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Chemistry for Sustainable Development

2010 year, number 6

1.
Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthases: the Chemical Aspect of the Problem

Y. S. Kosenkova, M. P. Polovinka, N. F. Salakhutdinov
Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
anvar@nioch.nsc.ru
Keywords: nitrogen oxide, inhibitors of nitrogen oxide, NO synthases, selectivity
Pages: 581-601

Abstract >>
Different classes of compounds exhibiting the properties of inhibitors for NO synthases are considered in the review. Literature data on natural and synthetic agents published between the years 2003 and 2009 are analyzed and systematized.



2.
Absorption and Catalytic Conversion of Hydrocarbons: Reactors, Adsorbents and Catalysts

A. I. Lysikov, B. N. Lukyanov, A. G. Okunev
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
lyanig@catalysis.ru
Keywords: hydrogen, methane, absorption and catalytic conversion, the fuel processor reactor, catalyst, adsorbent
Pages: 603-615

Abstract >>
We consider the absorption and catalytic conversion of a single-stage method of obtaining high yield of pure hydrogen. This process involves simultaneous catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons into hydrogen and sorption removal of by-product - carbon dioxide. Different aspects of absorption and catalytic conversion are analyzed, including its technical implementation in flow reactors with fluidized and fixed bed, as well as high-temperature CO2 absorbents and catalysts necessary for the process. It is shown that the preferred scheme for production of hydrogen from methane is that with two or more fixed bed reactors, loaded with a mixture of a conventional nickel containing catalysts of steam conversion and a high temperature reversible absorbent. The analysis of the perspective high-regenerated absorbent of CO2: individual and deposited oxides of alkaline-earth metals, mixed lithium salts, promoted hydrotalcite. It is shown that the absorbents based on CaO have sufficient stationary dynamic capacity, stable under conditions of absorption and catalytic conversion, and optimal thermodynamic properties.



3.
Study on Removal and Immobilization of Cadmium Ions

Ghaffar Abdul
Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Radiation Isotope Application Division
ghaffargreat@yahoo.com
Keywords: cadmium removal, sorption, kinetics, physicochemical conditions, stabilization, glass matrix, leachibility
Pages: 617-622

Abstract >>
A technique was developed to remove and immobilize the cadmium ions from simulated industrial effluents. The cadmium ions were removed from industrial effluents by applying most economical method of sorption under certain physicochemical conditions. Removal of cadmium ions from industrial effluents using silica sand (originated from Ravi River) was studied to optimize the physicochemical conditions for maximum removal. The range of pH and temperature was optimized to get maximum removal of metal ions. Maximum removal (94-98 %) of cadmium was achieved with pH 10 and at temperature 25 oC. Under optimized conditions with temperature range of 298-318 K, ΔH, ΔS and ΔG298 for 200 mg/L solution were -71.10±3.8 kJ/mol, -220.2±11.5 J/(mol · K) and -6.70±0.4 kJ/mol, respectively, and for 250 mg/L solution thermodynamic entities were ΔH = -108.7±5.7 kJ/mol, ΔS = -335.7±17.5 J/(mol · K) and ΔG298 = -9.64±0.4 kJ/mol. This removal required certain physicochemical conditions; therefore, there were chances of desorption of the adsorbed metal ions under changed physicochemical conditions in final disposal. It was necessary to stabilize/immobilize sorbed metals ions by converting this "secondary waste" in a stable vitreous material having high resistance to leachibility. Such stabilization/immobilization of sorbed metal ions was obtained by converting the silica sand along with the sorbed cadmium ions into the glass matrix to prevent leaching/mobilization in final disposal under natural conditions. Stability of sorbed metals ions in final matrix was tested by desorption attempts in acidic and basic media and in ground water as well.



4.
Modern Level of Petroleum Products in Water of Lake Baikal and Its Tributaries

A. G. Gorshkov, I. I. Marinayte, T. I. Zemskaya, T. V. Khodzher
Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
gorchkov_ag@mail.ru
Keywords: petroleum products, n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pollution level, Lake Baikal
Pages: 623-630

