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Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics

2023 year, number 2

Calculation of carbon dioxide broadening coefficients of sulfur dioxide lines in the v1 + v3 A-type band at room temperature

T.A. Nevzorova1,2, A.S. Dudaryonok2, N.A. Lavrentiev2, N.N. Lavrentieva2
1National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: line profile parameters, line-broadening, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide

Abstract >>
Calculated carbon dioxide broadening coefficients of sulfur dioxide lines at a room temperature are presented. The calculations are performed for the ν1 + ν3 band, rotational quantum numbers vary in the ranges of J up to 100 and of Ka up to 20. Based on the experimental data the semi-empirical method parameters are determined; the computed broadening coefficients are in good agreement with the literature data.

Absorption by water dimers in the water vapor IR spectra at different temperatures

O.B. Rodimova
V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: IR water vapor spectrum, continuum absorption, water vapor dimer, longwave approximation

Abstract >>
Contributions of stable dimers to the water continuum in the 1600 and 8800 cm-1 bands are examined. They are found as the difference between experimental data and the calculation data within the asymptotic line wing theory taking into account the violation of the longwave approximation for the molecular centers of mass. The stable dimer contribution is close in value to the contribution due to all other pair interactions and decreases with increasing temperature. The estimate of the equilibrium constant of the dimer formation reaction is derived proceeding from the temperature dependence of the classical interaction potential of water molecules describing the temperature behavior of the second virial coefficient.

Contribution of metal industry emissions to dust aerosol pollution of the Norilsk Industrial District according to snow geochemical data

Yu.V. Ermolov1, I.D. Makhatkov1,2, A.S. Cherevko1
1Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia
2Scientific-Research Institute of Agriculture and Ecology of the Arctic - Division of Federal Research Center Krasnoyarsk Scientific Center of the Siberian Branch of the RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Keywords: Norilsk, aerosol pollution, snow-geochemical survey, heavy metals, spatial simulation

Abstract >>
In 2021, concentrations and elemental chemical composition of the inorganic part of solid snow impurities were studied on the territory of the Norilsk Industrial District. Based on the analysis of these data, a list of priority polluting chemical elements is compiled (Ni, Cu, Cd, Co, Sn, Pb, B, and Zn) and a method for quantifying the contribution of atmospheric emissions from Nadezhda Metallurgical Plant to aerosol pollution of the territory is suggested. In the sub-latitudinal direction, emissions from this plant predominate in dust pollution of the air at a distance of up to 7 km from the source.

Air composition over the Russian sector of the Arctic in September 2020. 1. Methane

O.Yu. Antokhina1, P.N. Antokhin1, V.G. Arshinova1, M.Yu. Arshinov1, B.D. Belan1, S.B. Belan1, E.V. Guruleva1, D.K. Davydov1, G.A. Ivlev1, A.V. Kozlov1, K. Law2, T.M. Rasskazchikova1, J.-D. Paris3, D.E. Savkin1, D.V. Simonenkov1, T.K. Sklyadneva1, G.N. Tolmachev1, A.V. Fofonov1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Paris, France
3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de lEnvironnement, LSCE/IPSL, CNRS-CEA-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
Keywords: Arctic, atmosphere, air, vertical distribution, methane, greenhouse gases, transport, impurities, composition

Abstract >>
In the Arctic, global warming is 2-3 times faster than over other regions of the globe. As a result, noticeable changes are already being recorded in all areas of the environment. However, there is very little data on such changes in the Russian Arctic. Therefore, to fill the gap in the data on the vertical distribution of the gas and aerosol composition of air in this region, an experiment was carried out on the Tu-134 Optical laboratory aircraft in September 2020 to sound the atmosphere and water surface over the water areas of all seas in the Russian Arctic. This paper analyzes the spatial distribution of methane. It is shown that during the experiment its concentration was the highest over the Kara Sea (2090 ppb), the lowest over the Chukchi Sea (2005 ppb). The East Siberian and Bering seas were slightly different from the Chukchi Sea in its content. Average values of CH4 are characteristic of the Barents (2030 ppb) and the Laptev Seas (2040 ppb). The difference in the concentrations between the level of 200 meters and the free troposphere reached 150 ppb over the Kara Sea, decreased to 91 and 94 ppb over the Barents and Laptev Seas, and further decreased over the East Siberian, Chukchi and Bering Seas to 66, 63 and 74 ppb, respectively. Horizontal heterogeneity in the distribution of methane over the Arctic seas is the greatest over the Laptev Sea, where it reaches 73 ppb. It is 2 times higher than over the Barents and Kara Seas, and 5-7 times higher than over the East Siberian and Bering Seas.

