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Siberian Journal of Forest Science

2023 year, number 4

1.
TYPOLOGY OF FOREST HUNTING GROUNDS

A. G. Rassolov, A. S. Shishikin
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: forest typology, group classes, class, group types, type, satellite photography

Abstract >>
The analysis of the developed classification schemes of forest hunting grounds is given. Previously, forest typology was taken as a basis with a 4-level division (category-class-group of types-type). The authors adhere to this scheme, but give environment-forming arguments and criteria for their selection. An analysis of the main literature on the classification of forest hunting grounds shows the evolution of the classification of natural resources from the use of available information (forest planning materials) to the specific assessment of productivity displayed on satellite images. Any thematic interpretation of the natural basis does not correspond to the tasks of hunting management. Animals are mobile, and the forest environment is dynamic, so the classification of hunting grounds should take into account the spatial and successional factors in the formation of habitat conditions. The proposed scheme takes into account at the level of the range the action of climatic (zonal, altitudinal-zone), population-ecological (forage, protective and nesting) and population dynamics-succession (dynamics of stands) factors. When hunting planning, the already available materials of forest planning and former hunting planning are taken into account, but the thematic interpretation of the original information must be also considered. A direct interpretation of the ecological properties of the image of hunting grounds from satellite images is proposed, and the developed classification scheme of the dynamic state makes it possible to predict their successional productivity and the level of animal abundance. Therefore, one should focus on obtaining direct information about hunting grounds using high-resolution satellite imagery.



2.
INFLUENCE OF INNOVATIVE BIOFERTILIZERS ON SOIL BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY AND UNDERGROWTH OF SCOTCH PINE AFTER FELLING AND FIRE

G. I. Antonov, V. A. Senashova, G. G. Polyakova, N. V. Pashenova, S. V. Zhila, I. D. Grodnitskaya
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sylvestris L, forest regeneration, sawdust-soil substrate, mycoproduct, enzymatic activity, wood-destroying basidiomycetes

Abstract >>
Preserving the integrity of forests after logging and fires involves the development of various methods to promote natural reforestation. One of these methods is the creation of environmentally friendly and safe biofertilizers based on waste from the timber industry. The use of innovative biofertilizer in the Pogorelsky Bor (pine forest) of the Krasnoyarsk forest-steppe had a positive effect on the biopotential of soils and the amount of Scotch pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) undergrowth after selective felling. In the first two years, in all experimental variants, an increase in the activity of hydrolytic and redox enzymes of the soil by 1.5-2 times was noted; they increased compared to the control. Immediately after the introduction of biofertilizer in the soil microbial complex, the amount of cellulolytics increases to 62 thousand CFU/g of soil in the logging areas. By the end of the growing season, both in the first and in the second year of application of biofertilizer in the experimental variant of the logging, sprouts of Scots pine were recorded 2-3 times more than in the control variant of this site. The fire that took place in May 2022 led to an increase in the total number of microorganisms up to 38 million CFU/g of soil and an increase in the activity of a number of hydrolytic enzymes during the growing season in experimental plots using biofertilizer. At the end of the growing season in 2022, there was no response of microorganisms to the application of biofertilizer, and actinomycetes dominated in the soil microbial complex. Also, by September of this year, the cellulose-decomposing potential, humification, and the activity of hydrolytic and redox enzymes decreased by more than 2 times. Biofertilizer significantly stimulated the formation of shoots and undergrowth of pine in the post-fire areas of the technological areas of felling (logging sites and portage) by 2 times.



3.
ALTITUDINAL-BELT VARIABILITY OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN THE MOUNTAINS OF SOUTHERN SIBERIA

T. A. Burenina1, E. V. Fedotova1, C. F. Zang2
1V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk, Russian Federation
burenina@ksc.krasn.ru
2South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Peoples Republic of China
chuanfuzang@163.com
Keywords: precipitation, evapotranspiration, river basins, watersheds, altitudinal zonality of landscape, Western Sayan

Abstract >>
This work is devoted to the study of evapotranspiration in the landscape complexes of the northern macroslope of the Western Sayan. Article summarizes literature and authors data on evapotranspiration obtained at experimental watersheds in the basin of the river Kebezh, on one of which in the 70s, as an experiment, 50 % of the forest area in the watershed has been cut down. Calculations of the total evaporation of phytocenoses at the basin level has been made, taking into account the altitudinal zonality. To calculate evapotranspiration at the study sites, field data obtained as a result of silvicultural and geobotanical studies and hydrological observations were used. Based on interpretation of remote sensing images and the use of digital elevation model, classification of landscape-hydrological complexes for the basins of the Kebezh and Taigish rivers was carried out, for which the components of evapotranspiration were calculated. The results showed that evapotranspiration in the dark coniferous taiga of the Western Sayan is an important component of the water balance and a significant proportion is the unproductive consumption of moisture for the evaporation of precipitation intercepted by tree crowns. It has also been established that the structure of evapotranspiration changes along the altitudinal zones in accordance with the vertical differentiation of climatic parameters and vegetation productivity. Estimated evapotranspiration data for various landscape-hydrological complexes made it possible to an indirect estimates of their contribution to the formation of runoff in river basins. This study can serve as a theoretical guide for landscape hydrological studies in the temperate cool zone.



