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2002 year, number 4

1.
Chlorine-Containing Sesquiterpenes of Higher Plants

VALERY M. DEMBITSKY1 and GENRICH A. TOLSTIKOV2
1School of Pharmacy, P. O. Box 12065, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
Jerusalem 91120 (Israel), E-mail: dvalery@cc.huji.ac.il
2N. N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Lavrentyeva 9,
Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: gtolstik@nioch.nsc.ru
Pages: 363-370

Abstract >>
The structures of chlorine-containing sesquiterpenes produced by higher plants and data on the biological activity of some compounds are presented.



2.
Indirect Oxidation of Organic Substances by Hydrogen Peroxide Electrochemically Generated in situ from Oxygen (the Review)

VASILY L. KORNIENKO
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: kvl@icct.ru
Pages: 371-378

Abstract >>
The most urgent and promising lines of investigations in the field of indirect oxidation of organic substances by hydrogen peroxide electrochemically generated in situ from oxygen in aqueous solutions of electrolytes with varied ðÍ are considered: 1) application of gas-diffusion electrodes for intensification of electro-reduction of oxygen; 2) the potentialities of a simultaneous production of electric power and valuable products electro-synthesis, hybrid systems a fuel element



3.
Study of Mutual Influence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (Anthracene, Pyrene) and Baikalian Sponges in Model Experiments

OLGA YU. GLYZINA1, LARISA I. BELYKH2, NIKOLAY A. LATYSHEV3, ALEXANDER V. GLYZIN4 and ALEXANDER G. GORSHKOV1
1Limnological Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia), E-mail: info@lin.irk.ru
2Irkutsk State University, Ul. Lenina 3, Irkutsk 664003 (Russia)
3Institute of Marine Biology, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Palchevskogo 17, Vladivostok 690022 (Russia)
4Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Lermontova 132, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia)
Pages: 409-412

Abstract >>
Model experiments for investigation of mutual influence of anthracene and pyrene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) on the one hand and sweet-water sponge Lubomirskia baikalensis widespread in the Lake Baikal on the other hand have been carried out. The sponge



4.
Investigation of Physicochemical Properties and the Efficiency of the Application of Ultrafine Carbonaceous Materials of Different Crystallographic Structure in Elastomer Compositions

VICTOR M. GONCHAROV and DMITRY V. ERSHOV
Siberian State Technological University, Pr. Mira 82, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: fpkt@sibstu.kts.ru
Pages: 413-418

Abstract >>
The investigation of physicochemical properties of carbonaceous materials of different crystallographic structure is performed; the efficiency of their application as fillers for the elastomer compositions is studied. It is demonstrated that the application of carbonaceous dispersed fillers of mineral and artificial origin in elastomer compositions is the most efficient after their preliminary combination with carbon black in the aqueous phase.



5.
Preparation of Copper-Modified Porous Carbon Materials from Plant Polymers

BORIS N. KUZNETSOV, NIKOLAY V. CHESNOKOV, NADEZHDA M. MIKOVA, LILIA V. NAIMUSHINA, NINA I. PAVLENKO and GENNADY E. SELYUTIN
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: cnv@icct.ru
Pages: 431-440

Abstract >>
The parameters of the pyrolysis of copper-modified sulphite cellulose and aspen wood have been chosen to provide obtaining of copper-containing porous carbon materials. Dependencies connecting the yield of carbonized product and its specific surface area with pyrolysis conditions and the method of sample modifying were obtained. Transformations of metal-containing cellulose under thermal treatment and textural characteristics of carbon products were investigated by FTIR (DRIFT) spectroscopy, ESR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, thermogravimetry and BET techniques. Decreasing of the start of intensive thermal decomposition process for copper-containing cellulose on 40



6.
Study of the Stage Determining the Emission of Carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons during the Carbonization of the Medium-Softening-Point Pitch

LARISA I. KURTEEVA1, SVETLANA I. TSYGANOVA1, SERGEY V. MOROZOV2, NATALIA N. ANSHITS1, ALEXANDER R. SUZDORF1, VASILY P. PLEKHANOV3 and ALEXANDER G. ANSHITS1
1Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: anshits@icct.ru
2N. N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Lavrentyeva 9, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
3Krasnoyarsk State Technical University, Ul. Kirenskogo 26, Krasnoyarsk 660074 (Russia)
Pages: 419-430

