus and potassium was discovered. Higher concentrations of copper, nickel and sulphur in comparison with their concentrations in pine needles were detected.



14.
Effect of Mechanical Activation on the High-Temperature Synthesis of Fe3Al and Its Catalytic Properties during the Carbon Dioxide Assisted Conversion of Natural Gas

L. I. TSAPALO1, YU. S. NAIBORODENKO2, N. G. KASATSKIY2 and L. A. ARKATOVA1
1 National Research Tomsk State University, Prospekt Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
E-mail: Tsapalo@sibmail.com
2 Department of Structural Macrokinetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Prospekt Akademicheskiy 10/3, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, mechanical activation, intermetallides, carbon dioxide conversion of methane
Pages: 335341

Abstract >>
Effect of mechanical activation of the powder mixture 3Fe + Al on the structure of mechanocomposites and their evolution during self-propagating high-temperature synthesis was investigated. It was shown that substantial decrease of the temperatures of heat evolution start typical for thermal explosion and the critical temperature of thermal explosion of preliminarily activated mixtures is connected with the presence of regions with fine layered structure in agglomerates, while the heterophase character of synthesis products is due to relatively low maximal synthesis temperature. It was established that mechanical activation of the systems FeAl leads to a substantial increase in the catalytic activity of Fe3Al intermetallide during methane conversion into synthesis gas, and also to an increase in the conversion degree of CH4 and CO2 to 93 and 91 %, respectively. In the case of the sample without mechanical activation, these parameters are only 15 and 53 % for CH4 and CO2, respectively.