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Region: Economics and Sociology

2023 year, number 1

1.
THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN THE REGIONS OF GREATER SIBERIA: PROCESS DIAGNOSIS, INTERACTION WITH TYPES OF REGIONAL SPACE, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SPECIAL CASES

A.N. Pelyasov1, I.N. Alov2, B.V. Nikitin1
1Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, regions of Greater Siberia, relocation, horizontal, hierarchical spatial diffusion of the virus, permeability of regional space, types of regional spatial systems

Abstract >>
This study focuses on the process of the COVID-19 pandemic spread across Siberia in 2020-2021, using the case study of 15 constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Its purpose has been to explain the mechanism of coronavirus penetration into Siberia and the resulting excess mortality proceeding from the distinctive features of Siberian regions space. The novelty of our approach consists in using the most reliable monthly excess mortality statistics for characterizing the demographic impact of the pandemic, regional regulatory legal acts of antiviral nature, and the concept of spatial diffusion of innovations to characterize pandemic waves in the regions of Greater Siberia. The main findings are as follows. First, five types of Siberian regions have been singled out in terms of integral demographic damage from the pandemic in 2020-2021: Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug for the highest excess mortality; Omsk, Novosibirsk, and Tyumen Oblasts for moderately high; Tomsk Oblast, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Krais for relatively high; Irkutsk and Kemerovo Oblasts, Altai Republic, Republics of Khakassia and Buryatia, and Zabaykalsky Krai for below the national average; Republic of Tuva for extremely low excess mortality throughout the entire pandemic. Second, four types of regional spatial systems in Siberia have been identified according to the degree of vulnerability to coronavirus diffusion: most vulnerable open polycentric; highly vulnerable open centralized; moderately vulnerable closed centralized; least vulnerable closed polycentric. Third, it has been found that for the first type, crucial for pandemic spread was relocation spatial diffusion (and its particular characteristic case of rotational migration); the second type had relocation (by plane) and horizontal (within the local labor market); the third and fourth types had horizontal spatial diffusion as the most prominent factor. Conventional factors, such as industry specialization, population density, and Siberian-specific transport infrastructure, had little effect on coronavirus incidence. Much more important was the (contact-intensive) communication slice of these factors, which determined the potential and rate of pandemic spread in Siberian regions.



2.
EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF METROPOLITAN AREA MANAGEMENT: THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS

E. Markwart1, D.P. Sosnin1,2, S.V. Nechaeva3
1Institute for Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
2Center for Territorial Change and Urban Development, IPEI RANERA, Moscow, Russia
3Chelyabinsk of the Institute for Social Sciences, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Chelyabinsk, Russia
Keywords: metropolitan area management, metropolitan areas (urban agglomerations), management effectiveness, agglomeration interaction, development of metropolitan areas

Abstract >>
The effectiveness of metropolitan area management has not yet been extensively studied. The article proposes to evaluate it in relation to the inter-communal cooperation model based on three components, i.e., evaluate the overail effectiveness of managing the areas development as the degree to which the goals of agglomeration interaction are achieved, political" effectiveness of decision-making and implementation, and managerial" effectiveness of agglomeration projects implementation. Along with the theoretical justification of the approach, the article presents the research results on the effectiveness of managing metropolitan areas in Chelyabinsk Oblast.



3.
ASIAN RUSSIA: SPATIAL STRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FACTORS

E.A. Kolomak1,2, A.I. Sherubneva1
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Novosibirsk National Research State University, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Asian Russia, municipalities, spatial development, empirical analysis

Abstract >>
The article examines in detail how the Asian part of Russia develops spatially, the geographical unit of analysis being municipal formations. Based on the study of distributed characteristics of economic development, we conclude that there is heterogeneity and inconsistency in Russias development in the east, both in latitudinal and meridional dimensions. The influences of resource, geographic, infrastructural, agglomeration, and market factors on the development of municipalities in Russian Asia are assessed using econometric methods. Our sample includes 271 municipalities, and the observation period covers the period between 2015 and 2018. Regression estimates have shown that the resource economy and natural rents continue to play an important role in the eastern economy. However, despite the low business density and high transport costs, agglomeration and market factors show significance and shape the spatial proportions of Asian Russia. The market mechanism influence is ambiguous: while depletion dominates interactions between regional centers and their environs, horizontal inter-municipal relations create a positive effect, which overrides the negative impact caused by the rest of the regions engagement with its capital. The results obtained are arguments in favor of strengthening the macro-region space connectivity and supporting inter-regional and inter-municipal cooperation. The solution to this problem includes both a technical component, involving the infrastructure projects, and an institutional one, aimed at strengthening cooperative and reducing competitive incentives for spatial interaction.