Comparison of ground-based and satellite observations of total ozone content over Tomsk for 2006-2020

O.E. Bazhenov1, A.B. Nevzorov1, S.V. Smirnov2, A.V. Elnikov3, V.A. Loginov3
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
3Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia
Keywords: total ozone column, M-124 ozonometer, OMI spectrometer

Abstract >>
In this work, we present the time series of regular observations of the total ozone content over Tomsk with three independent instruments over the period from 2006 to 2020. The main statistical characteristics of these time series are determined. We carried out the comparative analysis of these time series with each other and, in particular, the analysis of long-term annual average behaviors. The causes for the discrepancies of these measurements are discussed.

Calculation of scanning lidar returns while sounding cirrus clouds with quasi-horizontally oriented crystals

A.V. Konoshonkin1,2, N.V. Kustova1, V.A. Shishko1,2, D.N. Timofeev1, N. Kan1, I.V. Tkachev1, A.G. Borovoi1, G.P. Kokhanenko1, Yu.S. Balin1
1V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: light scattering, scanning lidar, physical optics method, atmospheric ice crystal, cirrus clouds

Abstract >>
The results of numerical simulation of a scanning lidar return for the case of sounding a cloud containing quasi-horizontally oriented plate-like crystals are presented. It is shown that a vertically oriented lidar is "blinded" by the specular component of the scattered radiation, while the scanning lidar return is sensitive to the crystal shape. The results of the numerical calculation confirm a sharp increase in the depolarization ratio in the vicinity of scanning angles of 30, which was earlier observed in experiments. It is found out that this depolarization ratio enhancement is a marker of the perfect shape of a plate-like crystal and can be used to interpret experimental data.

Neural network model for estimation of the carbon fluxes in forest ecosystems from remote sensing dat

A.P. Rozanov, K.G. Gribanov
Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Russia
Keywords: machine learning, carbon fluxes, FLUXNET MODIS

Abstract >>
Forest are among the main places on Earth where carbon is collected and accumulated. However, quantitative instrumental assessment of carbon fluxes is possible only for small-scale areas. When solving the scaling problem, we use machine learning methods, which can transform the values of the intensity of the Earths surface reflectance in different spectral intervals into ground-based in situ observations. The assessments of carbon fluxes by a regression neural network model of the multilayer perceptron type trained on FLUXNET network data for a station located in a boreal coniferous forest (56.4615N, 32.9221E) are presented. Using vegetation indicies NDVI and EVI measured by MODIS Aqua, air temperature at an altitude of 2 m, and total precipitation as input data, the model estimates of gross primary production (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (TER), and some other parameters describing water and energy fluxes are calculated. Statistical estimation provides high values of the correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient on test dataset: R ≥ 0.9 and NSE ≥ 0.87 for GPP and TER; R = 0.4 and NSE = 0.15 for NEE.

Application of the CHIMERE-WRF model complex to study the radiative effects of Siberian biomass burning aerosol in the eastern Arctic

I.B. Konovalov1, N.A. Golovushkin1, T.B. Zhuravleva2, I.M. Nasrtdinov2, V.N. Uzhegov2, M. Beekmann3
1 Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
2V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia
3Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, Creteil Cedex, France
Keywords: aerosol, smoke, chemistry-transport model, aerosol-radiation interaction

