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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2011 year, number 4

1.
Role of Singlet Oxygen in the Oxidation of Toluene
on VanadiumMolybdenum Catalytic Systems

M. V. VISHNETSKAYA1 and I. S. TOMSKIY2
1 Gubkin Russian State University of Petroleum and Gas,
Leninskiy Prospect 65, Moscow 119991 (Russia)
2 Institute for Petroleum and Gas Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Oktyabrskaya 1, Yakutsk 677891 (Russia)
mvvishnetskaya@mail.ru, istomsky@yandex.ru
Keywords: singlet oxygen, toluene, heterogeneous catalysts, metal oxides
Pages: 321325

Abstract >>
It was established that the catalysts based on vanadium and molybdenum oxides exhibit activity in the generation of the singlet form of molecular oxygen. The major reaction on mixed oxides having the composition xV2O5 yMoO3 is not the one-electron oxidation but the addition to the double bond, preferably in the meta position. It was demonstrated that the oxidation of toluene on individual vanadium and molybdenum oxides follows independent routes: on V2O5, oxidation is realized mainly at the benzene ring, while on MoO3 it occurs at the side chain.



2.
Flavonoids of Wild and Introduced Plants of Several Species of the Hedysarum L. Genus

G. I. VYSOCHINA,T. A. KUKUSHKINA,N. A. KARNAUKHOVA and I. YU. SELYUTINA
Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
vysochina_galina@mail.ru, kukushkina-phyto@yandex.ru, karnaukhova-nina@rambler.ru, inessa1672@rambler.ru
Keywords: flavonoids, tick trefoil Hedysarum L., Gamotion section, legumes Fabaceae
Pages: 327333

Abstract >>
Flavonoid content was studied in the organs of the top part of plants of seven species of Hedysarum L. genus (H. alpinum L., H. flavescens Regel et Schmalh., H. austrosibiricum B. Fedtsch H. neglectum Ledeb., H. theinum Krasnob., H. gmelinii Ledeb. H. tschuense A. I. Pjak et A. L. Ebel) growing in the forest-steppe zone of West Siberia (Novosibirsk) and in natural populations in the Republic of Altay and Northern Kazakhstan. The species peculiarity of the accumulation of flavonoids was observed: the largest amount of flavonoids was detected in the leaves of H. flavescens, H. alpinum and H. theinum species (up to 15.0, 13.2 and 11.1 %, respectively). In general, all the studied species of Gamotion section are distinguished by exclusively high flavonoid content independently of age. The representatives of Multicaulia section H. gmelinii and H. tschuense are distinguished by somewhat lower (in comparison with the above-indicated species) flavonoid content (2.6 and 1.8 %, respectively). The species of Gamotion section are to be recommended as the source of flavonoids because the introduced and wild plants are characterized by the exclusive ability to synthesize the large amount of these compounds.



3.
Synthesis of Vinyl Chloride Derivatives
on the Basis of Betulin

O. B. KAZAKOVA, N. I. MEDVEDEVA, E. YU. YAMANSAROV, L. V. SPIRIKHIN, E. F. KHUSNUTDINOVA, O. S. KUKOVINETS and G. A. TOLSTIKOV
Institute of Organic Chemistry, Ufa Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Oktyabrya 71, Ufa 450054 (Russia)
obf@anrb.ru
Keywords: triterpenoids, betulin, methyl ketones, chlorovinyl derivatives, synthesis, ozonolysis
Pages: 335338

Abstract >>
Triterpenoids with a chlorovinyl fragment were synthesized through the interaction of diacetoxy-29-nor-20-oxobetulin and 2-cyano-3,4-seco-23-nor-4,28-dioxo-19β,28-epoxyoleane with phosphorus pentoxide via boiling in chloroform.



