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Philosophy of Sciences

2024 year, number 1

1.
R. DESCARTES ANTICIPATION OF THE STRUCTURAL SPECIFICS OF MODERN EUROPEAN PHILOSOPHY

Vasiliy Pavlovich Goran
Institute of Philosophy and Law, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Descartes; science and philosophy of the Modern Era; a total picture and components of Descartes scientific, worldview and philosophical positions; materialism; objective idealism; subjective idealism; skepticism; irrationalism; dialectics

Abstract >>
The article begins a series of final authors publications designed to evaluate Descartes contribution to the formation and development of the philosophy of the Modern Era. The subject of concern directly in this article is the totality of the components of Descartes worldview, scientific and philosophical positions in its integrity and structural specifics. Ten such components are identified, and six of them are worthy of special mention considering their subsequent primary development in the philosophy of the Modern Era. These are materialistic, objective-idealistic, subjective-idealistic, skeptical and irrationalistic components, as well as one more, which there is no reason to describe as directly and consistently dialectical, but which is nevertheless represented in Descartes by his concrete steps to form one that. Focusing here not only on these six components, but on their totality also makes sense. To be exact, this clearly shows that in Descartes, they form a unity in which at least the first six both exclude and condition each other. Whereas, in subsequent modern European philosophers each of this components is present primarily as a separate line, declared as perhaps the only acceptable and worthy of efforts to develop it. So, focusing on the total picture of Descartes views makes clear the structural integrity of the entire modern European philosophy in all the diversity of its main components.



2.
HEURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE LAW OF THE NEGATION OF NEGATION IN THE CONTEXT OF ITS IMPORTANCE FOR UNDERSTANDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE

Aleksandr Vladimirovich Kirichek, Nina Anatol'evma Khodikova
Academy of - EMERCOM State Fire Service of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: history of science, dialectics, the negation of negation, law, methodology of scientific knowledge, heuristics

Abstract >>
The article studies the heuristic capabilities of the law of the negation of negation and related categories for revealing the patterns of the growth of scientific knowledge. Based on the history of natural science, it is shown that the struggle of alternative concepts can be presented in the light of this law as completed cycles of transition from the initial thesis through several antitheses to the final synthesis, which can subsequently become a thesis within the framework of a new cognitive cycle. According to the conducted analysis, the authors formulate methodological recommendations addressed to a wide range of researchers and aimed at increasing the effectiveness of any creative activity.



3.
THE PRINCIPLE OF LEAST ACTION AS THE TRANSCENDENTAL GROUND OF BEING PART II

Maryia Januschevna Matsevich
Belarusian National Technical University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: action, economy, language game, values, ethics, determinism, formalism, teleology

Abstract >>
The object of this study is the principle of least action (PLA) taken in the dialectical unity of various aspects of its manifestation in philosophy and science. The ways and means of PLA influence on the formation and implementation of the sustainable devel-opment strategy are also identified. Methodologically, the research is based on the ideas of classical philosophy, the ideas of L. Wittgenstein, the statements of the French epistemological tradition, and J. Derridas postmodernist principles of deconstruction. The methodological significance of PLA is substantiated as a precedent of fundamental ontology, which will be able to strategize for evolutionary adaptation and socio-ecological optimization.



4.
THREE TYPES OF SURVEYABILITY OF MATHEMATICAL PROOF

Lev Dmitrievich Lamberov
Interregional Non-Governmental Organization Russian Society for the History and Philosophy of Science, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: proof, surveyability, rigor, formalization, mathematics, intuition

Abstract >>
The article examines three types of surveyability: global, local and mesoscopic. The discussion of surveyability relates to computer proofs. The third type of surveyability, viz. mesoscopic surveyability, involves grasping the elementary steps of a proof in a group and relies on geometric intuition. Also, geometric intuition plays an important role in the concept of rigor as local validity. The article compares mesoscopic surveyability and the concept of rigor as local validity.