Abstract >>
Data on the determination of petroleum products in surface and near-bottom water of Lake Baikal and its tributaries by means of express method (fluorometry, 168 samples) on board the research vessel are presented, as well as the data on n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) obtained under laboratory conditions by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. It was established that the oil product content of surface waters at the deep-sea stations of reference section does not exceed 10 μg/dm3, in water depth and in the near-bottom layer 5-7 μg/dm3, including n-alkanes - 0.15 μg/dm3, PAH (priority pollutants) - 0.012 μg/dm3; the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene is up to 10 times below MPC for drinking water (0.005 μg/dm3), total content of six PAH compounds under control in drinking water of EEC is up to 50 times lower than MPCEEC (0.2 μg/dm3). Increased background of oil products reaching 50 μg/dm3 (MPC for fishery) was detected at limited regions of intense navigable waterways. Extremal concentrations of oil products (up to 1.3 · 104 μg/dm3), n-alkanes (up to 500 μg/dm3), PAH (up to 20 μg/dm3) were discovered in the samples taken from the water surface of the lake in the regions of natural oil shows. With an increase in the distance from oil show boundaries (oil spots on water surface) the concentrations of oil products decrease sharply but exceed the average value for the water area of the lake almost by a factor of two (11 μg/dm3).



5.
Mechanochemical Preparation and Properties of Water-Soluble Intermolecular Complexes of Polysaccharides and ОІ-Cyclodextrin with Pharmaceutical Substances

A. V. Dushkin1, E. S. Meteleva1, T. G. Tolstikova2, M. V. Khvostov2, G. A. Tolstikov2
1 Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
2 Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
dushkin@solid.nsc.ru, tg_tolstikova@mail.ru
Keywords: water-soluble supramolecular complexes, arabinogalactan, ?-cyclodextrin, polysaccharides, pharmacological properties, mechanical destruction, low-soluble pharmaceutical substances
Pages: 631-640

Abstract >>
Comparative investigation of obtaining conditions and the "stability" of water-soluble intermolecular complexes of low-soluble pharmaceutical substances and different polysaccharides with β-cyclodextrin was carried out. Substantial improvement of the pharmacological characteristics of resulting complexes in comparison with initial pharmaceutical substances was demonstrated.



6.
Bioklad - an Effective Protectant of the Spring Wheat Seeds

M. T. Egorycheva1, N. G. Vlasenko1, M. P. Polovinka2, N. F. Salakhutdinov2
1 Siberian Research Institute of Farming and Agricultural Chemization, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
2 Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
polovina@nioch.nsc.ru
Keywords: extraction, lichens of Cladonia genus, usnic acid, wheat, phytopathogens, pesticides
Pages: 641-644

Abstract >>
Fractional extraction of the sum of lichens of Cladonia genus was carried out. The effect of presowing treatment of the spring wheat seeds with the preparation obtained from the ethanol extraction of lichens on the development of root rot agents was considered. Rather high efficiency in suppression of root rod was confirmed. The stimulating effect of the preparation on growth processes and increase in wheat productivity was revealed.



7.
Kinetic Parameters of Dissolution of Asphalt-Tar-Paraffin Deposits in Some Hydrocarbon Solvents

I. . Ivanova, E. Y. Shits
Institute for Petroleum and Gas Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
iva-izabella@yandex.ru
Keywords: asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits, gas condensate, aliphatic-aromatic solvent, reaction order, rate constant
Pages: 645-648

Abstract >>
The process of dissolution of asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits of paraffinaceous type in the gas condensate of alkane basis and a mixture of hexane with benzene at a temperature of 10 and 25 °С was investigated. The kinetic description of the process was made with the help of Erofeev-Kolmogorov equation. Kinetic parameters were calculated: rate constants, activation energies and orders of the reactions of dissolution of asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits in the solvents under investigation.



8.
Investigation of the Functional Characteristics of Perovskites SrCo0.8 - xFe0.2NbxO3 - z

A. S. Kozhemyachenko, A. P. Nemudry
Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
nemudry@solid.nsc.ru
Keywords: perovskites, oxygen-permeable membranes, thermochemical stability, electrochemical oxidation, oxygen transport
Pages: 649-655

Abstract >>
Single-phase membrane materials having the composition SrCo0.8 - xNbxFe0.2O3 - z were obtained. The effect of doping with niobium on thermal stability and transport characteristics of the obtained compounds was studied. It was shown that the isomorphous substitution of cobalt ions with highly charged Nb5+ cations causes an increase in thermal stability of the compounds under investigation in the reductive atmosphere and suppression of the phase transition perovskite - brownmillerite, which is accompanied by acceptable decrease in oxygen permeability.



9.
Catalytic Combustion of Wastewater Sediments from Community Facilities

A. D. Simonov, O. V. Chub, N. A. Yazykov
Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
simonov@catalysis.ru
Keywords: catalytic combustion, fluidized bed of catalyst, wastewater sediments from community facilities
Pages: 657-661

Abstract >>
A process was studied concerning the combustion of municipal wastewater sediments from sludge fields of the Gorvodocanal Co. (Novosibirsk), in the fluidized bed of a catalyst. It was found that at the process temperature of 700 °C, the burnout level of the sediment amounted up to 98 %. In this case, the content of toxic substances (Hg, HCl, SO3, P2O5, СО, NOx meets the sanitary standards. It was demonstrated that the combustion of sediments is possible after its preliminary drying up to obtaining the moisture level equal to 54 %.