4.
Obtaining Nanocrystalline α-Al2O3 by Introducing a Seeding Agent into Precursors

G. R. KARAGEDOV
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 6300128 (Russia)
garik@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: α-aluminium oxide, nanopowder, synthesis, caking
Pages: 339345

Abstract >>
By introducing α-Al2O3 powder with particle size 25 nm, in the amount of 1–10 mass %, into the solution of aluminium nitrate or into dry aluminium hydroxide, the kinetics of the formation of the stable α-phase during subsequent heating of the precursor gets accelerated substantially. Depending on the amount and method of introducing the seeding agent, the complete transformation of the precursor into α-Al2O3 occurs at a temperature within the range 800 to 930 °. The powder formed at such a low temperature is composed of porous aggregates 1020 mm in size; the size of crystallites comprising the aggregates is independent of the amount of seeding agent introduced and is equal to approximately 5060 nm. Grinding under soft conditions leads to the destruction of aggregates and to the formation of nanopowder which is active towards caking. Later on, a ceramic material with the porosity at a level of 1 % is obtained from the powder at 1450 .



5.
Deactivation of Molybdenum Scrap from Uranium Dioxide Production and Developing a Fluoride Technology for Its Processing

F. V. MAKAROV1, V. V. GUZEEV1, V. P. PISHCHULIN1, A. YA. SVAROVSKAYA1 and T. I. GUZEEVA2
1 Seversk Technological Institute, Branch State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “National Research Nuclear University MEPhl”,
Pr. Kommunisticheskiy 65, Seversk, Tomskaya obl. 636036 (Russia)
2 Tomsk Polytechnic University,
Pr. Lenina 30, Tomsk 634050 (Russia)
mfedorv@rambler.ru
Keywords: molybdenum, uranium dioxide, waste, fluorination, kinetics, deactivation
Pages: 347353

Abstract >>
Deactivation and processing of the man-caused wastes of molybdenum from the production of uranium dioxide by means of fluorination with elemental fluorine were studied. The level and depth of molybdenum contamination with radioactive substances were established, the major physicochemical parameters of molybdenum fluorination were determined: the equilibrium composition, duration and conditions of reaction. The apparent activation energies were determined, and kinetic equations were deduced.



6.
Estimation of Organic Pollution of Odo Oba River (Osun State, Nigeria)

O. B. OLAFISOYE
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Bowen University,
P.M.B. 284, Iwo, Osun State (Nigeria
boladunni2001@yahoo.com
Keywords: organic pollution, Odo Oba River, water quality
Pages: 355361

Abstract >>
A study was carried out between mid June-August, 2010 to estimate the level of organic pollution of the Odo Oba River in Osun and Oyo States. The parameters used to monitor the degree of pollution were Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Permanganate Value (PV). 14 samples were collected along the water link, 200 m away from each other from the source to where the river discharges into the Asejire River. The values of DO, BOD5, COD and PV ranged between 1.01-5.38, 04.2-24.2, 103-337 and 12-96 mg/L, respectively. The mean and standard deviation values were also (3.181.86), (15.356.59), (17985) and (57.732.4) mg/L, respectively. The value of COD recorded from the analysis is greater than that of BOD5. This suggests that the river contains a high proportion of biologically non-degradable and inert matter as a constituent of gross organic pollution. From the results of the analysis, the Odo Oba River is heavily polluted. The result of the analysis places the Odo Oba River water quality in class V of the Classical Prati Water Quality Index Scale.



7.
Evaluation of the Quality of Atmospheric Air in Novosibirsk on the Basis of the Mass Concentration of Solid Particles

T. S. SELEGEY1, K. P. KUTSENOGII2, N. N. FILONENKO1, S. A. POPOVA2, T. N. LENKOVSKAYA1 and M. A. BIZIN2
1 Siberian Regional Research Hydrometeorological Institute,
Ul. Sovetskaya 30, Novosibirsk 630099 (Russia)
2 Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Institutskaya 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
selegey@sibnigmi.ru, koutsen@kinetics.nsc.ru
Keywords: quality of atmospehric air, solid suspended particles (SSP), mass concentration of aerosol, particles of the fraction ≤10 μm (SP10), maximum permissible concentration, quality standard, population health, life interval
Pages: 363369

Abstract >>
Evaluation of the quality of atmopsheric air in Novosibrsk was made on the basis of the examination of solid suspended particles (SSP) measured by the Rosgidromet system and by the Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion SB RAS. It was established that the fraction of particles ≤10 μm (SP10) in SSP is equal to 0.67. Evaluation of the quality of atmospheric air on the basis of SP10 did not reveal other pollutants in the urban air as established by Rosgidromet according to the existing procedure.