4.
RANK DISTRIBUTION OF A TREE PHYTOMASS FRACTIONS IN NEW INTERPRETATION

V. A. Usoltsev1,2, I. S. Tsepordey1
1Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus L, P. sibirica Du Tour, P. koraiensis Siebold & Zucc, Abies Mill, Picea A. Dietr, Larix Mill, Cryptomeria D. Don, theories of assimilate distribution in a tree, the Zipf-Pareto model, the coefficient of competition for a resource, the age change of the sign of the coefficient of competition for a resource

Abstract >>
Due to the observed climatic shifts, the problem of an adequate assessment of the carbon depositing capacity of forests and its possible climate-related changes is being actualized. To achieve optimal plant productivity, a certain proportionality between its constituent organs must be ensured, which depends, among other things, on the relative amount of biomass in these organs. In contrast to the theories of metabolic scaling and adaptive mass distribution, the study performed is associated with a concept based on non-Gaussian distributions. Using published data on biomass of 4515 trees of forest-forming coniferous genera of Eurasia, a new concept of ranking biomass fractions based on a modified Zipf-Pareto model is presented. Since the stem and branches of the tree perform the same function in its architectonics, namely, the implementation of xylem and phloem transport and the maintenance of the assimilation apparatus of the tree in the canopy space, we combine these two components into one common block when ranking biomasses. Since the 1-year-old seedling has no branches, and the needles are attached directly to its stem (the axis of the initial sprout), combining the biomasses of the stem and branches into a single block allowed us to consider the dynamics of the distribution of biomasses in the plant in the total age range, from seedlings to mature trees. Having accepted the ranking of biomasses in the sequence: stem plus branches, roots and needles, we established a positive relationship of the biomass with its rank at the initial stage of plant growth. As the plant grows, the named positive relationship changes its sign and becomes negative one. The presented regularity is confirmed statistically at the level of p<0.999. The change of the sign of the coefficient of competition for a resource occurs in all the genera in a fairly narrow age range between 2 and 7 years.



5.
PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF SEEDS OF THE SIBERIAN STONE PINE ON FOREST SEED ORCHARDS IN THE REPUBLIC OF ALTAI

L. I. Borodintseva1, V. V. Tarakanov1,2, T. V. Goncharova2,3
1West Siberian Division of V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch - Branch of the Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
2Novosibirsk State Agrarian University, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
3Center for Forest Protection of Novosibirsk Oblast - Branch of the Russian Center for Forest Protection, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Pinus sibirica Du Tour, forest seed orchards of the first order, permanent forest seed compartments of improved origin, yield, viability of seeds

Abstract >>
The results of a study of seed productivity and sowing qualities of seeds on forest seed objects of the Siberian stone pine ( Pinus sibirica Du Tour) in the Pyzhinsky Forestry Compartment of the Turochaksky Forestry District of the Republic of Altai are discussed in the article. The objects of the studies were forest seed orchards of the first order and permanent forest seed plots of improved origin, created in 1980-1988 by seedlings of a plus trees on the area of 22.8 hectares. Evaluation of seed productivity and seed quality was carried out in the average-yields year by standard methods. The average seed yield was 31 kg/ha, varying by objects from 8 to 73, the size of the cones was 7.0 × 5.4 cm, varying from 4.5 × 4.0 to 9.0 × 6.0 cm. The main contribution to the variability of yield indicators is determined by the age, which at the time of the studies was 27-34 years. So far, the yield of seeds from cones and the viability of seeds are reduced somewhat in comparison with natural stands. The highest yield (73 kg/ha) and viability of seeds (87 %) is in the most mature forest seed orchard. Based on the dependence of the yield on age, a forecast was made that the forest seed orchard will achieve the natural Siberian stone pine forests of Altais seed productivity (150 kg/ha) to the age of 50. The least variable traits are the sizes of cones and seeds and their shape indices (variation coefficients are about 9-10 %). Intermediate and rather unstable reproduced on various objects are the coefficients of variation of seed viability (5-58 %). Obviously, this is due to differences in the efficiency of pollination due to different ages of stands. The greatest variability is typical for weight and counting traits - from 30 to 200 % or more.



6.
RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST SURVEY PARAMETERS WITH INDICATORS OF CONDITION IN PINE PROTECTIVE STANDS

A. V. Dancheva1, S. V. Zalesov2, V. S. Korovina1
1State Agrarian University of Northern Zaurale, Tyumen, Russian Federation
2Ural State Forest Engineering University, Yekaterinburg, Russian Federation
Keywords: pine tree stands, forest park, recreational impact, forest survey indicators, condition of the trees