Abstract >>
Composition and properties of the main products of slow heating carbonization (1



7.
Changes in the Chemical Composition of Wood during Mechanochemical Treatment

IRINA V. MIKUSHINA1, IRINA B. TROITSKAYA1, ALEXANDER V. DUSHKIN2 and NATALIA G. BAZARNOVA1
1Altay State University, Pr. Lenina 61, Barnaul 656099 (Russia)
2Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Kutateladze 18, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia), E-mail: Chab@solid.nsc.ru
Pages: 441-446

Abstract >>
Changes in the chemical composition of aspen wood after grinding in the ball, planetary, and vibrational centrifugal mills are estimated from the copper number, contents of water-soluble substances, monosaccharides in water-soluble substances, and the amount of easily hydrolyzed polysaccharides. It is stated that the destruction of polios and lignin occurs more intensively during the grinding of wood in the presence of sodium hydroxide.



8.
Thermal Decomposition of Mechanoactivated Technical Fluorocarbon Materials

VALENTIN N. MITKIN, PETR P. SEMYANNIKOV and ALEXANDER A. GALITSKY
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Lavrentyeva 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: mit@che.nsk.su
Pages: 447-466

Abstract >>
The features of the processes of thermal decomposition of mechanoactivated technical fluorocarbon materials (FCM-MA) of substoichiometric and superstoichiometric composition in vacuum and inert media have been studied at 250



9.
Peculiarities of Composition of Urinary Calculi from Patients of the Novosibirsk Region According to X-ray and IR Spectroscopy Data

VALENTINA N. STOLPOVSKAYA1, NADEZHDA A. PALCHIK1, SERGEY S. SHKURATOV2 and IRINA V. LEONOVA1
1A. A. Trofimuk United Institute of Geology, Geophysics and Mineralogy,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. Akademika Koptyuga 3, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia), E-mail: nadezhda@uiggm.nsc.ru
2Novosibirsk Regional Clinic Hospital, Ul. Nemirovicha-Danchenko 130, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russia)
Pages: 467-472

Abstract >>
Composition of 133 urinary calculi from patients of the Novosibirsk Region was studied for the purpose of analysis of peculiarities of urolithiasis in this region. The studies were carried out by means of X-ray diffractometry and IR spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that more than 80 % of all the stones were oxalate-containing, and more than a half of them were of oxalate-apatite nature. Such a composition witnesses to the leading role of metabolic disturbances in the genesis of urinary stones. Struvite-apatite and pure carbonate-apatite concrements typical of infectious processes made up only 9.8 % of all the pathological formations. Uric acid was identified in 11.3 % of stones, 3 % of them being pure uric acid concrements. The obtained results are compared with the data of similar studies carried out in Moscow and Berlin.



10.
Development of a Standard Sample of Composition of Deep Baikalian Water

ALEXANDER N. SUTURIN, LYUDMILA F. PARADINA, VLADIMIR N. EPOV, ALBERT R. SEMENOV and VALERY I. LOZHKIN
Limnilogical Institute, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Ulan-Batorskaya 3, Irkutsk 664033 (Russia), E-mail: info@lin.irk.ru
Pages: 473-482

Abstract >>
The possibility of creating a multielemental standard sample of deep water of Lake Baikal is substantiated. This is a new type of standard sample of natural waters balanced with respect to a wide range of macro- and trace elements. A standard sample reflects the specificity of matrix composition of hydro-carbonate-calcium waters to which waters of many world rivers and lakes and rain waters belong. Creation of a standard sample of Baikal



11.
Features of the Formation of Chemical Composition of Snow Drainage in the Closed Drainage of the Ob'

SERGEY V. TEMEREV1, VLADIMIR P. GALAKHOV2, ALLA N. EYRIKH1 and TATIANA G. SERYKH1
1Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Ul. Papanintsev 105, Barnaul 656099 (Russia), E-mail: temerev@chemwood.dcn-asu
2Altay State University, Pr. Lenina 61, Barnaul 656000 (Russia)
Pages: 483-494