4.
EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF PLACE BRANDING ON DOMESTIC TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONSTITUENT ENTITIES OF RUSSIA

R.M. Melnikov1, P.Yu. Makarov2
1Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia
2Vladimir Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Vladimir, Russia
Keywords: place branding, place brand, tourism, difference-in-differences method, place branding effectiveness, place marketing, tourist attractiveness, place development

Abstract >>
The article tests hypotheses about how place branding initiatives impact the number of attracted tourists and revenues of the tourism and recreational sector in Russias constituent entities. For this purpose, we perform a difference-in-differences estimation on their panel data to find the average effect of place branding on increasing the number of guests in collective accommodation establishments and the value-added of hospitality industry enterprises. The results show that the implementation of place branding initiatives is associated with an average growth in the number of tourists attracted by 15.7%, and the level of income from serving them escalates with a more dynamic brand promotion policy. However, such positive effects are observable mostly in the early years of place branding initiatives. Achieving long-term goals to raise the income of the regions tourism and recreation sector, therefore, requires not only place branding but also more capital-intensive measures to develop tourist infrastructure, create new facilities, and hold events that could be an incentive to visit the region.



5.
FEATURES OF CHANGES IN THE NUMBER AND AGE STRUCTURE OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE COHORTS IN RUSSIA UNDER CONDITIONS OF DEPOPULATION

S.V. Soboleva, N.E. Smirnova, O.V. Chudaeva
Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Depopulation, natural growth, fertility, mortality, women of reproductive age, age structure, age groups

Abstract >>
The article briefly describes the natural population movement in Russia between 1980 and 2021 with an emphasis on the depopulation processes of the post-Soviet period. The root cause of depopulation is insufficient fertility to replace generations over a long time. The number of births is determined by the number of female reproductive cohorts and their age structure in addition to the per-woman fertility. The study presents the features of the dynamics of these indicators for childbearing-age women by constituent entities in the context of all-Russian trends. Demographic analysis of dynamic series distinguishing the populations of urban and rural areas has been used as a research method, with its information base being Rosstat data for 1980-2021. It is shown that the number of women of reproductive age, especially in rural areas, was decreasing faster than the total population of Russia. At the same time, nationwide, the number of women in the most fertile age groups of 20 to 34 years declined even more rapidly. The sharpest negative trends in the sizes of the considered cohorts were manifested in the Far Eastern Federal District, which has long been experiencing an outflow of migrants. In addition to the reduction in the total number of women aged 15-49 in Russia, their age structure also changed: the number and proportion of young women decreased in both the cities and in the countryside, while women of older reproductive ages with much lower fertility rates, on the contrary, became more prevalent. A particularly strong decline in numbers due to extremely low fertility in the 1990s was recorded in the most reproductively active age group of 25 to 29 years. As a result of such quantitative and qualitative changes associated with the long-term decline and aging of women of reproductive age, the countrys prospects of exiting lingering depopulation by increasing the number of births are severely complicated. This complexity is even greater given the dramatic increase in the number of deaths from 2020 due to the spread of coronavirus. Thus, the natural population decline in 2021, record-breaking for the entire post-Soviet period, reinforces an extremely negative trend towards further depopulation in Russia and its regions with the corresponding consequences for the future of the country, its socio-economic development, geopolitical status, and national security. The results of the study may be useful for the legislative and executive authorities when shaping and adjusting demographic policy and socio-economic development strategies.



6.
SPATIAL MOBILITY BY RAIL OF THE RUSSIAN POPULATION

A.A. Bychkova
Institute of Economics, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: rail transport, human migration, internal migration, regional development, infrastructure, interregional migration, transport accessibility

Abstract >>
The article deals with the social and economic factors of migrations by rail across Russia. It uncovers the main reasons for human migration in the regions from and to which citizens change their place of residence. The aim of the research is to determine the factors influencing the migration flows in the spatial relationship between regions, considering the density of railroad infrastructure. The objectives are to study and identify statistically significant indicators that characterize relocation factors. For the study, we use statistical data on migration in 78 regions with the presence of rail transport and address population resettlement across the country (interregional gain/loss, thous. ppl.). Interregional migration flows are being studied more extensively each year due to their increasing relevance, which results from changes in the overall composition of the population, and the loss of citizens caused by the shifting geopolitical situation. The article notes the authors dealing with the issues of resettlement and exploring population mobility patterns by different socio-economic influences involving regional transport. We analyze factors of influence on resettlement with the least squares method. Several indicators are determined as statistically significant, while "outliers", i.e., data reflecting factors without impact on population flows, are preliminarily excluded. As a result, the article gives a cartographic representation of internal human migration. Visualizing the results of the study on regional resettlement by railroads makes it possible to identify significant migration factors that affect transport routing. The data obtained in the study of migration flows can be used by transport companies to inform decisions in planning regional development across the Russian Federation.