Abstract >>
The results of a study of the relationship between forest survey indicators and a condition indicators with the size of trees in diameter and their relative height are presented with the possible use of the latter in assessing the state of even-aged, high-density, pure composition pine forest stands of Zatyumenskiy ecological park in the city of Tyumen. It has been revealed, that 6-13 % of the total number of trees in the sample plots falls on the share of small-diameter trees. At the same time, the timber stock of such trees does not exceed 4 % of the total growing stock. Large-diameter trees account for 18-36 % of the total number of trees and 30-50 % of the total timber stock in the sample plots. In terms of indicators such as tree health and relative vitality, relative height and growth stress coefficient, small-diameter trees, in most cases, are characterized as severely weakened, dying and biologically unstable. At the same time, large and medium-sized trees are considered as healthy or weakened, but biologically stable. The average indicators of the general state of the tree stand are significantly negatively affected by the presence of small-diameter trees, in most cases, very weakened and dying. A general pattern of deterioration in the state of the tree stand with an increase in recreational impact has been revealed. It has been established that weakened trees with a relative height H/D < 100 are characterized by the smallest diameters, and their number and timber stock increase with an increase in recreational impact. Based on the results of the studies, a number of forestry measures have been proposed to increase the biological stability, recreational attractiveness and protective functions of the studied pine forests.



7.
THE QUALITY OF WOOD OF DRAINED NORTH-TAIGA PINE FORESTS OF ARKHANGELSK OBLAST, DETERMINED BY EXPRESS METHOD

S. V. Tretyakov1,2, S. V. Koptev1,2, A. V. Davydov1,2, M. A. Zagorodskiy1,2, I. V. Tsvetkov1,2, A. A. Paramonov1, A. A. Karaban1,2
1Northern Research Institute of Forestry, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
2Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
Keywords: Scotch pine, hydraulic melioration, wood density, increments, thinning, Arctic zone of the Russian Federation

Abstract >>
The study of the wood quality in the drained pine stand was carried out on the territory of the north taiga of Arkhangelsk Oblast, which belongs to the green zone of the city of Arkhangelsk and the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Repeated measurements of forest inventory parameters were carried out on 6 permanent sample plots affected by melioration since 1974 and reconstruction of the drainage network in 1990. Before drainage, a swampy pine stands of the Vb bonitet class grew on them. At present, medium-aged scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stands of shrubby-sphagnum forest type, IV bonitet class, grow on the drained area. For half of the plots, it is possible to recommend thinning according to the current Russian Rules of forest care (2020). Some of the trees meet the requirements for the aviation lumber wood quality. For a visual simultaneous analysis of the drainage network quality impact, the location of objects relative to the drainage network and the air temperature in abnormally hot years, diagrams of changes in the average indicators of the width of the annual increment and the wood density in the drained pine stands by year are constructed. Similar diagrams are constructed on the basis of measuring the model tree cores at different relative heights of the trunk. This analytical approach has been applied for the first time. It is suggested that in 10 years the inventory parameters of all facilities will meet the requirements for the thinning purpose, and the wood quality will increase on average, for which it is recommended to reconstruct the channels.



8.
ADAPTATION OF REGENERATED PLANTS OF Rubus arcticus L. TO ex vitro CONDITIONS USING HYDROPONICS

S. S. Makarov1,2, M. T. Upadyshev3, S. A. Rodin4, T. A. Makarova5, Z. A. Samoylenko5, I. B. Kuznetsova6
1Russian State Agrarian University - Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, Moscow, Russian Federation
2Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M. V. Lomonosov, Arkhangelsk, Russian Federation
3Federal Scientific Breeding and Technological Center for Horticulture and Nursery, Moscow, Russian Federation
4All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Silviculture and Mechanization of Forestry, Pushkino, Russian Federation
5Surgut State University, Surgut, Russian Federation
6Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Karavaevo, Russian Federation
Keywords: arctic bramble, cultivar, clonal micropropagation, survival rate, morphometric parameters

Abstract >>
The results of studies on the adaptation of arctic bramble ( Rubus arcticus L.) plants of Astra and Sofia cultivars obtained by the clonal micropropagation method to non-sterile ex vitro conditions using the hydroponic method of cultivation are discussed in the article. The arctic bramble is a highly valuable species of forest berry plants in food and medicinal relations, rarely found and having a low yield in natural conditions. Adaptation to non-sterile ex vitro conditions is one of the limiting stages in clonal micropropagation. The survival rate of regenerated plants of arctic bramble of the studied cultivars in the conditions of a hydroponic system is 98 %, 1 month after planting in open ground - 69 %. Regenerated plants have stronger differences in morphometric parameters between clones within a cultivar than between cultivars. The arctic bramble planted in conglomerates formed shoots in the amount of 5.0 pcs. with an average length of 2.5 cm on the 20th day of adaptation. On the 45th day of arctic bramble plants after division into separate shoots had an average of 3.0 pcs. shoots with an average length of 8.3 cm. The arctic bramble plants of the Sofia cultivar have higher morphometric parameters of the above-ground and root systems compared to the Astra cultivar on the 45th day of cultivation in a hydroponic system: by the number of roots - by 30.3 %, by the total length of the roots - by 23 %, by the number of leaves - by 20 %, by the number of shoots - by 14 %, by the length of the shoots - by 10 %. The indicators of the development of the root system on a hydroponic installation depended on the varietal characteristics and the growing period. The arctic bramble plants have roots 10-20 cm long and shoot growths of 20-30 cm after 2 months of adaptation, which indicates its suitability for planting in open ground conditions.