8.
Synthesis of Polymers Based on Polyvinyl Alcohol Glycidyl Ether of Ethylene Glycol and Amines as Possible Sorbents for Mercury and Uranium Salts

V. K. STANKEVICH, G. R. KLIMENKO, N. A. LOBANOVA, T. A. LELYUKH, G. A. VOLKOV and B. F. KUKHAREV
Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
val_stankevich@irioch.irk.ru, kgr@irioch.irk.ru
Keywords: polyvinyl alcohol glycidyl ether of ethylene glycol, modification, ammonia, ethylene diamine, sorbents, mercury nitrate (II), uranyl chloride
Pages: 371373

Abstract >>
Cross-linked copolymers were obtained by modifying polyvinylglycidylic ether of ethylene glycol with ammonia and ethylenediamine. The sorption capacity of these copolymers and the coefficients of metal distribution for of Hg(NO3)2 and UO2Cl2 aqueous solutions were determined.



9.
Physicochemical Processing of Human Exometabolites
for Closed Life Support Systems

E. F. SUTORMINA1, S. V. TRIFONOV2, YU. A. KUDENKO2, YU. A. IVANOVA1, L. G. PINAEVA1, A. A. TIKHOMIROV2 and L. A. ISUPOVA1
1 Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2 Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Akademgorodok, Build. 50, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russia)
selena@catalysis.ru
Keywords: life support system, processing exometabolite processing, catalytic ammonia oxidation, nitrogen oxides
Pages: 375382

Abstract >>
Composition of gas mixtures formed during the electrochemical (in the presence of H2O2) oxidation of the wastes of human vital activities and subsequent decomposition of carbamide remaining in solution after the oxidation of metabolites was studied. A principal possibility of the selective catalytic oxidation of ammonia evolved due to the decomposition of carbamide to form nitrogen oxides was demonstrated, for the purpose of obtaining the salts of nitric acid those are well assimilated by plants.



10.
Modified Lignins as Depressor Reagents
for Flotation of Disseminated Copper-Nickel Ores

L. I. TIMOSHENKO1, L. A. OPARINA2, V. G. SAMOYLOV1, S. M. MARKOSYAN1 and B. A. TROFIMOV2
1 Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marksa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia)
2 Favorsky Institute of Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Favorskogo 1, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
lit@icct.ru
Keywords: flotation, disseminated ores, depressors, modification of kraft lignin, aminomethylation
Pages: 383387

Abstract >>
Results are presented concerning studying the use of modified kraft lignin (sulphate) as a depressor reagent for non-metallic minerals in the flotation of disseminated copper-nickel ores. It was found that the modification of lignin according the Mannich reaction (aminomethylation) is a convenient method to implement and technologically sound recycling of the high-tonnage waste of pulp and paper industry.



11.
Reactivity of Coal of Different Stages of Metamorphism
in the Processes of Thermooxidative Destruction

T. S. YUSUPOV1, L. G. SHUMSKAYA1, A. P. BURDUKOV2 and V. A. LOGVINENKO3
1 Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
2 Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 1, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3 Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademika Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
yusupov@uiggm.nsc.ru
Keywords: coal, long-flame, lean, thermooxidative destruction, mechanical activation
Pages: 389394

Abstract >>
Changes of the reactivity of mechanically activated coal from different stages of metamorphism in the processes of thermooxidative destruction were studied by means of thermal analysis. Thermogravimetric curves recorded at different heating rates were processed using the Model Free computer software. It was demonstrated that the intense mechanical treatment of coal at different stages of metamorphism long-flame and lean) causes an increase in the reactivity of coal, which is exhibited as a decrease in the activation energy over the whole temperature range of thermooxidative destruction. It was established that the most reactive coal towards combustion in the air environment among the studied kinds is mechanically activated low-metamorphosed long-flame coal.