Abstract >>
Results of field observations of the formation and distribution of the chemical sink of mineral substances and heavy metals in the closed drainage of the Ob'



12.
On the Choice of Working Conditions for the Determination of Trace Elements in the Composition of Sediments of Waste Waters of City Purification Plants

ZOYA N. AREFYEVA, HERMAN K. BUDNIKOV, SVETLANA Yu. SELIVANOVSKAYA, VENERA Z. LATYPOVA and DMITRY A. SEMANOV
Kazan, State University, Ul. Kremlevskaya 18, Kazan,
420008 (Russia), E-mail: Herman.Budnikov@ksu.ru
Pages: 379-386

Abstract >>
Various conditions of extraction of chemical elements (Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb, Ni, As, Hg) standardized in the composition of sediments of waste waters of urban purification works for their subsequent assay by the method of atomic absorption recommended for production control and estimation of sediments hazard class have been studied.  It is demonstrated that the maximal extraction of Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Ni is achieved when using a mixture of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide for heating. A special preparation of samples is recommended for extraction of Hg and As. Taking into account the results obtained with the help of the method proposed, the hazard class of real waste water sediments of urban purification works of Kazan and Naberezhnye Chelny has been calculated, and the possibility of their use as fertilizer has been estimated.



13.
Indirect Electrochemical Oxidation of Maleic Acidby Hydrogen Peroxide Generated in situ from Oxygen in the Gas-Diffusion Electrode

NATALIA V. CНAENKO, NINA I. PAVLENKO and VASILY L. KORNIENKO
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. K. Marxa 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russia), E-mail: kvl@icct.ru
Pages: 403-408

Abstract >>
Indirect oxidation of maleic acid by hydrogen peroxide electrochemically generated in situ from oxygen in the gas-diffusion electrode in 1 M Na2SO4 has been studied. The oxidation of substrate in divided cell with cation-exchange membrane is shown to proceed to malic acid, and in undivided cell destructive oxidation occurs to CO2 and H2O.



14.
Ecological and Mineralogical Characterization of the Phosphorites from the Khubsugul and Dzabkhan Phosphorite-Bearing Basins of Mongolia

MARINA V. CHAIKINA1, J. AMGALAN2, F. BATTSETSEG3, A. DORJPALAM3 and D. BAYARAA4
1Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry,
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ul. Kutateladze 18,
Novosibirsk 630128 (Russia), E-mail: chaikina@solid.nsk.su
2Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Mongolian Academy of Sciences,
Pr. Mira 54-26, Ulaanbaatar 51 (Mongolia)
3National University of Mongolia, Ikh Surguulin Gudamy 1,
P. O. Box 46/337, Ulaanbaatar 210646 (Mongolia)
4State Pedagogical University, Baga Toiruu-14, Ulaanbaatar 210648 (Mongolia)
Pages: 387-402

Abstract >>
The composition of minerals, the structure of apatite and the content of ecologically controlled elements in the phosphorites from the Khubsugul (KhPB) and Dzabkhan (DPB) phosphorite-bearing basins of Mongolia are investigated. The structural chemical and mineralogical classification of the phosphorites is performed. With respect to the mineralogical composition, the major part of phosphorites belongs to the cherty and carbonate-siliceous types. The phosphate substance of the KhPB and DPB deposits is represented by hydroxylcarbonatefluoroapatite. As regards the ratio of the major components, the apatites comprising these phosphorites belong to the first subgroup of the alkaline type, i. e. are phosphorus-deficient with respect to the stoichiometric composition. The content of trace elements in phosphorites was estimated using the dimensionless universal characteristics, i. e. ecological index of phosphates, which was 1.186 for the phosphorites of the Khubsugul deposit and 1.643 for the Burenkhan deposit, which means their ecological safety and suitability for use as fertilizers without chemical processing and enrichment. The proposed classification and ecological evaluation are necessary for solving the problem concerning the choice of an optimal technology of phosphorite processing, including mechanochemical treatment as the simplest and ecologically safest one. The classification can be useful for solving the genetic problems and for the search for new phosphorite deposits.