Abstract >>
A computational technology for studying aerosol-radiation interactions and calculating regional estimates of the direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning (BB) aerosol based on calculations with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model coupled to the WRF meteorological model is described. The technology was applied to the numerical study of the radiative effects of Siberian BB aerosol in the eastern Arctic in the period of July 16-31, 2016. The simulation results show that Siberian BB aerosol had a significant cooling effect on the atmosphere in the eastern Arctic in that period due to the direct radiative effect (DRE), the value of which at top of the atmosphere was, on average, -6.0 W × m-2, being minimal over the snow-ice cover of the ocean (-1.2 W × m-2). At the same time, it is found that the contribution of the Siberian BB aerosol DRE to the radiative balance of the Arctic atmosphere is compensated to a certain extent by the semi-direct radiative effect (SDRE), which is positive on average (2.0 W × m-2). The SDRE is formed as a result of the aerosol feedback on meteorology during many hours of the evolution of the atmosphere and plays the most important role over the snow-ice cover, where it exceeds the DRE in absolute value. It has been shown that the SDRE of Siberian BB aerosol in the performed numerical experiments is mainly due to the process of scattering (rather than absorption) of radiation by aerosol particles.

Atmospheric blockings in the Northern Hemisphere and associated wildfires and emissions of impurities into the atmosphere in Russian regions under climate changes during recent decades

I.I. Mokhov1,2
1A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2LomonosovMoscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: atmospheric blockings, climate change, wildfire, gaseous and aerosol emission of impurities into the atmosphere, observation, satellite and reanalysis data

Abstract >>
The results of the analysis of atmospheric blockings in the regions of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) under general warming during recent decades are presented. In particular, estimates of the total increase in the duration of summer atmospheric blockings in the NH with an increase in the hemispheric surface air temperature for the period 1969-2022 are obtained using observations and reanalysis data. Significant coherence of the most long-term changes of the integral index of summer atmospheric blocking activity for the Russian regions and for the NH as a whole is noted. A statistically significant correlation of the duration of atmospheric blockings of the area of wildfires in the Russian regions with related gas and aerosol emissions into the atmosphere is estimated based on satellite and reanalysis data. Estimates of the correlation of the Siberian fires with anomalies in the content of atmospheric impurities, including black carbon, in the Arctic regions are presented.

Dynamics of sulfate origination in atmospheric haze

A.N. Yermakov1, A.E. Aloyan2, V.O. Arutyunyan2
1V.L. Talroze Institute of Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
2Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
Keywords: aerosol haze, sulfur dioxide, catalysis, chain branching, Fe/Mn ions

Abstract >>
We consider data from laboratory simulation of the dynamics of sulfate origination in atmospheric haze particles during oxidation of SO2 captured from the gas phase in the presence of Mn/Fe ions. The rates of sulfate origination under dark conditions of these experiments (tens of micrograms m-3 × h-1) have been found to correspond to a previously unknown mode of catalytic reaction. Its key element is the branching of chains involving the intermediate HSO5- ( Caros acid) and Mn2+ ions. Estimates are given for the rate constant of this aqueous-phase reaction, and a criterion for separation the slow and degenerate-branched (fast) modes of SO2 oxidation is considered. The observed rate constant of sulfate origination in particles k*obs = 1.4 L × mol-1 × s-1 ( T = 298 K). The calculations of the dynamics of sulfate origination agree with data of laboratory experiments (smog chamber data). Their results also do not contradict the monitoring data on sulfate content in the haze over Beijing (December 2016).

Experimental evaluation of the effect of benzene and toluene on measurement of mercury vapor concentration with an analyzer based on the transverse Zeeman effect

V.V. Tatur, A.A. Tikhomirov
Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia
Keywords: mercury vapor analyzer, transverse Zeeman Effects, benzene, toluene

Abstract >>
The experimental setup and the technique are suggested for sequential feeding of controlled doses of Hg, benzene, and toluene vapors into the measuring cell of a DOG-07 analyzer with a mercury capillary lamp based on the transverse Zeeman effect as a radiation source. It is shown that when benzene or toluene vapors with concentrations of up to 10 mg/m3 are added to the measuring cell with mercury vapors in a concentration of more than 30 ng/m3, there is no error in the measured Hg concentration. With the introduction of a higher concentration of benzene vapors, an increase in the measured concentration of Hg is observed. The introduction of a higher concentration of toluene vapor into the measuring cell leads to a decrease in the measured concentration of Hg.