12.
Effect of Mechanical Activation of Biocomplexes
Based on Lichen Fronds on the Extractability
of Essential Microelements in Model Environments

V. V. ANSHAKOVA1 and B. M. KERSHENGOLTS2
1 Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University,
Ul. Belinskogo, 58, Yakutsk 677000 (Russia)
2 Institute of Biological Problems of Cryolitozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Lenina 41, Yakutsk 677891 (Russia)
anshakva_v@mail.ru, kershen@mail.ru
Keywords: biocomplexes, microelements, lichens, mechanochemical biotechnologies
Pages: 395398

Abstract >>
Gastrointestinal extraction of essential microelements from biocomplexes based on the fronds of lichens and medicinal plants, prepared by solid-phase mechanical treatment, was studied. It was established that mechanical activation of these biocomplexes in the presence of sodium bicarbonate leads to the increased extraction of essential microelements in model environments.



13.
Using Physicochemical Methods for in vitro Studying Urinary Calculi

M. O. ANTONOVA1, G. M. KUZMICHEVA1 and V. I. RUDENKO2
1 Lomonosov State University of Fine Chemical Technology,
Prospekt Vernadskogo 86, Moscow 119571 (Russia)
2 Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Institute of Uronephrology and Human Reproductive Health,
Ul. B. Pirogovskaya 2, Build. 1, Moscow 119992 (Russia)
Mary-andre@inbox.ru
Keywords: urinary calculi, physicochemical methods of analysis
Pages: 399407

Abstract >>
Results of the application of X-ray diffraction studies, IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, spectrophotometry to the in vitro investigation of the phase composition of urinary calculi and the use of X-ray spectral microanalysis for the determination of their elemental composition are presented. The methods of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry were optimized for the quantitative determination of crystallization water in oxalates, and Lawry method was optimized for the quantitative determination of protein in all the kinds of urinary calculi. An interconnection between the hardness of oxalates, urates and phosphates, protein content and the kinds of microstructure was revealed.



14.
Preparation of Synthetic Hydroxyapatite to Form Biocompatible Coatings on the Implants of Medical Purpose

K. S. KULYASHOVA and YU. P. SHARKEEV
Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Akademicheskiy 2/4, Tomsk 634021 (Russia)
kseniya@ispms.tsc.ru
Keywords: hydroxyapatite, synthesis, biocoating, zirconium implant
Pages: 409415

Abstract >>
A modified technique was proposed for the liquid-phase synthesis of hydroxyapatite allowing one to increase the stoichiometry of the product (the ratio Ca/P = 1.64) in comparison with the standard technique (Ca/P = 1.31). A comparison of the basic physicochemical characteristics for the synthetic and biological hydroxyapatite on the surface of zirconium was carried out. Calcium phosphate biocompatible coatings were obtained on the surface of zirconium basing on the synthesized and biological hydroxyapatite.



15.
Determining the Optimal Process Conditions
for Volatile Metal Fluoride Desublimation

P. A. SMOLKIN, A. S. BUYNOVSKIY and V. L. SOFRONOV
Seversk Technological Institute, Branch State Budget Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education National Research Nuclear University MEPhl,
Pr. Kommunisticheskiy 65, Seversk, Tomskaya obl. 636036 (Russia)
spa-net@mail.ru
Keywords: desublimation, supersaturation, critical supersaturation, aerosol, mathematical model, modelling
Pages: 417421

Abstract >>
A mathematical model is presented for the calculation of optimal temperature values for the desublimation of metal fluorides and the number of desublimation steps those allow achieving the level of target product extraction from the vapour and gas mixture to almost 100 %. Results of modelling desublimation of uranium hexafluoride are presented.



16.
Investigation of the Sorption Properties of Materials
Based on Wastes from Wood Production
and Mineral Raw Materials

A. A. FOGEL, V. A. SOMIN and L. F. KOMAROVA
Polzunov Altai State Technical University,
Prospekt Lenina, 46, Barnaul 656038 (Russia)
htie@mail.ru
Keywords: sorbent, modification, saw dust, bentonite clay, sorption, statics and kinetics of sorption, water purification
Pages: 423427

Abstract >>
Method of obtaining a sorbent based on bentonite clay and saw dust was studied. Different kinds of saw dust modification were considered, the kinetics and statics of the sorption of copper ions from aqueous solutions on the indicated materials were investigated. The mechanical characteristics were determined and the choice was mode for the composition of the material which is optimal for the purification of waste water from the ions of heavy metals.