5.
INTEGRABILITY OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND COMPLEXITY CONVERSION

Alexey Andreevich Sukhno, Vyacheslav Vladimirovich Gulin
Institute of Mechanics of Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: differential equations, integrability, laws of physics, intuition, n-body problem, limits of knowledge, qualitative methods, phase space, complexity

Abstract >>
The article examines the situation around differential equations as a tool of natural science. On the one hand, during the Quiet Scientific Revolution of the 18th century, they made it possible to overcome the limitations of human intuition and reveal the potential of analytical methods for understanding nature. On the other hand, by the end of the 19th century, the problem of integrability of differential equations, which most clearly manifested itself with regard to the n-body problem, showed the need to rehabilitate intuition as the most important factor in scientific knowledge. It was the appeal to intuition that determined the creation of qualitative/geometric methods for studying nonlinear systems. Based on the analysis of this situation, the article draws a conclusion about the changes in methodology when scientific knowledge meets its limits: here the choice of mathematical tools is made in such a way that the complexity of one of the elements of the research situation, which has become an insurmountable barrier for knowledge, is transferred to some other element. So, this complexity conversion allows progress in the study of nature.



6.
ON AGENTIAL REALISM AND THE ONTOLOGY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

Igor Evgenievich Pris
Institute of Philosophy, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Keywords: quantum mechanics, agential realism, quantum correlation, Copenhagen interpretation, relational quantum mechanics, contextual quantum realism

Abstract >>
. Barad proposes agential realism as a unified approach to natural and social phenomena. The position is inspired by quantum mechanics and, in particular, the phenomenon of quantum entanglement. Barad also sees similarities between her approach, N. Bohrs view and C. Rovellis relational quantum mechanics. In our opinion, agential realism is a kind of ontological correlationism, and not realism. The analogy with the approaches of Bohr and Rovelli is only partial. Agential realism is a wrong interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is also unsuitable for social theorizing, for which considering the context sensitivity of ontology is fundamental. As an alternative, we propose contextual quantum realism (CQR), which rejects substance dualisms (as Barad does) but at the same time accepts the categorical dualism of the real and the ideal. Our approach also allows for a better understanding of Bohrs position and correcting Rovellis relational quantum mechanics.



7.
TRANSFORMATION OF HERMENEUTICS OF H.-G. GADAMER IN RELATION TO THE PROBLEMS OF GEOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

Vasiliy Anatolievich Mironov
Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: hermeneutics, geology, tradition, text, philosophy of geology

Abstract >>
The work is aimed at substantiating the applicability of H.-G. Gadamers hermeneutical ideas to the philosophical and methodological analysis of geological knowledge. Arguments are given in favor of the fact that cognitive practices in geology are more closely related to the hermeneutic cognitive procedures of human history than to the cognitive procedures of experimental physics, focused on the search and formulation of general laws. At the same time, Gadamers hermeneutical ideas are adapted to the context of geological knowledge.



8.
DE SE ILLUSION: A REVIEW OF HERMAN CAPPELEN & JOSH DEVERS «THE INESSENTIAL INDEXICAL. ON THE PHILOSOPHICAL INSIGNIFICANCE OF PERSPECTIVE AND THE FIRST PERSON

Olga Aleksandrovna Kozyreva
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: first person perspective, attitude, indexical, semantics, philosophy of mind

Abstract >>
The paper reviews «The Inessential Indexical. On the Philosophical Insignificance of Perspective and the First Person written by Herman Cappelen and Josh Dever. The review presents the main arguments of each of ten chapters



9.
REVIEW OF THE MONOGRAPH BY V.A. MIRONOV "GEOLOGIC COGNITION AS A SUBJECT PHILOSOPHICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS"

Vladimir Nikolaevich Salnikov
Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: geological cognition

Abstract >>
In the monograph "Geological cognition as a subject of philosophical and methodological analysis" (Ekaterinburg, 2003. 200 p.) V.A. Mironov makes an attempt to solve the problem of scientific status of geological cognition. This work is particularly important in the context of the vacuum in the philosophical and methodological studies of geology, which was formed by the end of the 1980s. The author distinguishes two directions, within the framework of which philosophical problems of geology are studied: domestic (Soviet, Russian) and represented in the English-language literature (mainly British and American). At the same time, he draws attention to the fact that separately each of these traditions does not allow to fully reflect the complexity of the process of geological cognition.



10.
ALEXANDER LEONIDOVICH SIMANOV - 75 YEARS