7.
INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL ECONOMY WITH THE MIYAZAWA MODEL

Z.B.-D. Dondokov, D.B. Dugarzhapova, E.Yu. Piskunov
Buryat Science Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Ude, Russia
Keywords: Miyazawa model, region, input-output table, household consumption, differentiation of population by income, multipliers, Republic of Buryatia

Abstract >>
The article deals with the relationship between value-added and household consumption indicators under the input-output model. It studies the problems of developing and using regional intersectoral models with an extended set of endogenous parameters. The practical applications of disaggregated regional models based on the Social Accounting Matrix method are shown to be limited. The Miyazawa model serves as a tool to analyze intersectoral interactions in the regions economy, linking the indicators of formation and use of income by various groups of households. The additional features of the considered model are revealed in comparison with the classical input-output model. We describe the production and consumption effects of multiplication from the consumer activity of households. The article also analyzes intersectoral relations in the regional economy based on data for the Republic of Buryatia for 14 types of economic activity. We present the wage and specific expenditure coefficient matrices for final household consumption in the context of 5 income groups by sectors of the economy in the republic. A comparative analysis of the regions gross output multipliers by Leontiev and Miyazawa models has been carried out. It is determined that the consumer activity of households has a maximum impact on the education and health and social services economic activities. The minimum influence is inherent in construction and wholesale and retail trade. In conclusion, we prove that applying the Miyazawa model at the regional level provides greater adequacy compared to the calculations at the national scale due to less dependence on the final use of profits.



8.
GREATER ALTAI: DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FEATURES

Yu.I. Vinokurov, B.A. Krasnoyarova
Institute for Water and Environmental Problems, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Barnaul, Russia
Keywords: Altai regions, cross-border region, international cooperation, development potential, transport communications

Abstract >>
The article considers the Altai regions located practically in the center of the Eurasian continent, peripheral to Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and Russia with mainly agro-industrial development. We identify functional features and potential growth opportunities for individual Greater Altai regions in the framework of their cross-border location and international cooperation, specifically within the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative. The initiative provides for new areas of cooperation largely in improving the connectivity of regions, creating new transport and logistics chains. There is a high mineral potential in Greater Altai, which is now poorly developed, except for the large deposits at the Rudny Altai (Kazakhstan and southwest Altai Krai). Joint development of mineral resources can provide a synergistic effect on how all Altai regions evolve, significantly changing their economic position in the global goods and services markets. The potential of recreational resources is also of significant interest in terms of arranging international historical, cultural, ecological, cognitive, and extreme tours around the Golden Ring of Altai" covering all the regions countries. Construction of new highways in Western Mongolia and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, expansion and reconstruction of roads in Russia and Kazakhstan will increase the recreational potential of these countries, boost their internal and interregional communication connectivity, create favorable conditions for intraregional trade, and establish modern market and tourism infrastructure.



9.
II INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EURASIAN CROSS-BORDER ECONOMIC, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS: REFLECTING ON THE OUTCOMES

V.E. Seliverstov1,2, A.V. Sobolevskiy2
1Institute of Economics and Industrial Engineering, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
2SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Eurasia, Eurasian cross-border interactions, economic integration, Eurasian Economic Union, international scientific and technical cooperation, global challenges and threats, Siberia in a new configuration of cross-border interactions, International Association of Academies of Sciences, inter-university cooperation, interaction of regional scientific and innovation systems

Abstract >>
The article sums up the results of the II International Conference on Eurasian Cross-Border Economic, Scientific and Technological Interactions (Novosibirsk, December 12-14, 2022). It reviews its goals, objectives, and main plenary reports. It is concluded that the Conference was held at a high academic level with excellent organization and received wide publicity. By analyzing the presentations, speeches, and discussions, we study the following: a changing configuration of cross-border interactions between Eurasian countries, international scientific and technical cooperation in view of the global challenges and threats arising in 2022; the positioning of Siberia and its regions in the system of trans-Eurasian integration under new conditions; the role of Russian science in implementing the new state policy of international economic, scientific, and technical cooperation; and opportunities for enhancing interacademic cooperation with Russia. It is Siberia that is currently becoming the most important Russian macro-region, capable of implementing a new configuration of Eurasian economic, scientific, and technological interactions. At the same time, the new Siberias role in the system of Eurasian integration should be based on a modernized economic development model, focused on a greater part for innovation and knowledge. We point out the vast capabilities of the Novosibirsk science and innovation ecosystem, which is truly growing into a crucial Russian science and innovation hub for eastern and southern cross-border interactions.