10.
Obtaining Hydrated Antimony Pentoxide for the Sorption of Cesium and Strontium Ions

B. M. Shavinsky, L. M. Levchenko, V. N. Mitkin
Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
luda@che.nsk.su, luda@che.nsk.su, luda@che.nsk.su
Keywords: hydrated antimony pentoxide, sorption of cesium, strontium, antimony tetroxide
Pages: 663-667

Abstract >>
Potentialities were studied concerning the obtaining of hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) via much simpler methods than the method of SbCl5 hydrolysis described in the literature. A sorption capacity was tested for the HAP obtained with respect to Cs+and Sr2+, whose, radionuclides are of environmental hazard when released into water basins. The oxides obtained were studied by means of powder X-ray diffraction method. It is established that the treatment of Sb powder by 16 M HNO3 solution and the subsequent drying at 150 °C results in obtaining antimony tetroxide rather than pentoxide. Evaporation of antimony solution in nitrohydrochloric acid (aqua regia) and drying at the same temperature results in the formation of HAP, whose composition is close to Sb2O5 · 5H2O. Adding HNO3 to the solutions in the course of evaporation results in decreasing the hydration level. It was revealed that when HNO3/HCl molar ratio in aqua regia is equal to 5 : 1 the HAP composition approaches to Sb2O5 · 3H2O (H3SbO4), whereas with HNO3/HCl = 9 : 1 therein the hydrate composition approaches to Sb2O5 · 2H2O (H4Sb2O7).



11.
Effect of Activated Carbon Preliminary Thermal Treatment on the Adsorption Extraction of Aniline and Phenol

O. V. Belyaeva, T. A. Krasnova, A. V. Anikina
Kemerovo Technological Institute of Food Industry
ecolog1528@yandex.ru
Keywords: preliminary heated activated carbon, adsorption, aniline, phenol
Pages: 669-673

Abstract >>
An effect was studied concerning the preliminary heating of activated carbon at the temperature of 250 °C on the porosity parameters of the adsorbent and the state of its surface. A comparative analysis was performed for the adsorption extraction of aniline and phenol from aqueous solutions by initial and pre-heated samples of the adsorbent. It was demonstrated that the thermal treatment of activated carbon causes an increase in the adsorption level of aniline and exerts almost no effect on the adsorption of phenol.



12.
Obtaining Titanium-Containing Zeolite and Studying Its Catalytic Properties in the Epoxidation of Allyl Alcohol

A. V. Ovcharova, S. M. Danov, A. V. Sulimov
Dzerzhinsk Polytechnical Institute, Division of Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University
avsulimova@mail.ru
Keywords: titanium zeolite, allyl alcohol, glycidol, epoxidation, catalytic activity
Pages: 675-682

Abstract >>
Results are presented concerning the optimization of composition and conditions for obtaining titanium-containing zeolite, a catalyst for allyl alcohol liquid-phase epoxidation by an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide in the methanol environment. The composition and conditions for catalyst preparation were revealed to provide a maximum yield of glycidol.



13.
Synthesis of Isomeric Hydroxysulphides (Sulphones) Based on 3,5,8-Trioxaspiro[bicyclo[5.1.0]octane-4,1′-cyclohexane]

R. S. Pavelyev1, E. N. Klimovitskiy2, L. E. Nikitina1
1 Kazan State Medical University
2 Butlerov Chemical Institute, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
pavelev.r.s@mail.ru
Keywords: thiolysis, acylation, oxidation, isomerisation, epoxy acetals, green chemistry
Pages: 683-689

Abstract >>
Five- and seven-membered cyclic ketals of 3-phenylsulphanylbutane-1,2,4-triol were obtained via thiolysis of 3,5,8-trioxaspiro[bicyclo[5.1.0]octane-4,1′-cyclohexane] thiophenol, followed by isomerisation. The syntheses were carried out using the methods of green chemistry (reactions in water without the use of organic solvents). The thiolysis in basic medium proceeds in a selective manner resulting in the formation of ketal from 1,3-dioxepane series only. In hot water, by the contrast, a mixture of isomeric spiroacetals is formed. The obtained β-hydroxysulphides and their acetates were oxidized to yield corresponding sulphones. The structure of the isomeric products was confirmed by the method of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and
X-ray diffraction analysis.